Janggala and Panjalu (Kediri) kingdom, later unified as Kediri kingdom
|Capital||Daha or Kadiri (modern Kediri)|
|Common languages||Old Javanese, Sanskrit|
|Religion||Kejawen, Hinduism, Buddhism, Animism|
• Airlangga divided his kingdom into Janggala and Panjalu (Kediri)
• Kertajaya defeat to Ken Arok of Tumapel
|Currency||Native gold and silver coins|
Part of a series on the
|History of Indonesia|
Kediri or Kadiri (also known as Panjalu) was a Hindu Javanese Kingdom based in East Java from 1042 to around 1222. Despite the lack of archaeological remains, the age of Kediri saw much development in classical literature.Mpu Sedah's Kakawin Bharatayuddha , Mpu Panuluh's Gatotkacasraya , and Mpu Dharmaja's Smaradhana blossomed in this era. The kingdom's capital is believed to have been established in the western part of the Brantas River valley, somewhere near modern Kediri city and surrounding Kediri Regency.
The name "Kediri" or "Kadiri" derived from Sanskrit word Khadri which means Indian Mulberry ( Morinda citrifolia ), locally known as pacé or mengkudu tree. The bark of morinda produces a brownish-purplish dye for batik-making, while its fruit have medicinal values. Similar named city also known, Kadiri in Andhra Pradesh, India.
The kingdom was also known as Panjalu as the twin kingdom with Jenggala. During the reign of Jayakatwang that revived the short-lived second dynasty of Kadiri, the kingdom is also known as Gelang-gelang or Gegelang. Other than Kadiri, the kingdom was also often referred to as Daha or Dahana, after its capital. The name "Daha" was used in later Majapahit period, as the seat of rival court of Trowulan.
The Kingdom of Kediri is the successor of Airlangga's Kahuripan kingdom, and thought as the continuation of Isyana Dynasty in Java. In 1045, Airlangga divided his kingdom of Kahuripan into two, Janggala and Panjalu (Kediri), and abdicated in favour of his sons to live as an ascetic. He died four years later. 146–147,158:
The first king of Kediri to leave historical records was Çri Jayawarşa Digjaya Çāstaprabhu (reigned 1104–1115). In his inscription dated 1104, like Airlangga, he claimed himself to be the incarnation or Avatar of Vishnu.
The second king was Kameçvara. His formal stylised name was Çri Maharaja Rake Sirikan çri Kameçvara Sakalabhuwanatustikarana Sarwaniwaryyawiryya Parakrama Digjayottunggadewa. The Lanchana (royal seal) of his reign was a skull with a crescent moon called chandrakapala, the symbol of Shiva. During his reign, Mpu Dharmaja wrote Smaradhana , in which the king was adored as the incarnation of Kamajaya, the god of love, and his capital city Dahana was admired throughout the known world. Kameçvara's wife, Çri Kirana, was celebrated as the incarnation of Kamaratih, goddess of love and passion. The tales of this story, known as Panji cycle, spread throughout Southeast Asia as far as Siam.
Jayabhaya (reigned 1130–1160) succeeded Kameçwara. His formal stylised name was Çri Maharaja çri Dharmmeçwara Madhusudanawataranindita Suhrtsingha Parakrama Digjayottunggadewa. The Lanchana (royal seal) of his reign was Narasingha. The name Jayabhaya was immortalised in Sedah's Kakawin Bharatayuddha , a Javanese version of the Mahabharata , written in 1157. This Kakawin was perfected by his brother, Mpu Panuluh. Mpu Panuluh wrote Hariwangsa and Gatotkacasraya . Jayabhaya's reign was considered the golden age of Old Javanese literature. The Prelambang Joyoboyo , a prophetic book ascribed to Jayabhaya, is well known among Javanese. It predicted that the archipelago would be ruled by a white race for a long time, then a yellow race for a short time, then be glorious again. The Jayabhaya prophecies mention Ratu Adil, the Just Prince, a recurring popular figure in Javanese folklore. During the reign, Ternate was a vassal state of Kediri.
Jayabhaya's successor was Sarwweçwara (reigned 1160–1170), followed by Aryyeçwara (reigned 1170–1180), who used Ganesha as his royal Lanchana. The next monarch was Gandra; his formal stylised name was Çri maharaja çri Kroncarryadipa Handabhuwanapalaka Parakramanindita Digjayottunggadewanama çri Gandra. An inscription (dated 1181) from his reign documents the beginning of the adoption of animal names for important officials, such as Kbo Salawah, Menjangan Puguh, Lembu Agra, Gajah Kuning, and Macan Putih. Among these highly ranked officials mentioned in the inscription, there is a title Senapati Sarwwajala, or laksmana, a title reserved for navy generals, which means that Kediri had a navy during his reign.
From 1190 to 1200, King Çrngga ruled Kediri, with the official name Çri maharaja çri Sarwweçwara Triwikramawataranindita Çrngga lancana Digwijayottunggadewa. He used a cangkha (winged shell) on a crescent moon as his royal seal.
The last king of Kediri was Kertajaya (1200–1222). His royal seal was Garudamukha, the same as Airlangga's. In 1222 he was forced to surrender his throne to Ken Arok and so lost the sovereignty of his kingdom to the new kingdom of Singhasari. This was the result of his defeat at the battle of Ganter. This event marked the end of Kediri era, and the beginning of the Singhasari era. 185–187,199:
According to Jiyu and Petak inscriptions, during the end of Majapahit era in the 15th century, there was a brief resurrection of Daha (Kediri) as the centre of political power, which was led by Girindrawardhana in 1478 after he managed to defeat Kertabhumi. But it short lived since descendant of Kertabhumi who became ruler of Demak crushed Daha in 1527.
The Kediri kingdom existed alongside the Srivijaya empire based in Sumatra throughout 11th to 12th-century, and seems to have maintained trade relations with China and to some extent India. Chinese account identify this kingdom as Tsao-wa or Chao-wa (Java), numbers of Chinese records signify that Chinese explorers and traders frequented this kingdom. Relations with India were cultural one, as numbers of Javanese rakawi (poet or scholar) wrote literatures that been inspired by Hindu mythology, beliefs and epics such as Mahabharata and Ramayana.
In 11th-century, Srivijayan hegemony in Indonesian archipelago began to decline, marked by Rajendra Chola invasion to Malay Peninsula and Sumatra. The Chola king of Coromandel conquered Kedah from Srivijaya. The weakening of Srivijayan hegemony has enabled the formation of regional kingdoms, like Kediri, based on agriculture rather than trade. Later Kediri managed to control the spice trade routes to Maluku.
According to a Chinese source in the book of Chu-fan-chi written around 1225, Chou Ju-kua described that in the Southeast Asian archipelago there were two powerful and rich kingdoms: Srivijaya and Java (Kediri). In Java he found that people adhere two religions: Buddhism and the religion of Brahmin (Hinduism). The people of Java were brave and short tempered, daring to put up a fight. Their favourite pastimes were cockfighting and pigfighting. The currency was made from the mixture of copper, silver, and tin.
The book of Chu-fan-chi mentioned that Java was ruled by a maharaja, who ruled several colonies: Pai-hua-yuan (Pacitan), Ma-tung (Medang), Ta-pen (Tumapel, now Malang), Hi-ning (Dieng), Jung-ya-lu (Hujung Galuh, now Surabaya), Tung-ki (Jenggi, West Papua), Ta-kang (Sumba), Huang-ma-chu (Southwest Papua), Ma-li (Bali), Kulun (Gurun, identified as Gorong or Sorong in West Papua or an island in Nusa Tenggara), Tan-jung-wu-lo (Tanjungpura in Borneo), Ti-wu (Timor), Pingya-i (Banggai in Sulawesi), and Wu-nu-ku (Maluku).
Regarding Srivijaya, Chou-Ju-Kua reported that Kien-pi (Kampe, in northern Sumatra) with armed forced rebellion had liberated themselves from Srivijaya, and crowned their own king. The same fate befell some of Srivijaya's colonies on the Malay Peninsula that liberated themselves from Srivijaya domination. However Srivijaya was still the mightiest and wealthiest state in the western part of the archipelago. Srivijaya's colonies were: Pong-fong (Pahang), Tong-ya-nong (Trengganu), Ling-ya-ssi-kia (Langkasuka), Kilan-tan (Kelantan), Fo-lo-an, Ji-lo-t'ing (Jelutong), Ts'ien-mai (?), Pa-t'a (Paka), Tan-ma-ling (Tambralinga, Ligor or Nakhon Si Thammarat), Kia-lo-hi (Grahi, northern part of Malay peninsula), Pa-lin-fong (Palembang), Sin-t'o (Sunda), Lan-wu-li (Lamuri at Aceh), and Si-lan. According to this source, in the early 13th century Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, the Malay peninsula, and western Java (Sunda).
Regarding Sunda, the book details that the port of Sunda (Sunda Kelapa) was excellent and strategically located, and that the pepper from Sunda was among the best quality. The people worked in agriculture; their houses were built on wooden piles (rumah panggung). However the country was infested with robbers and thieves.
Celebrated as an era of blossoming literature, Kediri produced significant contributions in the field of Javanese classic literature. Next to the literary works already mentioned, Lubdhaka and Wrtasancaya by Mpu Tanakung, Krisnayana written by Mpu Triguna, and Sumanasantaka by Mpu Monaguna are also notable.
The book of Ling-wai-tai-ta composed by Chinese author Chou K'u-fei in 1178, gave a glimpse of everyday life in Kediri that cannot be found in any other source material, about the government and people of Kediri.According to Chou K'u-fei, people wore clothes that covered them down to their legs, with a loose hairstyle. Their houses were clean and well arranged with floors made from green or yellow cut stones. Agriculture, animal farming, and trading flourished and gained full attention from government. He reported that silkworm farms to produce silk and cotton clothes had been adopted by Javanese by that time. There was no physical punishment (jail or torture) of criminals. Instead, the people who committed unlawful acts were forced to pay fines in gold, except for thieves and robbers who were executed. In marital customs, the bride's family received some amount of bride price from the groom's family. Instead of developing medical treatment, the Kediri people relied on prayers to Buddha.
On the 5th month of the year, a water festival was celebrated with people travelling in boats along the river to celebrate. On the 10th month, another festival was held in the mountains. People would gather there to have fun and perform music with instruments such as flutes, drums, and wooden xylophones (an ancient form of gamelan).
The King wore silk garments, leather shoes and ornate golden jewellery. He wore his hair up high on his head. Every day, he would receive state officials, managers of his kingdom, on a square throne. After an audience, the state official would bow three times to the king. If the king travelled outside the palace, he rode an elephant and was accompanied by 500–700 soldiers and officials while his subjects, the people of Kediri, prostrated themselves as the king passed.
According to Chinese sources, the main occupations of the Kediri people revolved around agriculture (rice cultivation), animal farming (cattle, boar, poultry), and the spice trade. Daha, the capital city of Kediri, (suggested to be at the same site as modern Kediri) is located inland, near the fertile Brantas river valley. From the predecessor kingdom of Airlangga's Kahuripan, Kediri inherited irrigation systems, including the Wringin Sapta dam. Kediri economy was partly monetised, with silver coins issued by the royal court.
In later periods, Kediri economy grew to rely more heavily on trade, especially the spice trade. This resulted from Kediri development of a navy, giving them the opportunity to control the spice trade routes to eastern islands. Kediri collected spices from tributaries in southern Kalimantan and the Maluku Islands. Indians and Southeast Asians then transported the spices to Mediterranean and Chinese markets by way of the Spice Route that linked a chain of ports from the Indian Ocean to southern China.
The 10th century was the period from 901 (CMI) through 1000 (M) in accordance with the Julian calendar, and the last century of the 1st millennium.
Srivijaya was a Buddhist thalassocratic empire based on the island of Sumatra, which influenced much of Southeast Asia. Srivijaya was an important centre for the expansion of Buddhism from the 7th to the 12th century AD. Srivijaya was the first unified kingdom to dominate much of the Malay Archipelago. The rise of the Srivijayan Empire was parallel to the end of the Malay sea-faring period. Due to its location, this once-powerful state developed complex technology utilizing maritime resources. In addition, its economy became progressively reliant on the booming trade in the region, thus transforming it into a prestige goods-based economy.
Singhasari was an Indianized Javanese Hindu–Buddhist kingdom located in east Java between 1222 and 1292. The kingdom succeeded the Kingdom of Kediri as the dominant kingdom in eastern Java. The kingdom's name is cognate to Singosari district of Malang Regency, located several kilometres north of Malang city.
Sri Mapanji Jayabaya, Varmesvara, or Jayabhaya, was Javanese King of the Kediri in East Java from 1135 to 1179 CE.
The Medang Kingdom or Mataram Kingdom was a Javanese Hindu–Buddhist kingdom that flourished between the 8th and 11th centuries. It was based in Central Java, and later in East Java. Established by King Sanjaya, the kingdom was ruled by the Sailendra dynasty.
The Isyana dynasty, rulers of the Kingdom of Medang, was a dynasty of the Hindu Medang Kingdom on the island of Java. It followed the Sanjaya dynasty, and was established by Mpu Sindok, who moved the capital of the Mataram Kingdom from Central Java to East Java around the year 929. Coedes states, "Sindok, under his reign name Sri Isyana Vikramadharmatungadeva, was always considered the founder of Javanese power in the east of the island." Mpu Sindok's daughter and successor was Isanatungavijaya, who in turn was succeeded by her son Makutavamsavardhana, followed by Dharmawangsa. The reign of the Isyana Dynasty came to an end when the Sriwijaya empire attacked and destroyed the capital in 1016-1017.
Dharmawangsa, stylized regnal name Sri Maharaja Isyana Dharmawangsa Teguh Anantawikramottunggadewa of the Isyana dynasty, was the last raja of the Kingdom of Medang, who reigned from 990–1016 CE. He also known by his posthumous name Wijayamreta Wardhana, which means "powerful in glorious death", which refer to his fight to the death.
Airlangga, regnal name Rakai Halu Sri Lokeswara Dharmawangsa Airlangga Anantawikramottunggadewa, was the only raja of the Kingdom of Kahuripan. The Kingdom was built from the territory of the Kingdom of Medang after Medang was sacked by king Wurawari of Lwaram. He gradually gained support, won back the kingdom once ruled by his uncle, and went on to become one of Java's most notable kings. Airlangga literally means "jumping water", thus his name means "he who crossed the water", described his life story; born in the court of Bali and during his youth crossed the Bali Strait to stay in Java and later ruled the kingdom in East Java. He belongs to both Isyana and Warmadewa lineages.
The Kingdom of Janggala is one of the two Javanese kingdoms that was formed when Airlangga abdicated his throne in favour of his two sons in 1045. The other Kingdom was Kediri. The Kingdom of Janggala comprised the northeastern part of the Kingdom of Kahuripan.
Kediri is an Indonesian city, located near the Brantas River in the province of East Java on the island of Java. It covers an area of 63.40 km2 and had a population of 268,950 at the 2010 Census; the latest official estimate is 294,950. It is one of two 'Daerah Tingkat II' that have the name 'Kediri'. The city is administratively separated from the Regency, of which it was formerly the capital.
Smaradahana, also known as Smaradhana, Asmaradhana, Asmaradahana, Asmaradana, Asmarandhana or Asmarandana is an old Javanese poem (kakawin) written by Mpu Dharmaja as the eulogy for King Kameçvara of Kediri in early-12th century East Java. The story describes the disappearance of Kamajaya and Kamaratih from Svargaloka after being burnt by fire that burst from the third eye of Shiva. Their spirits fall upon the earth where, incarnated as human beings, their spirits seduce and inspire lovers' hearts.
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Kahuripan later Kediri was an 11th-century Javanese Hindu-Buddhist kingdom with its capital located around the estuarine of Brantas River valley in East Java. The kingdom was short lived only spanned the period between 1019 and 1045 and Airlangga was the only raja of the kingdom, which was built out of the rubble of the Kingdom of Medang after the Srivijaya invasion. Airlangga later in 1045 abdicated in favour of his two sons and divided the kingdom into Janggala and Panjalu (Kadiri). The kingdom's name derived from Old Javanese term hurip with circumfix ka- -an which means "life" or "livelihood". Later in 14th to 15th century, the former kingdom was recognised as one of Majapahit's 12 provinces.
Kameshwara, Bamesvara, or Kameçvara was the second monarch of Kediri kingdom and ruled circa 1117–1130 CE. His formal stylized name was Çri Maharaja Rake Sirikan çri Kameçvara Sakalabhuvanatustikarana Sarvanivaryyaviryya Parakrama Digjayottunggadeva. The Lanchana of his reign was a skull with a crescent moon called chandrakapala, the symbol of Shiva.
Arjunawiwāha was the first kakawin appeared in the East Javan period of the Javanese classical Hindu-Buddhist era in the 11th-century. Arjunawiwaha was composed by Mpu Kanwa during the reign of King Airlangga, king of the Kahuripan Kingdom, circa 1019 to 1042 CE. Arjunawiwaha is estimated to be finished in 1030.
In 1025, Rajendra Chola I, the Chola king from Tamil Nadu in South India, launched naval raids on the city-state of Srivijaya in maritime Southeast Asia, Rajendra's overseas expedition against Srivijaya was a unique event in India's history and its otherwise peaceful relations with the states of Southeast Asia. Several places in present day Indonesia and Malaysia were invaded by Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty. The Chola invasion furthered the expansion of Tamil merchant associations such as the Manigramam, Ayyavole and Ainnurruvar into Southeast Asia. The Cholan invasion led to the fall of the Sailendra Dynasty of Srivijaya and the Chola invasion also coincides with return voyage of the great Buddhist scholar Atiśa from Sumatra to India and Tibet in 1025. The expedition of Rajendra Cholan I
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Horren inscription is a copperplate inscription measuring 32.6 cm length, 10.6 cm width, discovered in Southern Kediri, in Campur Darat village, Tulungagung, East Java. Initially this inscription was thought to originated from Majapahit period. The examining of the style and linguistic structure this inscription appears to be closer to King Airlangga period of Kahuripan.
Mpu Sedah is a Javanese literary poet who wrote Kakawin Bhāratayuddha in the ancient Javanese language. He lived during the Jayabaya reign of the Kadiri or Panjalu Kingdom in East Java. Mpu Sedah is one of Raja Jayabaya's advisers, Mpu Sedah also has an adopted son, Aria Wiraraja, a military adviser to Raden Wijaya.
Mpu Panuluh was a Javanese literary poet who lived during the Jayabaya reign of the Kadiri Kingdom in Java, Indonesia. He is especially well known for completing writing of Kakawin Bhāratayuddha which was pioneered by his brother, Mpu Sedah. Mpu Panuluh also wrote Kakawin Hariwangsa and Gatotkacasraya.