Sir Keith Holyoake
Holyoake in 1960
|13th Governor-General of New Zealand|
26 October 1977 –25 October 1980
|Preceded by||Denis Blundell|
|Succeeded by||David Beattie|
|26th Prime Minister of New Zealand|
12 December 1960 –7 February 1972
|Governor-General|| Charles Lyttelton |
|Preceded by||Walter Nash|
|Succeeded by||Jack Marshall|
20 September 1957 –12 December 1957
|Preceded by||Sidney Holland|
|Succeeded by||Walter Nash|
|1st Deputy Prime Minister of New Zealand|
13 November 1954 –20 September 1957
|Prime Minister||Sidney Holland|
|Preceded by||Office created|
|Succeeded by||Jack Marshall|
|Member of the New Zealand Parliament |
|Preceded by||Alfred Ransom|
|Succeeded by||John Falloon|
|Member of the New Zealand Parliament |
|Preceded by||George Black|
|Succeeded by||Jerry Skinner|
|Born||11 February 1904|
Pahiatua, Wairarapa, New Zealand
|Died||8 December 1983 79) (aged|
Wellington, New Zealand
|Political party|| Reform |
National (after 1936)
Norma Janet Ingram(m. 1934)
|Parents||Henry Victor Holyoake|
|Relatives||Ken Comber (son-in-law)|
Sir Keith Jacka Holyoake KG GCMG CH QSO KStJ PC ( // ; 11 February 1904 – 8 December 1983) was the 26th Prime Minister of New Zealand, serving for a brief period in 1957 and then from 1960 to 1972, and also the 13th Governor-General of New Zealand, serving from 1977 to 1980. He is the only New Zealand politician to date to have held both positions.
The Order of the Companions of Honour is an order of the Commonwealth realms. It was founded on 4 June 1917 by King George V as a reward for outstanding achievements and is "conferred upon a limited number of persons for whom this special distinction seems to be the most appropriate form of recognition, constituting an honour disassociated either from the acceptance of title or the classification of merit."
Holyoake was born near Pahiatua in the Wairarapa region. He left formal education at age 12 to help on the family farm. Before entering politics, he was active in various local farming associations. Holyoake was first elected to Parliament in 1932, representing the conservative Reform Party. He played an instrumental role in the formation of the National Party in 1936. He lost his seat two years later but was earmarked for the safe seat of Pahiatua, which he held from 1943. Following National's first election victory, Holyoake entered Cabinet in 1949. In 1954, he was appointed the first Deputy Prime Minister of New Zealand, under Sidney Holland. Holyoake became Leader of the National Party and Prime Minister two months before the 1957 election, after Holland's resignation due to ill health. Following an election defeat, he served as the Leader of the Opposition for three years before National returned to power in 1960.
Pahiatua is a rural service town in the south-eastern North Island of New Zealand with an urban and rural population of over 4,000. It is between Masterton and Woodville on State Highway 2 and the Wairarapa Line railway, 60 kilometres (37 mi) north of Masterton and 30 kilometres (19 mi) east of Palmerston North. It is usually regarded as being in the Northern Wairarapa. However for local government purposes it is in the Tararua District part of the Manawatu-Wanganui Region; which encompasses Eketahuna, Pahiatua, Woodvillle and Dannevirke.
Wairarapa, is a geographical region of New Zealand. It occupies the south-eastern corner of the North Island, east of metropolitan Wellington and south-west of the Hawke's Bay region. It is lightly populated, having several rural service towns, with Masterton being the largest. It is named after its largest lake, Lake Wairarapa.
The Reform Party, formally the New Zealand Political Reform League, was New Zealand's second major political party, having been founded as a conservative response to the original Liberal Party. It was in government between 1912 and 1928, and later formed a coalition with the United Party, and then merged with United to form the modern National Party.
Holyoake's government rewrote the criminal legal code, passing the Crimes Act 1961. One of the main features of this act was the abolition of capital punishment, though only ten National MPs voted for its abolition. Among many conservative reforms, his government introduced a form of "voluntary unionism". In foreign policy, Holyoake supported the United States and sent troops to Vietnam. Holyoake led his party to four consecutive election victories (not since surpassed). In 1972, he resigned as Prime Minister to ease the succession for his deputy and friend, Jack Marshall.
The Crimes Act 1961 is an Act of the Parliament of New Zealand that forms a leading part of the criminal law in New Zealand. It repeals the Crimes Act 1908, itself a successor of the Criminal Code Act 1893, and partially codifies the criminal law in New Zealand. Most crimes in New Zealand are created by the Crimes Act, but some are created elsewhere. All common law offences are abolished by section 9, as are all offences against Acts of the British Parliaments, but section 20 saves the old common law defences where they are not specifically altered.
Capital punishment in New Zealand first appeared in a codified form when New Zealand became a British colony in 1840, and it was first employed in 1842. Capital punishment was last used in 1957, abolished for murder in 1961, and abolished for all crimes, including treason, in 1989. During the period that it was in effect, 85 people were executed.
The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America or simply the American War, was an undeclared war in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union, China, and other communist allies; South Vietnam was supported by the United States, South Korea, the Philippines, Australia, Thailand and other anti-communist allies. The war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war from some US perspectives. It lasted some 19 years with direct U.S. involvement ending in 1973 following the Paris Peace Accords, and included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, resulting in all three countries becoming communist states in 1975.
In 1977, the National government of Robert Muldoon appointed Holyoake as Governor-General, creating controversy as opponents argued that a former politician should not hold the non-partisan position. Holyoake's term was limited to three years, not the normal five. In 1980, he became a Knight of the Garter, a rare honour.
Sir Robert David Muldoon, also known as Rob Muldoon, was a New Zealand politician who served as the 31st Prime Minister of New Zealand, from 1975 to 1984, while Leader of the National Party.
Holyoake is to date the third longest serving New Zealand prime minister (just under 12 years), surpassed only by Richard Seddon's 13 years and William Massey's close to 13 years; he was also the first to be born in the 20th century.Holyoake was known for his diplomatic style and "plummy" voice. He was also fondly (or mockingly) known as Kiwi Keith, a name given to him in childhood to distinguish him from an Australian cousin with the same name.
Richard John Seddon was a New Zealand politician who served as the 15th Premier of New Zealand from 1893 until his death in office in 1906.
William Ferguson Massey, commonly known as Bill Massey, was an Irish-born politician in New Zealand who served as the 19th Prime Minister of New Zealand from May 1912 to May 1925. He was the founding leader of the Reform Party, New Zealand's second organised political party, from 1909 until his death.
Kiwi is the nickname used internationally for people from New Zealand, as well as being a relatively common self-reference. Unlike many demographic labels, its usage is not considered offensive; rather, it is generally viewed as a symbol of pride and endearment for the people of New Zealand. The name derives from the kiwi, a native flightless bird, which is a national symbol of New Zealand. Until the First World War, the kiwi represented the country and not the people; however, by 1917, New Zealanders were also being called "Kiwis", supplanting other nicknames.
Holyoake was born at Mangamutu,a short distance from Pahiatua, a town in New Zealand's Wairarapa region, the son of Henry Victor Holyoake and Esther Eves. Holyoake's great-grandparents, Richard and Eliza Holyoake, settled at Riwaka near Motueka in 1843, and his maternal great-grandparents, William and Sarah Eves, arrived in Nelson in 1842. Relatives of the 19th-century secularist George Holyoake, the Holyoakes ran a small general store at Mangamutu, and then lived for a time in both Hastings and Tauranga, before settling on the family farm at Riwaka, following the death of Holyoake's grandfather in 1913.
Riwaka is a small town in the north of New Zealand's South Island. It lies beside Tasman Bay, five kilometres north of Motueka, and close to the mouth of the Riuwaka River. As of 2006 it had a population of 549 people.
The town of Motueka in the South Island of New Zealand lies close to the mouth of the Motueka River, on the western shore of Tasman Bay. It is, after Richmond, the second largest centre in the Tasman Region, with a population of 7125. The Motueka Ward had an estimated population of 10,900 at 30 June 2009.
Nelson is a city on the eastern shores of Tasman Bay. Nelson is the oldest city in the South Island and the second-oldest settled city in New Zealand – it was established in 1841 and was proclaimed a city by royal charter in 1858.
Holyoake was raised in the Plymouth Brethren church, and his social life as a child was very restricted.At age 12, having left school after his father's death, Holyoake worked on the family hop and tobacco farm in Riwaka. His mother had trained as a school teacher, and continued his education at home. After taking over the management of the farm, he became involved in various local farming associations, something that increased his interest in politics.
|New Zealand Parliament|
|1936–1938||Changed allegiance to:||National|
The Reform Party, which had strong rural support, selected Holyoake as its candidate for the Motueka seat in the 1931 election. The incumbent MP, George Black, held the seat, but died the following year. Holyoake was the Reform Party's candidate in the resulting by-election in 1932, and was successful. He became the youngest Member of Parliament at the time, at the age of 28.In 1935, he was awarded the King George V Silver Jubilee Medal.
In the 1935 election, Holyoake retained his seat under the motto "Follow England and Vote Holyoake"despite a massive swing against the United–Reform Coalition. In the aftermath of this election, he played a key role in transforming the coalition into the modern National Party. He very quickly gained considerable respect from his colleagues, and was regarded as a rising star in the new party. The 1937 electoral redistribution was unfavourable for him and when the boundary changes applied at the 1938 election, Holyoake lost his seat to a rising star of the governing Labour Party, Jerry Skinner. Holyoake had been discussed as a possible successor to the party's conscientious but lack-lustre leader, Adam Hamilton, but without being an MP, this was no longer considered an option.
In 1943 he returned to Parliament as MP for Pahiatua, having been lined up by National for that nomination. In 1946, he became the party's deputy Leader.
National won the 1949 election and formed the First National Government, new Prime Minister Sidney Holland appointed Holyoake as Minister of Agriculture. Holyoake was also for a year (1949–50) in charge of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, and was Minister of Marketing until the department was abolished in 1953.
As Minister of Agriculture for eight years Holyoake enhanced his reputation as a level-headed good administrator. Farm mechanisation was encouraged, the "extermination policy" achieved nearly eliminated the rabbit pest. Dismantling of marketing producer controls was completed.
Holyoake twice went to London to re-negotiate price levels on meat and wool products,and in 1955 attended the Food and Agricultural Organisation conference in Rome. On his return to New Zealand he visited India and the Soviet Union to seek alternative markets for New Zealand, although his trip bore little fruit. In 1957 he led a delegation seeking to protect New Zealand's access to the British market without notable success.
As Deputy leader of the National Party, Holyoake was acting prime minister whenever Holland was overseas. In recognition of this was made a member of the Privy Council in 1954, only after the 1954 election Holland made him the first person to be formally appointed Deputy Prime Minister.
Holyoake became Prime Minister two months before the 1957 election, when outgoing Prime Minister Sidney Holland retired due to ill-health, and also became Minister of Māori Affairs on the retirement of Ernest Corbett. The election was won by the Walter Nash-led Labour Party by a margin of one seat. Holyoake became Leader of the Opposition for the next three years.
In the 1960 election, the National Party returned to power and formed the Second National Government. Historians attribute the victory to Holyoake's skilful campaigning, particularly his attacks on Minister of Finance Arnold Nordmeyer's so-called "Black Budget" of 1958, which had increased taxes on petrol, cigarettes and liquor.
The Holyoake government implemented numerous reforms of the public services and government institutions: for example, it created the Office of the Ombudsman and numerous quasi-autonomous non-governmental organisations, and strengthened parliamentary scrutiny of the executive.Public broadcasting was removed from direct government oversight and placed under corporation control. Holyoake's government rewrote the criminal legal code, passing the Crimes Act 1961; the Act abolished capital punishment, though only ten National MPs voted for its abolition. In 1969, the Security Intelligence Service (SIS) was formally acknowledged to exist, and its minister, the prime minister, publicly acknowledged. That same year the New Zealand Parliament passed an Act covering the agency's functions and responsibilities: the New Zealand Security Intelligence Service Act.
In 1960, the Holyoake government published the "Hunn Report", a wide-ranging summary of Māori assets, and the state of Māori in New Zealand at the time.The report was a damning indictment of past governments' neglect of Māori within society, and Holyoake endeavoured to act on its findings. By embracing the No Maoris – No Tour cause, Holyoake ended the practice of an apartheid sporting body dictating the racial composition of New Zealand rugby teams touring in South Africa. In a 1966 speech directed at the South African authorities, Holyoake delicately defended the principle of racial equality, stating "in this country we are one people; as such we cannot as a nation be truly represented in any sphere by a group chosen on racial lines".
Holyoake accepted the post-war consensus. He believed in the necessity of a mixed economy, championing a Keynesian strategy of public investment to maintain demand and pursuing corporatist policies. However, as an anti-socialist,Holyoake sought to reduce the role of trade unions in industrial relations. The National government introduced a form of voluntary unionism, though the majority of industrial workplaces remained unionised; the policy was hotly debated within caucus, with Holyoake's deputy, Jack Marshall, and Tom Shand, favouring the retention of compulsory unionism. His government's industrial policy brought Holyoake into conflict with union leaders, such as Fintan Patrick Walsh.
Holyoake's government was comfortably re-elected for a second consecutive term in 1963. Holyoake's second term featured by a long period of prosperity and economic expansion. However, moves by the United Kingdom to join the European Economic Community challenged his government.Holyoake deliberately played down the issue, and chose not to vocally oppose British membership of the EEC. A significant step towards diversification was a limited free trade agreement with Australia, negotiated in 1965 by Holyoake's minister of overseas trade, Jack Marshall, who later also negotiated the terms of the arrangements for New Zealand under which Britain joined the EEC.
More controversial were the Holyoake government's relations with the United States at the start of the Vietnam War. The National government's initial response was carefully considered and characterised by Holyoake's cautiousness towards the entire Vietnam question. The fundamental issues, Holyoake said, were simple: "Whose will is to prevail in South Vietnam the imposed will of the North Vietnamese communists and their agents, or the freely expressed will of the people of South Vietnam?"His government preferred minimal involvement, with other South East Asian deployments already having a strain on the New Zealand Defence Force. New Zealand's alliance with the United States was an issue in the 1966 election, which the National Party won on the back of.
Beginning in mid-1960s, the New Zealand government protested against French nuclear weapons testing in the Pacific region.In 1963, Holyoake announced the policy of banning the storage or testing of nuclear weapons within New Zealand territory.
Holyoake led his party to a narrow and unexpected victory in the 1969 election. Holyoake appointed a rising backbencher, Robert Muldoon as Minister of Finance in 1967, although ranked him lowly in his Cabinet. In response to falling wool prices and balance of payment problems, Muldoon introduced mini-budgets with Holyoake's approval.
The National government was humiliated in early 1970 in a disastrous by-election;having already received the customary Companion of Honour, Holyoake was knighted (GCMG) on 13 June 1970. Political commentators speculated about when Holyoake would retire, and by the early 1970s his closest allies, including Jack Marshall, were privately encouraging him to step down. The government was perceived as careworn—two of its strongest ministers had died, and the party caucus was increasingly divided. After more than a decade in power, Holyoake's dogged conservatism appeared out of touch with an increasingly liberal society. However, it was not until 1972 that he resigned to ease the succession for Marshall. By then he had become the senior statesman of the Commonwealth. Holyoake remained in Cabinet as Minister of Foreign Affairs until National lost office at the end of the year.
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|Conservatism in New Zealand|
When National under Marshall was defeated, Holyoake remained prominent in opposition. He played an active part in the campaign for the 1975 election, which saw National regain power again under Robert Muldoon. Muldoon appointed Holyoake to the specially-created sinecure of Minister of State.
In 1977, Holyoake was unexpectedly and controversially appointed Governor-General by Queen Elizabeth II on the advice of the then Prime Minister Robert Muldoon. The announcement was made by the Queen at the end of her tour of New Zealand on 7 March 1977, from the Royal Yacht HMY Britannia in Lyttelton Harbour.
This choice was deemed controversial by some, as Holyoake was a sitting Cabinet minister and a former prime minister. Many opponents of Muldoon's government claimed that it was a political appointment. The Leader of the Opposition, Bill Rowling stated that he would remove Holyoake as Governor-General if the Labour Party won the 1978 election,and openly suggested that he would have appointed Sir Edmund Hillary as Governor-General. That suggestion was, in turn, criticised by the Government, as Hillary had backed Labour in 1975 as part of the "Citizens for Rowling" campaign.
As a result of the appointment, Holyoake resigned from Parliament, leading to the Pahiatua by-election of 1977. He was succeeded from his seat by John Falloon.
Holyoake's conduct while in office, however, was acknowledged to be fair and balanced. In particular, Holyoake refused to comment on the 1978 general election, which gave Labour a narrow plurality of votes but a majority to National.Social Credit leader Bruce Beetham said Holyoake as Governor-General had "a scrupulous impartiality that confounded the critics of his appointment". His term as Governor-General was only for three years, on account of his age. Usually, Governors-General serve for five years, but Holyoake was the oldest Governor-General to date. His term ended in 1980.
Holyoake died on 8 December 1983, aged 79, in Wellington. His state funeral took place on 13 December 1983 in Wellington Cathedral of St Paul.
Holyoake twice married Norma Janet Ingram: first in a civil ceremony on 24 September 1934, and again on 11 January 1935 at their Presbyterian church in Motueka. The couple had five children: two sons and three daughters.His daughter Diane married National MP Ken Comber.
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|New Zealand Parliament|
| Member of Parliament for Motueka |
|New constituency|| Member of Parliament for Pahiatua |
| Prime Minister of New Zealand |
|New title|| Deputy Prime Minister of New Zealand |
Sir Denis Blundell
| Governor-General of New Zealand |
Sir David Beattie