Kelani River

Last updated
Kelani River
Kelani River.jpg
Kelani River, near Kitulgala
Native nameකැළණි ගඟ (Kelani Ganga)
களனி கங்கை (Kelani Gangai)
Location
Country Sri Lanka
Major cities Kitulgala, Avissawella, Malabe, Colombo
Physical characteristics
Source Horton Plains National Park [1]
Mouth Indian Ocean
  location
Colombo
  coordinates
06°58′44″N79°52′12″E / 6.97889°N 79.87000°E / 6.97889; 79.87000 Coordinates: 06°58′44″N79°52′12″E / 6.97889°N 79.87000°E / 6.97889; 79.87000
Length145 km (90 mi)
Discharge 
  minimum20–25 m3/s (710–880 cu ft/s)
(dry season)
  maximum800–1,500 m3/s (28,000–53,000 cu ft/s)
(monsoon)

The Kelani River (Sinhala : කැළණි ගඟ) is a 145-kilometre-long (90 mi) river in Sri Lanka. Ranking as the fourth-longest river in the country, it stretches from the Sri Pada Mountain Range to Colombo. It flows through or borders the Sri Lankan districts of Nuwara Eliya, Ratnapura, Kegalle, Gampaha and Colombo. The Kelani River also flows through the capital of Sri Lanka, Colombo, and provides 80% of its drinking water.

Contents

Hydrology

The Kelani River has two main tributaries in its upper reaches: the Kehelgamu Oya and the Maskeli Oya. These two contribute to hydro-electric production in Sri Lanka, housing several major reservoirs, ponds and power stations. Castlereigh Reservoir and Norton Reservoir are constructed across the Kehelgamu Oya, while Maskeliya Reservoir, Canyon Reservoir and Laxapana Reservoir are constructed across the Maskeli Oya. In its lower reaches, some more tributaries connect to the Kelani River, out of which the most famous are the We Oya at Yatiyanthota, the Gurugoda Oya at Ruwanwella, and the Seethawaka Ganga at Avissawella.

Hydrometry and usage

The Kelani supplies approximately 80% of the water used in Colombo. In addition, the river is used for transport, fisheries, sewage disposal, sand mining and for production of hydroelectricity. Through these factors, many people depend on the river for their daily routine in life. Depending on the operation of three reservoirs, the river flow varies from 20 m3/s (706 cu ft/s) to 25 m3/s (883 cu ft/s) in the dry seasons, and 800 m3/s (28,252 cu ft/s) to 1,500 m3/s (52,972 cu ft/s) during the monsoons. The annual sand extraction from the river is approximately 600,000 m2 (6,458,346 sq ft) to 800,000 m2 (8,611,128 sq ft). From a barge, people dive to the river bed, from where the sand is lifted to the barge in a bucket, and when the barge is full, it is taken to the river bank and unloaded by a separate team. The sand mining causes the river bed to sink by approximately 10 cm (4 in) per year. At present, two main concerns in connection with the river are flooding during the monsoon and saline intrusion in the dry season.

In addition, Kelani River water levels affect the flood risk to Colombo, capital of Sri Lanka, to a considerable extent. One reason is that part of the city and suburbs of Colombo lie on the lower flood plain of the river. Exposure of Colombo and the upper catchments of Kelani River to the South West Monsoon is another reason.

The problems are related: the saline intrusion is enhanced by the deepening of the river caused by the sand mining. Regulation in order to prevent the saline intrusion can reduce the water quality in other ways, and can increase the flood risk. Sand mining is economically important nationally and to the many people involved.

The Kelani stream flow was investigated just upstream of Ambatale at Hanwella, with engineers analyzing the river discharges from 1973 to 2004 (in million m³/month). [2]

Kelani River

Cultural references

Kelani River is connected closely with the Sinhala Buddhist culture of Sri Lanka, especially with the people living on the area identified as the Kelani Valley. This derives primarily from the fact that the Kelani River is associated with two of the most venerated Buddhist shrines and pilgrimages, i.e. Sri Pada Mountain and Kelani Raja Maha Viharaya. There are a number of folk poems that mention the Kelani River, such as the following:
1.
මලේ මලේ ඔය නා මල නෙළා වරෙන්
අත්ත බිඳෙයි පය බුරුලෙන් තබා වරෙන්
කැලණි ගඟේ ඔරු යනවා බලා වරෙන්
සාදුකාර දී ඔරුවක නැගී වරෙන්
2.
මහවැලි කැලණි කලු වලවේ යන ගංගා
සමනොළ කන්ද මුදුනේ සිට පැන නැංගා
බෑවුම් තැනිතලා හෙල් අතරින් රිංගා
මේවා ගලයි මිණි කැට දිය යට හංගා

3. හංස සන්දේශ කරුවා කැළණි ගඟ දුටු අයුරු සමනොළ මුදුන සිරිපද ඔබන මගුලට නිකසල මහ සඟන ගෙන වඩින මුනිඳුට පැහැදුල සුනිල් මිණියෙන් කළ මග ලෙසට මනදොළ පිරෙයි ගඟ සිරිසර දුටු තොපට

The Kalyani Ordination Hall in Bago, Myanmar derives its name from the Kelani River.

Special features

The Academy Award-winning The Bridge on the River Kwai was filmed on the Kelani River near Kitulgala, although nothing remains now except the concrete foundations for the bridge (and, supposedly, the submerged train cars that plunged into the river in the climactic scene). [3]

Bridges over Kelani River

The following table shows the major bridges over Kelani River:

No.Name of BridgeLocationRoadLengthYear of Completion
1Mattakkuliya Bridge6° 58.847', 79° 52.505'Mattakkuliya-Hekitta Roadxxxxxx
2Sri Lanka - Japan Friendship Bridge6° 57.625', 79° 52.712'Madampitiya-Peliyagoda Roadxxxxxx
3New Kelani Bridge 6° 57.268', 79° 52.960' Colombo-Kandy Road275m1959 [4]
4Railway Bridge6° 57.280', 79° 53.384'Main Railway Linexxxxxx
5Kelanisiri Bridge6° 56.974', 79° 55.218'Kelanimulla-Kelaniya Road130m2008 [5]
6OCH Bridge6° 56.276', 79° 58.311'Outer Circular HighwayxxxIn construction
7Kaduwela Bridge6° 56.175', 79° 59.113'Kaduwela-Kandy Roadxxxxxx
8Nawagamuwa Bridge6° 55.511', 80° 1.190'Nawagamuwa-Mapitigama Roadxxxxxx
9Hanwella Bridge6° 54.601', 80° 5.001'Hanwella-Urapola Roadxxxxxx
10Pugoda Bridge6° 58.404', 80° 7.401'Kosgama-Pugoda Roadxxxxxx
11Gurugalla Bridge6° 59.730', 80° 12.835'Talduwa-Meewitigammana Roadxxxxxx
12Karawanella Bridge7° 1.208', 80° 15.748'Colombo-Hatton Roadxxxxxx
13Garagoda Bridge7° 1.684', 80° 17.652'Yatiyantota-Magammana Roadxxxxxx
14Behenella Bridge6° 59.792', 80° 21.593'Thaligama-Behenella RoadxxxIn construction

See also

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Castlereigh Dam Dam in Hatton, Central Province

The Castlereigh Dam is a gravity dam built across the Kehelgamu Oya, a major tributary to the Kelani River, approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) south-west of Hatton, in the Central Province of Sri Lanka.

Norton Dam Dam in Norton Bridge,Central Province

The Norton Dam is a gravity dam built across the Kehelgamu Oya, which is a major tributary to the Kelani River. The dam is built at Norton Bridge, in the Central Province of Sri Lanka.

Kehelgamu Oya

The Kehelgamu Oya is a major upstream tributary of the Kelani River. The tributary measures 50 km (31 mi) in length, originating from the hills of the Horton Plains National Park, before passing through the Castlereigh Reservoir. Kehelgamu Oya converges with the Maskeliya Oya at Kalugala, forming the 100 km (62 mi) long Kelani River. The river is heavily used for hydroelectric power generation.

Maskeliya Oya

The Maskeliya Oya is a major upstream tributary of the Kelani River. The tributary measures approximately 40 km (25 mi) in length, originating from the hills of the Peak Wilderness Sanctuary, before passing through the Maskeliya Reservoir. Maskeliya Oya converges with the Kehelgamu Oya at Kalugala, forming the 100 km (62 mi) long Kelani River. The river is heavily used for hydroelectric power generation.

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References

  1. "Horton Plains National Park". International Water Management Institute. Archived from the original on August 5, 2010. Retrieved 23 November 2009.
  2. "The Study of the Management of Groundwater Resources in Sri Lanka" (PDF; 1,8 MB).
  3. Sri Lanka für Fortgeschrittene
  4. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2020-02-15.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. "Kelanisiri Bridge linking Kolonnawa and Kelaniya opened | Asian Tribune".