Kermanshah Province

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Kermanshah

استان کرمانشاه
Kermanshah.svg
Counties of Kermanshah Province
IranKermanshah-SVG.svg
Location of Kermanshah Province in Iran
Coordinates: 34°19′03″N47°05′13″E / 34.3176°N 47.0869°E / 34.3176; 47.0869 Coordinates: 34°19′03″N47°05′13″E / 34.3176°N 47.0869°E / 34.3176; 47.0869
CountryFlag of Iran.svg  Iran
Region 4th Region
Capital Kermanshah
Counties 14
Government
   Governor Hushang Bazvand
Area
  Total24,998 km2 (9,652 sq mi)
Population
 (2017) [1]
  Total1,952,434
  Density78/km2 (200/sq mi)
Demonym(s) [2]
Time zone UTC+03:30 (IRST)
  Summer (DST) UTC+04:30 (IRST)
Main language(s) Kurdish local
Persian official
Azeri [3] Just in Sonqor County
HDI (2017)0.796 [4]
high · 14th

Kermanshah Province (Persian : استان كرمانشاه, romanized: Ostān-e Kermanšah, Kurdish : پارێزگای کرماشان, romanized: Parêzgeha Kirmaşan [5] [6] ) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. The province was known from 1969 to 1986 as Kermanshahan and from 1986 to 1995 as Bakhtaran. [7] According to a 2014 segmentation by the Ministry of Interior it is center of Region 4, [8] with the region's central secretariat located at the province's capital city, Kermanshah. A majority of people in Kermanshah Province are Shia, and there are Sunni and Yarsani minority groups. [9] [10]

Contents

Geography

Major cities and towns in Kermanshah Province include Kermanshah, Eslamabad-e Gharb, Paveh, Harsin, Kangavar, Sonqor, Javanrud, Ravansar, Gilan-e Gharb, Sahneh, Qasr-e Shirin, and Sarpol-e Zahab.

Counties

Kermanshah consists of 14 shahrestans (counties):

Kermanshah Province Historical population
YearPop.±%
19961,778,596    
20061,879,385+5.7%
20111,945,227+3.5%
20161,952,434+0.4%
amar.org.ir

Capital

The province's capital is Kermanshah ( 34°18′N47°4′E / 34.300°N 47.067°E / 34.300; 47.067 ), located in the middle of the western part of Iran. The population of the city is 822,921.

The city is built on the slopes of Mt. Sefid Kooh and extended toward south during last two decades. The builtup areas run alongside Sarab River and Sarab Valley. City's elevation average about 1,350 meters above sea level.

The distance between Kermanshah and Tehran is 525 km. It is the trade center of rich agricultural region that produces grain, rice, vegetable, fruits, and oilseeds, and there are many industrial centers, oil and sugar refineries, and cement, textile and flour factories, etc. The airport (Shahid Ashrafi Esfahani Airport) is located in north east of the city, and the distance from Tehran is 413 km by air.

History

The province has a rich Paleolithic heritage. Many caves with Paleolithic remains have been surveyed or excavated there. some of these cave sites are located in Bisetun and north of Kermanshah. The first known physical remains of Neanderthal man in Iran was discovered in Bisitun Cave. Do-Ashkaft, Kobeh, Warwasi, and Mar Tarik are some of the Middle Paleolithic sites in the region. Kermanshah also has many Neolithic sites, of which the most famous are Ganj Dareh, Sarab, and Asiab. At Ganj Dareh, the earliest evidence for goat domestication have been documented. In May 2009, based on a research conducted by the University of Hamedan and UCL, the head of Archeology Research Center of Iran's Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization announced that the oldest prehistoric village in the Middle East dating back to 9800 B.C., was discovered in Sahneh, located in west of Kermanshah. [11] [12]

The monuments found in Kermanshah show two glorious periods, the Achaemenid and Sassanid eras. The mythical ruler of the Pishdadian is described as founding the city while Tahmores Divband built it. An alternative narrative is that the construction was by Bahram IV of the Sassanid dynasty during the 4th century CE. Kermanshah reached a peak during the reign of Hormizd IV and Khosrau I of Sassanids, before being demoted to a secondary royal residence.

The city suffered major damage during the Arab invasions but recovered in the Safavid period to make great progress. Concurrent with the Afghan attack and the fall of Isfahan, Kermanshah was almost completely destroyed by the Ottoman invasion.

During the Iran–Iraq War the province suffered heavy fighting. Most towns and cities were badly damaged and some like Sar-e Pol-e Zahab and Qhasr-e-Shirin were almost completely destroyed.

At the top panel Khosrow II is believed to be standing here in this relief at Taq-e Bostan. On his left is Ahura Mazda, on his right is Anahita, and below him is a mounted Persian knight. Knight-Iran.JPG
At the top panel Khosrow II is believed to be standing here in this relief at Taq-e Bostan. On his left is Ahura Mazda, on his right is Anahita, and below him is a mounted Persian knight.

The November 2017 Iran–Iraq earthquake killed more than 600 people.

On December 28, 2017 Kermanshah became one of several Iranian provinces to break out into protests. The Supreme Leader of Iran has blamed western interference. Some female organizations such as The National Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI) have taken partial credit for the organization of these protests. [13]

Climate

As it is situated between two cold and warm regions enjoys a moderate climate. Kermanshah has a moderate and mountainous climate. It rains most in winter and is moderately warm in summer. The annual rainfall is 500 mm. The average temperature in the hottest months is above 22 °C.

Higher education and research

  1. Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences
  2. Razi University
  3. Islamic Azad University of Kermanshah http://www.en.iauksh.ac.ir

Local products

Kermanshah lends its name to a type of Persian carpet named after the region. It also has famous sweets made of rice, locally known as Nân berendji. The other famous Kermanshahi good is a special kind of oil, locally known as Rüne Dân and globally in Iran known as Roghan Kermanshahi. The Giveh of Kermanshah known as Klash is the highest quality Giveh.

Historical attractions

Various attractions exist that date from the pre-Islamic era, such as the Kohneh Bridge, to contemporary parks and museums. Some of the more popular sites are:

Darius the Great's inscription at Bisotun, which dates to 522 BCE, lies some 1300 meters high in the mountains, and counts as one of the most famous sites in Near Eastern archeology. The site is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, [14] and has been attracting visitors for centuries. The Behistun inscription is to Old Persian cuneiform what the Rosetta Stone is to Egyptian hieroglyphs: the trilingual inscription (in Old Persian, Elamite and Akkadian) was crucial in the decipherment of the script. The relief above the inscription depicts Darius facing nine rebels who objected to his crowning. At the king's feet lies Gaumata. The location of this important historical document is not coincidental: Gaumata, a usurper who is depicted as lying at Darius' feet, was a Medean and in Achaemenid times Behistun lay on the Medea-Parsa highway.
Hellenistic-era depiction of Bahram as Hercules. Bistoon Kermanshah.jpg
Hellenistic-era depiction of Bahram as Hercules.
Behistun is also notable for three reliefs at the foot of the hill that date from the Parthian era. Among them is a Hellenistic-era depiction of the divinity Bahram as the Greek hero Hercules, who reclines with a goblet in his hand, a club at his feet and a lion-skin beneath him. Because it lies on the route of an ancient highway, this life-size rock sculpture may reflect Bahram's status as patron divinity of travelers.
The rock reliefs at Taq-e Bostan lie 6 kilometres (4 mi) northeast of Kermanshah, where a spring gushes from a mountain cliff and empties into a large reflecting pool. One of the more impressive reliefs, inside the largest grotto (ivan), is the oversized depiction of Sassanid king Khosrau II (591–628 CE), who appears mounted on his favorite charger, Shabdiz. Both the horse and the rider are arrayed in full battle armor.
There are two hunting scenes on complementary sides of the ivan: one depicts an imperial boar hunt and the other depicting the king stalking deer. Elephants flush out the boar from a marshy lake for the king who stands poised with bow and arrow in hand while he is serenaded by female musicians following in other boats. These royal hunting scenes are narrative murals in stone are count among the most vivid of all Iranian rock reliefs.
The Taq-e Bostan reliefs are not limited to the Sassanid era. An upper relief depicts the 19th century Qajar king Fath-Ali shah holding court.
Kangavar is the site of the archaeological remains of a vast Hellenic-style edifice on a raised platform. The visible remains at the site date to early Sassanid times, [15] but the platform of the complex may be several centuries older. By the time excavation began in 1968, the complex had been preemptorily associated with a comment by Isidore of Charax who referred to a temple of Anahita at Concobar (the Greek name of Kangavar, which was then in Lower Medea). Despite archaeological findings to the contrary, [15] the association with the divinity of fertility, healing, and wisdom has made the site a popular tourist attraction. The vast edifice was built of enormous blocks of dressed stone with an imposing entrance of opposed staircases that may have been inspired by the Apadana in Persepolis.

Notable people

Mirza Ahmad Khan Motazed-Dowleh Vaziri Mirza Ahmad Khan Motazed-Dowleh Vaziri.jpg
Mirza Ahmad Khan Motazed-Dowleh Vaziri

One of the renowned scientists and writers of this region is Al-Dinawari who was born at Dinawar north-east of Kermanshah. He lived in the 9th century and has written many books in astronomy, botany and history. Notable people born in Kermansha include British author, Nobel prize winner, Doris Lessing, whose father, a British army officer, was stationed there at the time of her birth. Mirza Ahmad Khan Motazed-Dowleh Vaziri created the first printing office and founded the first private school of Kermanshahan. Guity Novin a painter and a graphic designer who has founded the Transpressionism movement was born in Kermanshah. The famous Sufi Scholar, Abdul Qader Gailani, was born in the region.

See also

Related Research Articles

Behistun Inscription Ancient multilingual stone inscription in Iran

The Behistun Inscription is a multilingual inscription and large rock relief on a cliff at Mount Behistun in the Kermanshah Province of Iran, near the city of Kermanshah in western Iran, established by Darius the Great. It was crucial to the decipherment of cuneiform script as the inscription includes three versions of the same text, written in three different cuneiform script languages: Old Persian, Elamite, and Babylonian. The inscription is to cuneiform what the Rosetta Stone is to Egyptian hieroglyphs: the document most crucial in the decipherment of a previously lost script.

<i>Daf</i>

The daf, is a large Kurdish and Persian frame drum used in popular and classical music. It is also used in religious ceremonies among Kurds. The Daf is considered the national musical instrument of Pakistan.

Southern Kurdish Dialect of the Kurdish language

Southern Kurdish, also known as Kurdiy xwarîn is a Kurdish dialect predominantly spoken in Eastern Iraq and Western Iran. In Iran, it is spoken in the provinces of Kermanshah and Ilam. In Iraq, it is spoken in the region of Khanaqin, all the way to Mandali. It is also the dialect of the populous Kurdish Kakayî tribes near Kirkuk and most Yarsani Kurds in Kermanshah Province. There are also populous diasporas of Southern Kurdish-speakers found in the Alburz mountains.

Naqsh-e Rostam Ancient necropolis in Iran

Naqsh-e Rostam is an ancient necropolis located about 12 km northwest of Persepolis, in Fars Province, Iran, with a group of ancient Iranian rock reliefs cut into the cliff, from both the Achaemenid and Sassanid periods. It lies a few hundred meters from Naqsh-e Rajab, with a further four Sassanid rock reliefs, three celebrating kings and one a high priest.

Kermanshah City in Iran

Kermanshah, also known as Kermāshān, is the capital of Kermanshah Province, located 525 kilometres from Tehran in the western part of Iran. According to the 2016 census, its population is 946,681. A majority of Kermanshah's population speaks Southern Kurdish, and the city is the largest Kurdish-speaking city in Iran. Kermanshah has a moderate and mountainous climate. Most of the inhabitants of Kermanshah are Shia Muslims, but there are also Sunni Muslims and followers of Yarsanism.

Taq-e Bostan

Taq-e Bostan means "Arch of the Garden" or "Arch made by stone" is a site with a series of large rock reliefs from the era of the Sassanid Empire of Persia (Iran), carved around the 4th century CE.

Temple of Anahita, Kangavar

The Anahita Temple is the name of one of two archaeological sites in Iran popularly thought to have been attributed to the ancient deity Anahita. The larger and more widely known of the two is located at Kangāvar in Kermanshah Province. The other is located at Bishapur.

Dowlatshah

Mohammad Ali Mirza Dowlatshah was a famous Persian Prince of the Qajar Dynasty. He is also the progenitor of the Dowlatshahi Family of Persia. He was born at Nava, in Mazandaran, a Caspian province in the north of Iran. He was the first son of Fath-Ali Shah, the second Qajar king of Persia, and Ziba Chehr Khanoum, a Georgian girl of the Tsikarashvili family. He was also the elder brother of Abbas Mirza. Dowlatshah was the governor of Fars at age 9, Qazvin and Gilan at age 11, Khuzestan and Lorestan at age 16, and Kermanshah at age 19.

Sasanian music

Sasanian music refers to the golden age of Persian music that occurred under the reign of the Sasanian dynasty.

Kangavar City in Kermanshah, Iran

Kangavar is a city and capital of Kangavar County, Kermanshah Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 48,901, in 12,220 families.

Qasr-e Shirin City in Kermanshah, Iran

Qasr-e Shirin is a city and capital of Qasr-e Shirin County, Kermanshah Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 15,437, in 3,893 families. The city is populated by Kurds.

Naqsh-e Rajab

Naqsh-e Rajab is an archaeological site just west of Istakhr and about 5 km north of Persepolis in Fars Province, Iran.

Behistun Palace

Behistun palace is a ruined Sassanid palace located in Bisotun, 20 kilometres (12 mi) from Kermanshah, Iran. It faces the cliff with the much older Behistun inscription and rock relief, across the ancient road running between Behistun mountain and Behistun lake. The palace has long been regarded in Persian tradition as a residence of Shirin, queen of Khosrau II, the Sassanid Shah of Persia who reigned from 590 to 628, shortly before the Muslim conquest of Persia. This connection is first documented, in surviving records, by early Islamic geographers, and is elaborated in various later stories and myths, as a fictionalized Shirin became an important heroine of later Persian literature, such as the Shahnameh. It is included in the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Bisotun.

Sarpol-e Zahab Town in Kermanshah, Iran

Sarpol-e Zahab is a city and capital of Sarpol-e Zahab County, Kermanshah Province, Iran, close to the Iraqi border. At the 2006 census, its population was 34,632.

Tazehabad is a city in Kermanshah Province, Iran.

Sarab or Sar Ab or Sar-e Ab or Sarab-e may refer to:

Taq-e Shirin and Farhad is a rock relief from the era of the Sassanid Empire, the Iranian dynasty ruling from 226 to 650 AD. It is located on the way from Zarneh in Ilam Province to Sumar in Kermanshah Province of Iran, seven kilometers from Chel Zarie village near Kooshk Pass in Eyvan County.

Taq-e Gara

Taq-e Gara or some times Taq-e Shirin is a stone structure in Iran which is Belonging to the Sasanian Empire. It is built in the Patagh Pass in the heights where is known as the Gate of Zagros in Kermanshah Province of Iran. This structure is located in the way from Kermanshah to Sarpol-e Zahab, on the 15th kilometer from Sarpol-e Zahab; beside of an ancient paving which connect Iranian Plateau to Mesopotamia. Due to changes of the path, now it is located below the road slope.

Sasanian art

Sasanian art, or Sassanid art, was produced under the Sasanian Empire which ruled from the 3rd to 7th centuries AD, before the Muslim conquest of Persia was completed around 651. In 224 AD, the last Parthian king was defeated by Ardashir I. The resulting Sasanian dynasty would last for four hundred years, ruling modern Iran, Iraq, and much territory to the east and north of modern Iran. At times the Levant, much of Anatolia and parts of Egypt and Arabia were under its control. It began a new era in Iran and Mesopotamia, which in many ways was built on Achaemenid traditions, including the art of the period. Nevertheless, there were also other influences on art of the period that came from as far as China and the Mediterranean.

Rahmat tree

The Shirin and Farhad Tree or Rahmat tree is a 700-year-old tree of the genus Platanus located in the historical area of Taq Bostan in Kermanshah, Iran. The tree is 37.7 metres (124 ft) tall and 8.46 metres (27.8 ft) wide.

References

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  7. Provinces of Iran
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  9. www.justice.gov/sites/default/files
  10. "www.artkermanshah.ir". Archived from the original on 29 September 2018. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  11. "Most ancient Mid East village discovered in western Iran". 2009. Archived from the original on 1 February 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2009.
  12. "با 11800 سال قدمت، قديمي‌ترين روستاي خاورميانه در كرمانشاه كشف شد". 2009. Retrieved 23 May 2009.[ dead link ]
  13. "Iran: Women keep high the spirit of nationwide protests" Archived 14 January 2018 at the Wayback Machine , The National Council of Resistance of Iran
  14. CHN Press release (2006). "Iran's Bisotoon Historical Site Registered in World Heritage List".
  15. 1 2 Kleiss, Wolfram (2005). "Kangavar". Encyclopedia Iranica. Costa Mesa: Mazda.

Sources