(NATO reporting name: AS-10 'Karen')
Kh-25MP (AS-12 'Kegler')
|Type||tactical air-to-surface missile |
anti-radar missile (Kh-25MP)
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|Used by||Russia |
|Wars||see Operational history|
|Mass||Kh-25ML :299 kg (659 lb) |
Kh-25MP :315 kg (694 lb)
|Length||Kh-25ML :370.5 cm (12 ft 2 in) |
Kh-25MP 1VP :425.5 cm (167.5 in)
Kh-25MP 2VP :435.5 cm (171.5 in)
|Diameter||27.5 cm (10.8 in)|
|Warhead||High explosive, shell-forming|
|Warhead weight||Kh-25MP :89.6 kg (198 lb), Kh-25MR :140 kg (309 lb)|
|Wingspan||75.5 cm (29.7 in)|
|Kh-25ML :11 km (5.9 nmi) |
Kh-25MP :up to 60 km (32 nmi)
Kh-25MTP : 20 km (11 nmi)
|Maximum speed||Kh-25ML :1,370–2,410 km/h (850–1,500 mph) |
Kh-25MP :1,080–1,620 km/h (670–1,000 mph)
|Laser guidance, passive radar, TV guidance, IIR, Satellite guidance, active radar homing depending on variant|
|MiG-21, MiG-23/27, MiG-29, Ka-52, Su-17/20/22, Su-24, Su-25, Su-27, Yakovlev Yak-130 |
Kh-25MP : MiG-23/27, Su-17/22, Su-24, Su-25
The Kh-25/Kh-25M (Russian : Х-25; NATO:AS-10 'Karen') is a family of Soviet lightweight air-to-ground missiles with a modular range of guidance systems and a range of 10 km. The anti-radar variant (Kh-25MP) is known to NATO as the AS-12 'Kegler ' and has a range up to 40 km. Designed by Zvezda-Strela, the Kh-25 is derived from the laser-guided version of the Kh-23 Grom (AS-7 'Kerry'). It has now been succeeded by the Kh-38 family, but the Kh-25 remains in widespread use.
Based on an air-to-air missile, the beam-riding Kh-66 had been the Soviet Union's first air-to-ground missile for tactical aircraft, entering service in 1968.However it proved difficult to use in practice as the launch aircraft had to dive towards the target. A version with radio-command guidance, the Kh-23, was first tested in 1968 but problems with the guidance system meant that it would not enter service for another five years. So in 1971 work began on a version with a semi-active laser seeker, which became the Kh-25. This was initially known in the West as the Kh-23L. State testing began on 24 November 1974, and the Kh-25 entered production in 1975.
Work began on an anti-radar missile derived from the Kh-66in 1972, using a passive radar seeker and SUR-73 autopilot. The long-range Kh-31 anti-radar missile came out of the same project. The Kh-27 began state testing on a MiG-27 on 8 August 1975 but did not enter service until 2 September 1980. It was assigned the NATO reporting name AS-12 'Kegler' and in effect it replaced the much heavier Kh-28 (AS-9 'Kyle').
In 1973 Victor Bugaiskii was appointed head engineer of the bureau and he started work on combining the Kh-23M, Kh-25 and Kh-27 into a single modular system to reduce costs and improve tactical flexibility.This was completed by the end of 1978, resulting in the Kh-25MP (anti-radar), Kh-25ML (laser-guided) and Kh-25MR (radio-guided) family. NATO continued to refer to these as the AS-12 and AS-10 respectively, even though they could now be switched by a simple change of seeker head.
The Kh-25 is very similar to the later version of the Kh-23 Grom, with cruciform canards and fins.
The Kh-25MP has two versions of its homing head, 1VP and 2VP, sensitive to different frequencies.
The original Kh-25 entered service with the Soviet Air Force between 1973-5, equipping the MiG-23, MiG-27 and Su-17M.Since then it has been cleared for use on the MiG-21, MiG-29, Sukhoi Su-17/20/22 family, Sukhoi Su-24, Su-25 and Su-27. It can also be carried by attack helicopters such as the Kamov Ka-50.
The Kh-25MP can be fitted to the MiG-23/27, Su-17/22, Su-24 and Su-25.
Starting in April 1986, during the second Battle of Zhawar, Kh-25MLs were used by Soviet Su-25 Frogfoots from the 378th OshAP (Independent Shturmovik Aviation Regiment) to attack Mujahideen cave entrances used as shelters and weapons storage facilities. Attacks were carried out from up to 4.5 nm (8 km).
During the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, on August 2, 1990 an Iraqi Air Force Sukhoi Su-22 from the No.109 Squadron (based at as-Shoibiyah AB) fired a single Kh-25MP anti-radar variant against a Kuwaiti MIM-23B I-HAWK SAM site at Bubiyan Island that had earlier downed another Su-22 from the same unit and a MiG-23BN from the 49th Squadron. This forced a radar shutdown on the HAWK. The HAWK battery (which was operated by some American contractors) was later captured by Iraqi special forces and found out to be in automatic mode of operation, after the contractors fled.
Russian Air Force Su-25s employed the Kh-25 in its two Chechen campaigns for attacks on fixed positions, such as mortars and bunkers. However, their usage wasn't extensive in relation to those of unguided bombs and rockets. The use of precision-guided munitions allowed air support in areas too dangerous for attack helicopters. Their use was not widespread in the First War as was in the Second, mainly due to differences in weather conditions and, probably, the need to keep a strategic reserve of stockpiles shortly after the fall of the USSR.
Laser-guided Kh-25s were employed by Su-24 sweep wing strike aircraft against anti-Assad rebels in Syria.[ citation needed ]
NATO refers to all of the Kh-25 family as AS-10 'Karen' apart from the anti-radar variants. An "M" designation stands for "Modulnaya" – modular (seeker head).
Training rounds have "U" designations, so, e.g., for the Kh-25ML there is:
The Mikoyan MiG-27 is a variable-sweep ground-attack aircraft, originally built by the Mikoyan-Gurevich design bureau in the Soviet Union and later licence-produced in India by Hindustan Aeronautics as the Bahadur ("Valiant"). It is based on the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23 fighter aircraft, but optimised for air-to-ground attack. Unlike the MiG-23, the MiG-27 did not have widespread use outside Russia, as most countries opted for the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23BN and Sukhoi Su-22 instead. It remains in service only with the Kazakh Air Forces in the ground attack role. All Russian, Indian and Ukrainian MiG-27s have been retired.
The Sukhoi Su-25 Grach is a single-seat, twin-engine jet aircraft developed in the Soviet Union by Sukhoi. It was designed to provide close air support for the Soviet Ground Forces. The first prototype made its maiden flight on 22 February 1975. After testing, the aircraft went into series production in 1978 at Tbilisi in the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic.
The Sukhoi Su-24 is a supersonic, all-weather attack aircraft developed in the Soviet Union. The aircraft has a variable-sweep wing, twin-engines and a side-by-side seating arrangement for its crew of two. It was the first of the USSR's aircraft to carry an integrated digital navigation/attack system. It remains in service with the Russian Air Force, Syrian Air Force, Ukrainian Air Force, Azerbaijan Air Force, Iraqi Air Force and various air forces to which it was exported.
The Vympel NPO R-77 missile is a Russian active radar homing beyond-visual-range air-to-air missile. It is also known by its export designation RVV-AE. It is the Russian counterpart to the American AIM-120 AMRAAM missile.
The Sukhoi Su-17 is a variable-sweep wing fighter-bomber developed for the Soviet military. Its NATO reporting name is "Fitter". Developed from the Sukhoi Su-7, the Su-17 was the first variable-sweep wing aircraft to enter Soviet service. Two subsequent Sukhoi aircraft, the Su-20 and Su-22, have usually been regarded as variants of the Su-17.
The Kaliningrad K-5, also known as RS-1U or product ShM, was an early Soviet air-to-air missile.
The Kaliningrad K-8 (R-8) was a medium-range air-to-air missile developed by the Soviet Union for interceptor aircraft use.
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The Kh-29 is a Soviet air-to-surface missile with a range of 10–30 km. It has a large warhead of 320 kg, has a choice of laser, infrared, active radar or TV guidance, and is typically carried by tactical aircraft such as the Su-24, Su-30, MiG-29K as well as the "T/TM" models of the Su-25, giving that craft an expanded standoff capability.
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The Zvezda Kh-35 is a Soviet turbojet subsonic cruise anti-ship missile. The same missile can also be launched from helicopters, surface ships and coastal defence batteries with the help of a rocket booster, in which case it is known as Uran or Bal. It is designed to attack vessels up to 5,000 tonnes.
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The Zvezda Kh-66 and Kh-23 Grom are a family of early Soviet tactical air-to-surface missiles with a range of 10 km. They were intended for use against small ground or naval targets. The Kh-66 was effectively a heavy-warhead, beam-riding version of the K-8 air-to-air missile rushed into service in Vietnam in 1968. The Kh-23 was an improved Kh-66 with command-guidance, similar to the AGM-12 Bullpup.
The Kh-28 was the first Soviet anti-radiation missile for tactical aircraft. It entered production in 1973 and is still carried on some Sukhoi Su-22s in developing countries but is no longer in Russian service. Use of the Kh-28 was restricted by its weight, limited seeker head, bulk and fuelling requirements, and it was superseded by the smaller, solid-fuel Kh-58 in the early 1980s.
The Kh-38/Kh-38M is a family of air-to-surface missiles meant to succeed the Kh-25 family of missiles.