(NATO reporting name: AS-20 'Kayak')
3M24 Uran(SS-N-25 'Switchblade')
3K60 Bal(SSC-6 'Sennight')
|Type|| Air-to-surface |
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|Used by|| Russian Navy |
Vietnam People's Navy
|Manufacturer||Tactical Missiles Corporation|
|Unit cost||$500,000 (2010)|
|Produced||1996 for export, 2003 for Russia|
|Variants|| Neptune |
|Mass||520 kg (1,150 lb) (air version)|
610 kg (1,340 lb) (surface & heli version)
|Length||385 cm (152 in) (air version)|
440 cm (173 in) (surface & heli version)
|Diameter||42.0 cm (16.5 in)|
|Warhead||HE fragmentation shaped charge|
|Warhead weight||145 kg (320 lb)|
|Engine||R95TP-300 Turbojet Kh-35 / Turbofan Kh-35U|
|Wingspan||133 cm (52.4 in)|
|130 km (70 nmi)|
300 km (160 nmi) (upgrade version, 2015)
|Flight altitude||10-15 m en route and about 4 m at terminal area|
|Maximum speed||Mach 0.8–Mach 0.95 (609–723 mph; 980–1,164 km/h)|
|inertial guidance and ARGS-35E X-band terminal active radar homing|
|Tupolev Tu-142, Su-24, MiG-29M/K, Sukhoi Su-35, Su-27SM, Su-30MKI//Su-30SM, Su-34, HAL Tejas, Ka-27, Ka-28, Ka-52, Su-57,[ citation needed ] also ships and boats, coastal, LACM, TEL variants.|
The Zvezda Kh-35 (Russian : Х-35 , AS-20 'Kayak') is a Soviet turbojet subsonic cruise anti-ship missile. The same missile can also be launched from helicopters, surface ships and coastal defence batteries with the help of a rocket booster, in which case it is known as Uran ('Uranus', SS-N-25 'Switchblade', GRAU 3M24) or Bal ('Ball', SSC-6 'Sennight', GRAU 3K60). It is designed to attack vessels up to 5,000 tonnes.
Zvezda started work on the Kh-35 in 1983 by a decree of the USSR Council of Ministers and the USSR CPSU Central Committee to arm ships of medium tonnage.[ citation needed ]
The Kh-35 missile is a subsonic weapon featuring a normal aerodynamic configuration with cruciform wings and fins and a semisubmerged air duct intake. The propulsion unit is a turbofan engine. The missile is guided to its target at the final leg of the trajectory by commands fed from the active radar homing head and the radio altimeter.
Target designation data can be introduced into the missile from the launch aircraft or ship or external sources. Flight mission data is inserted into the missile control system after input of target coordinates. An inertial system controls the missile in flight, stabilizes it at an assigned altitude and brings it to a target location area. At a certain target range, the homing head is switched on to search for, lock on and track the target. The inertial control system then turns the missile toward the target and changes its flight altitude to an extremely low one. At this altitude, the missile continues the process of homing by the data fed from the homing head and the inertial control system until a hit is obtained.[ citation needed ]
The Kh-35 can be employed in fair and adverse weather conditions at sea states up to 5–6, by day and night, under enemy fire and electronic countermeasures. Its aerodynamic configuration is optimized for high subsonic-speed sea-skimming flight to ensure stealthy characteristics of the missile. The missile has low signatures thanks to its small dimensions, sea-skimming capability and a special guidance algorithm ensuring highly secure operational modes of the active radar seeker.[ citation needed ]
Its ARGS-35E active radar seeker operates in both single and multiple missile launch modes, acquiring and locking on targets at a maximum range of up to 20 km. A new radar seeker, Gran-KE has been developed by SPE Radar MMS and will be replacing the existing ARGS-35E X band seeker.
3.85 m (12.6 ft)
|620 kg (1,370 lb)|
520 kg (1,150 lb)
610 kg (1,340 lb)
|670 kg (1,480 lb)|
550 kg (1,210 lb)
650 kg (1,430 lb)
|Guidance||Inertial, active radar||Inertial, satellite navigation, active/passive radar|
|Range||130 km (81 mi; 70 nmi)||7–260 km (4–162 mi; 4–140 nmi)|
|Seeker range||20 km (12 mi; 11 nmi)||50 km (31 mi; 27 nmi)|
|Speed||Mach 0.8 (609 mph; 980 km/h)||Mach 0.8–Mach 0.85 (609–647 mph; 980–1,041 km/h)|
|Warhead||145 kg (320 lb) HE penetrator||145 kg (320 lb) penetrating HE frag|
The Kh-35 missile entered service in 2003. In July 2003, the system created by the "Tactical Missiles Corporation" passed the state tests and began to come into service of ships of the Russian Navy. Today it is generally accepted[ by whom? ] that in the criterion of "cost-effectiveness", "Uran-E" is one of the best systems in the world. It has also been acquired by India. The Bal coastal missile system showed excellent results in state tests in the fall of 2004, and entered service in 2008. The tests of the upgraded Kh-35UE missile were completed as of June 2021.
A Bal system has four self-propelled launcher vehicles each carrying eight missiles for a total of 32 missiles in a salvo, plus reloads for another wave. The launchers can be up to 10 km from the coast and hit targets at ranges up to 120 km (75 mi; 65 nmi). Currently, the Bal system is equipped with an upgraded version of the Kh-35E increasing the range to 300 km (190 mi; 160 nmi). At IMDS 2019, a new version of the Russian Bal-E coastal defence system was presented for the first time. The four-tube Rubezh-ME, dedicated to the export market, is based on a Kamaz 63501 8x8 chassis which is more compact than the MZKT-7930 of the original Bal-E.
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