Last updated

(NATO reporting name: AS-20 'Kayak')
3M24 Uran(SS-N-25 'Switchblade')
3K60 Bal(SSC-6 'Sennight')
Kh-35E fol maks2009.jpg
Kh-35E in MAKS-2009
Type Air-to-surface
Surface-to-surface missile
Cruise missile
Anti-ship missile
Place of origin Soviet Union
Service history
In service2003
Used by Russian Navy
Indian Navy
Vietnam People's Navy
Production history
Manufacturer Tactical Missiles Corporation
Unit cost$500,000 (2010) [1]
Produced1996 for export, 2003 for Russia
Variants Neptune
KN-09 GuemSeong-3
Mass520 kg (1,150 lb) [2] (air version)
610 kg (1,340 lb) [2] (surface & heli version)
Length385 cm (152 in) [2] (air version)
440 cm (173 in) [2] (surface & heli version)
Diameter42.0 cm (16.5 in) [2]
WarheadHE fragmentation shaped charge
Warhead weight145 kg (320 lb) [2]

EngineR95TP-300 Turbojet [3] Kh-35 / Turbofan Kh-35U
360 kgf
Wingspan133 cm (52.4 in) [2]
130 km (70 nmi)
300 km (160 nmi) (upgrade version, 2015) [4]
Flight altitude10-15 m en route and about 4 m at terminal area
Maximum speed Mach 0.8–Mach 0.95 (609–723 mph; 980–1,164 km/h)
inertial guidance and ARGS-35E X-band terminal active radar homing [5]
Tupolev Tu-142, Su-24, MiG-29M/K, Sukhoi Su-35, Su-27SM, Su-30MKI//Su-30SM, Su-34, HAL Tejas, Ka-27, Ka-28, [2] [6] Ka-52, Su-57,[ citation needed ] also ships and boats, coastal, LACM, TEL variants.

The Zvezda Kh-35 (Russian : Х-35 , AS-20 'Kayak') is a Soviet turbojet subsonic cruise [7] anti-ship missile. The same missile can also be launched from helicopters, surface ships and coastal defence batteries with the help of a rocket booster, in which case it is known as Uran ('Uranus', SS-N-25 'Switchblade', GRAU 3M24) or Bal ('Ball', SSC-6 'Sennight', GRAU 3K60). It is designed to attack vessels up to 5,000 tonnes. [2]



Zvezda started work on the Kh-35 in 1983 by a decree of the USSR Council of Ministers and the USSR CPSU Central Committee to arm ships of medium tonnage.[ citation needed ]


Seeker Kh-35E maks2005.jpg
Kh-35E maq maks2009.jpg

The Kh-35 missile is a subsonic weapon featuring a normal aerodynamic configuration with cruciform wings and fins and a semisubmerged air duct intake. The propulsion unit is a turbofan engine. The missile is guided to its target at the final leg of the trajectory by commands fed from the active radar homing head and the radio altimeter. [2]

Target designation data can be introduced into the missile from the launch aircraft or ship or external sources. Flight mission data is inserted into the missile control system after input of target coordinates. An inertial system controls the missile in flight, stabilizes it at an assigned altitude and brings it to a target location area. At a certain target range, the homing head is switched on to search for, lock on and track the target. The inertial control system then turns the missile toward the target and changes its flight altitude to an extremely low one. At this altitude, the missile continues the process of homing by the data fed from the homing head and the inertial control system until a hit is obtained.[ citation needed ]

The Kh-35 can be employed in fair and adverse weather conditions at sea states up to 5–6, by day and night, under enemy fire and electronic countermeasures. Its aerodynamic configuration is optimized for high subsonic-speed sea-skimming flight to ensure stealthy characteristics of the missile. The missile has low signatures thanks to its small dimensions, sea-skimming capability and a special guidance algorithm ensuring highly secure operational modes of the active radar seeker.[ citation needed ]

Its ARGS-35E active radar seeker operates in both single and multiple missile launch modes, acquiring and locking on targets at a maximum range of up to 20 km. [8] A new radar seeker, Gran-KE has been developed by SPE Radar MMS [9] and will be replacing the existing ARGS-35E X band seeker. [10]

[8] [11] Kh-35Kh-35U
Length: Ship/Land/Heliborne
4.4 m (14 ft)
3.85 m (12.6 ft)
0.42 m (17 in)
1.33 m (4.4 ft)
Weight: Ship/Land-based
620 kg (1,370 lb)
520 kg (1,150 lb)
610 kg (1,340 lb)
670 kg (1,480 lb)
550 kg (1,210 lb)
650 kg (1,430 lb)
GuidanceInertial, active radarInertial, satellite navigation, active/passive radar
Range130 km (81 mi; 70 nmi)7–260 km (4–162 mi; 4–140 nmi)
Seeker range20 km (12 mi; 11 nmi)50 km (31 mi; 27 nmi)
SpeedMach 0.8 (609 mph; 980 km/h)Mach 0.8–Mach 0.85 (609–647 mph; 980–1,041 km/h)
Cruising altitude
Terminal altitude
10–15 m
4 m
Warhead145 kg (320 lb) HE penetrator145 kg (320 lb) penetrating HE frag

Operational history

The Kh-35 missile entered service in 2003. In July 2003, the system created by the "Tactical Missiles Corporation" passed the state tests and began to come into service of ships of the Russian Navy. Today it is generally accepted[ by whom? ] that in the criterion of "cost-effectiveness", "Uran-E" is one of the best systems in the world. [12] It has also been acquired by India. [13] The Bal coastal missile system showed excellent results in state tests in the fall of 2004, and entered service in 2008. [14] The tests of the upgraded Kh-35UE missile were completed as of June 2021. [15]

A Bal system has four self-propelled launcher vehicles each carrying eight missiles for a total of 32 missiles in a salvo, plus reloads for another wave. The launchers can be up to 10 km from the coast and hit targets at ranges up to 120 km (75 mi; 65 nmi). [16] Currently, the Bal system is equipped with an upgraded version of the Kh-35E increasing the range to 300 km (190 mi; 160 nmi). [17] [18] At IMDS 2019, a new version of the Russian Bal-E coastal defence system was presented for the first time. The four-tube Rubezh-ME, dedicated to the export market, is based on a Kamaz 63501 8x8 chassis which is more compact than the MZKT-7930 of the original Bal-E. [19] [20]


Bal - coastal mobile missile complex BAL-E003.jpg
Bal - coastal mobile missile complex


Map with Kh-35 operators in blue Kh-35 operators.png
Map with Kh-35 operators in blue

Current operators

Mobile coastal defence (anti-ship) system KN-19 on a tracked chassis.

See also

Related Research Articles

P-15 Termit Anti-ship missile

The P-15 Termit is an anti-ship missile developed by the Soviet Union's Raduga design bureau in the 1950s. Its GRAU designation was 4K40, its NATO reporting name was Styx or SS-N-2. China acquired the design in 1958 and created at least four versions: the CSS-N-1 Scrubbrush and CSS-N-2 versions were developed for ship-launched operation, while the CSS-C-2 Silkworm and CSS-C-3 Seersucker were used for coastal defence. Other names for this basic type of missile include: HY-1, SY-1, and FL-1 Flying Dragon. North Korean local produced KN-1 or KN-01, derived from both Silkworm variants and Russian & USSR P-15, Rubezh, P-20 P-22.

R-77 Medium-range, active radar homing air-to-air BVR missile

The Vympel NPO R-77 missile is a Russian active radar homing beyond-visual-range air-to-air missile. It is also known by its export designation RVV-AE. It is the Russian counterpart to the American AIM-120 AMRAAM missile.

Kh-55 Family of air-launched cruise missiles

The Kh-55 is a Soviet/Russian subsonic air-launched cruise missile, designed by MKB Raduga. It has a range of up to 2,500 km (1,350 nmi) and can carry nuclear warheads. Kh-55 is launched exclusively from bomber aircraft and has spawned a number of conventionally armed variants mainly for tactical use, such as the Kh-65SE and Kh-SD, but only the Kh-101 and Kh-555 appear to have made it into service. Contrary to popular belief, the Kh-55 was not the basis of the submarine- and ground-launched S-10 Granat or RK-55 Relief designed by NPO Novator. The RK-55 is very similar to the air-launched Kh-55 but the Kh-55 has a drop-down turbofan engine and was designed by MKB Raduga. Both have formed the basis of post-Cold-War missiles, in particular the Sizzler which has a supersonic approach phase.

The Kh-22 is a large, long-range anti-ship missile developed by MKB Raduga in the Soviet Union. It was intended for use against US Navy aircraft carriers and carrier battle groups, with either a conventional or nuclear warhead.

Tarantul-class corvette Class of Soviet missile corvettes

The Project 1241 are a class of Soviet missile corvettes. They have the NATO reporting name Tarantul. These ships were designed to replace the Project 205 Tsunami missile boats.

Buk missile system Russian surface-to-air missile system

The Buk missile system is a family of self-propelled, medium-range surface-to-air missile systems developed by the Soviet Union and its successor state, the Russian Federation, and designed to counter cruise missiles, smart bombs, fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, and unmanned aerial vehicles.

Active radar homing

Active radar homing (ARH) is a missile guidance method in which a missile contains a radar transceiver and the electronics necessary for it to find and track its target autonomously. NATO brevity code for an air-to-air active radar homing missile launch is fox three.

<i>Brahmaputra</i>-class frigate

The Brahmaputra-class frigates are guided-missile frigates of the Indian Navy, designed and built in India. They are an enhancement of the Godavari class, with a displacement of 3850 tons and a length of 126 metres (413 ft). Although of similar hull and dimension, internally, the Brahmaputra and Godavari classes have different configurations, armaments and capabilities. 3 ships of this class serve in the Indian Navy.

P-800 Oniks Cruise missileAir-launched cruise missileSubmarine-launched cruise missileAnti-ship missileSurface-to-surface missileLand-attack missile

The P-800 Oniks, also known in export markets as Yakhont, is a Soviet / Russian supersonic anti-ship cruise missile developed by NPO Mashinostroyeniya as a ramjet version of P-80 Zubr. Its GRAU designation is 3M55, the air launched Kh-61 variant also exists. The missile has the NATO codename SS-N-26 "Strobile". Development officially started in 1983, and in the 1990s the anti-ship missile was tested on the Project 1234.7 ship. In 2002 the missile passed the whole range of trials and was commissioned. It is reportedly a replacement of the P-270 Moskit, but possibly also of the P-700 Granit. The P-800 was used as the basis for the joint Russian-Indian supersonic missile BrahMos.

Kh-31 Medium-range air-to-surface missile

The Kh-31 is a Russian air-to-surface missile carried by aircraft such as the MiG-29 or Su-27. It is capable of Mach 3.5 and was the first supersonic anti-ship missile that could be launched by tactical aircraft.

Kh-25 tactical air-to-surface missileanti-radar missile (Kh-25MP)

The Kh-25/Kh-25M is a family of Soviet lightweight air-to-ground missiles with a modular range of guidance systems and a range of 10 km. The anti-radar variant (Kh-25MP) is known to NATO as the AS-12 'Kegler' and has a range up to 40 km. Designed by Zvezda-Strela, the Kh-25 is derived from the laser-guided version of the Kh-23 Grom. It has now been succeeded by the Kh-38 family, but the Kh-25 remains in widespread use.

Kh-59 Russian cruise missile

The Kh-59 Ovod is a Russian TV-guided cruise missile with a two-stage solid-fuel propulsion system and 200 km range. The Kh-59M Ovod-M is a variant with a bigger warhead and turbojet engine. It is primarily a land-attack missile but the Kh-59MK variant targets ships.

Kh-58 air-launched anti-radiation missile, surface-to-surface missile

The Kh-58 is a Soviet anti-radiation missile with a range of 120 km. As of 2004 the Kh-58U variant was still the primary anti-radiation missile of Russia and its allies. It is being superseded by the Kh-31. The NATO reporting name is "Kilter".

3M-54 Kalibr Group of Russian missiles

The 3M-54 Kalibr,, also referred to it as 3M54-1 Kalibr, 3M14 Biryuza, , 91R1, 91RT2 is a group of Russian surface ship-, submarine-launched and airborne anti-ship and coastal anti ship (AShM), land attack cruise missiles (LACM) and anti-submarine missiles developed by the Novator Design Bureau (OKB-8). Derived export versions are the 3M54E, 3M54E1, 3M14E, 91RE1, 91RTE2. The 3M54T, 3M54K, 3M54A, 3M54E (3M54TE), 3M54KE and 3M54AE have a second stage that performs a supersonic sprint in the terminal approach to the target, reducing the time that target's defense systems have to react. The 3M54T1, 3M54K1, 3M54A1, 3M54E1 (3M54T/K/AE1) only travel at subsonic speeds, although their range is accordingly greater than those of the supersonic versions.

<i>Kora</i>-class corvette

Kora-class corvettes are 1,350-tonne guided missile corvettes, in active service with the Indian Navy and the National Coast Guard of Mauritius. Four vessels were built at Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers (GRSE) and outfitted at Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL).

RIM-66 Standard US medium range surface-to-air missile

The RIM-66 Standard MR (SM-1MR/SM-2MR) is a medium-range surface-to-air missile (SAM), with a secondary role as anti-ship missile, originally developed for the United States Navy (USN). A member of the Standard Missile family of weapons, the SM-1 was developed as a replacement for the RIM-2 Terrier and RIM-24 Tartar that were deployed in the 1950s on a variety of USN ships. The RIM-67 Standard (SM-1ER/SM-2ER) is an extended range version of this missile with a solid rocket booster stage.

SSM-700K Haeseong South Korean anti-ship missile

The SSM-700K Haeseong (C-Star) Anti-ship Missile is a ship launched sea-skimming surface-to-surface anti-ship cruise missile developed by the South Korean Agency for Defense Development (ADD), LIG Nex1 and the Republic of Korea Navy in 2003. The missiles are deployed on KDX-II and KDX-III destroyers as of 2006, each carrying 8 and 16 of the missiles respectively, and on Ulsan-class frigates.

Object 100

Object-100 Utes (Utyos) or Sotka is a Russian Navy anti-ship missile coastal defense division built in Soviet times, using bunker TEL with a pair of SS-N-3 Shaddock P-35B 4K44B SS-N-3b Shaddock 3M44 Progress, can also launch different ones like P-6 P-35B S-35.

Russian corvette <i>Hero of the Russian Federation Aldar Tsydenzhapov</i> Steregushchiy-class corvette of the Russian Navy

Hero of the Russian Federation Aldar Tsydenzhapov is a Steregushchiy-class corvette of the Russian Navy.


  1. "Annual Report", Tactical Missiles Corporation (2010), p.92.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 "Aerospace Systems Export Catalogue" (PDF). Rosoboronexport . p. 123. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 October 2007.
  3. "About". Aero-Engine Scientific and Technical Complex «Soyuz».
  4. Ponomarev, Vadim (25 May 2015). "Новая ракета X-35: гроза американских эсминцев" [New X-35 missile: the terror of American destroyers]. Expert (in Russian). Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  5. "ARGS-35E (Algeria), Airborne fire-control radars". Jane's . Archived from the original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2011.
  6. "Kh-35U ASM enters Su-35S fighter jet weapon package". 24 October 2017.
  7. "Kh-35 (AS-20 "Kayak") Anti-Ship Cruise Missile".
  8. 1 2 3 "Tactical Anti-Ship Missile Kh-35E". JSC Tactical Missiles Corporation . Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  9. "Радиолокационная Головка АРГС-35Э" [ARGS-35E Radar]. Radar-MMS (in Russian). Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  10. "Russia: JSC Tactical Missile Arms Presents New Target Seeker". Naval Today. 26 August 2011. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  11. 1 2 "Tactical Guided Missile Kh-35UE". JSC Tactical Missiles Corporation. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  12. ""Уран-Э": рождение конструкторского замысла" ["Uran-E": the birth of a design concept]. Nezavisimaya Gazeta (in Russian). 20 January 2012. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  13. "Kh-37". Jane's Air-Launched Weapons. 1 August 2008.[ dead link ]
  14. "«Бал-Э» принят на вооружение" ["Bal-E" is put into service]. National Defence (in Russian). Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  16. "Bal-E coastal missile system with Kh-35 antiship missile to defend Russia coast of Caspian Sea". 5 December 2011.
  17. "Russia's Bal-E coastal defense system to be equipped with upgraded Kh-35 missile". 28 October 2015.
  18. "Для КТРВ 2018 год стал рекордным с точки зрения объемов экспорта" [For KTRV, 2018 became a record year in terms of export volumes]. (in Russian). 15 July 2019.
  19. "IMDS 2019: First public appearance of the Rubezh-ME coastal defence system". 11 July 2019.
  20. Novichkov, Nikolai (15 July 2019). "Russia unveils export-oriented Rubezh-ME coastal defence missile system". Jane's. Archived from the original on 16 July 2019.
  21. ""Тактическое ракетное вооружение" за три года запустило в серию 14 видов ракет" ["Tactical Missile Armament" has launched 14 types of missiles into series in three years]. ТАSS (in Russian). 1 July 2015. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  22. "Kh-35UE". Rosoboronexport.
  23. "Корабельная аппаратура системы управления «Уран Э»" [Ship control system "Uran E"]. JSC Concern Granit-Electron (in Russian). Archived from the original on 11 September 2012. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
  24. "Kumsong-3 (Kh-35 Variant)". Missile Threat.
  25. Panda, Ankit (26 July 2017). "North Korea's New KN19 Coastal Defense Cruise Missile: More Than Meets the Eye". The Diplomat.
  26. 1 2 "Vietnam unveils its new VCM-01 anti-ship cruise missile". Navy Recognition. 28 May 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  27. "«Коммерсантъ» узнал об отказе Москвы поставить ракетные комплексы Баку" ["Kommersant" learned of Moscow's refusal to supply missile systems to Baku]. РБК (in Russian). 5 December 2018.
  28. "Trade Registers". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute . Retrieved 19 December 2014.
  29. Annual Report, Tactical Missiles Corporation (2010), p.92.
  30. "Russian Navy received more than 100 Kalibr, Onix missiles in 3rd quarter". TASS. 21 October 2016.
  31. "National Centre for State Defence Control hosts Military Acceptance Day chaired by Russian Minister of Defence". Russian Ministry of Defence. 31 January 2018.
  32. "За последний месяц в войска ЮВО поставлено около 200 ед. новой и модернизированной техники" [Over the past month, about 200 new and modernized equipment units have been delivered to the troops of the Southern Military District]. (in Russian). 6 December 2018.
  33. "Advanced coastal defense missile systems to protect Russia's Caspian Flotilla base". TASS. 22 February 2019.
  34. "Новые береговые ракетные комплексы «Бал» прибыли на Тихоокеанский флот" [New coastal missile systems "Bal" arrived at the Pacific Fleet]. (in Russian). 26 February 2019.
  35. "В 2020 году Балтийский флот пополнился кораблями и новейшей военной техникой" [In 2020, the Baltic Fleet was replenished with ships and the latest military equipment]. (in Russian). 12 January 2021.
  36. Nilsen, Thomas (7 August 2019). "Russia deploys missile system 70 km from Norway's Vardø radar". The Barents Observer. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  37. "Kh-35U ASM enters Su-35S fighter jet weapon package". 24 October 2017. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  38. "Пуски с самолетов Су-34 противокорабельных ракет Х-35У по морским целям" [Launches from Su-34 aircraft of Kh-35U anti-ship missiles at sea targets]. Russian Ministry of Defence (in Russian). 25 September 2018.
  39. "Минобороны показало удары новейших российских противокорабельных ракет" [The Ministry of Defense showed the strikes of the latest Russian anti-ship missiles]. RIA Novosti (in Russian). 25 September 2018.

External sources