Kh-47M2 Kinzhal

Last updated
Kh-47M2 Kinzhal
2018 Moscow Victory Day Parade 66.jpg
A Kh-47M2 Kinzhal ALBM being carried by a Mikoyan MiG-31K interceptor.
Type Air-launched ballistic missile
Place of originRussia
Service history
In serviceIn production
Used by Russian Aerospace Forces
Production history
Designer Russian Defense Ministry [1]
Manufacturer Russian Defense Ministry
Warhead Nuclear (100-500 kT) or HE fragmentation
Warhead weight500 kg [2]

Propellant Solid-propellant rocket [2]
  • 2000+ km (1240 Mi) (MiG-31K) [3]
  • 3000 km (1860 Mi) (Tu-22M3)
Flight ceiling20 km (65,617 ft) [2]
Maximum speed Mach 10–Mach 12 (12,250–14,701 km/h; 7,612–9,134 mph) [4]
INS with the possibility of adjustments from GLONASS, remote control and optical homing system [2]
Accuracy1 m [2]

The Kh-47M2 Kinzhal ("dagger") is a Russian nuclear-capable air-launched ballistic missile (ALBM). [8] It has a claimed range of more than 2,000 km (1,200 mi), Mach 10 speed, and an ability to perform evasive maneuvers at every stage of its flight. It can carry both conventional and nuclear warheads [9] and can be launched from Tu-22M3 bombers or MiG-31K interceptors. It has been deployed at airbases in Russia's Southern Military District. [10]


The Kinzhal entered service in December 2017 and is one of the six new Russian strategic weapons unveiled by Russian President Vladimir Putin on 1 March 2018. [11] [12]


The missile is designed to hit US and NATO warships posing a threat to strategic missile systems in European Russia part and to destroy NATO missile defence system and ballistic missile defense ships and land objects close to Russia borders, such as one in Romania. It is allegedly designed to overcome any known or planned US air or missile defense systems including MIM-104 Patriot, Terminal High Altitude Area Defense and Aegis Combat System. [13] [14] [15] [16]

The missile first stage is probably shared with 9K720 Iskander and the guidance section is specifically designed for this missile. It can hit static and mobile targets such as aircraft carriers. [17] The missile accelerates to hypersonic speed within seconds of launch and performs maneuvers at all stages of the flight to evade enemy missile defenses. [18]

Russian media claims the missile's range will be 2,000 km (1,200 mi; 1,100 nmi) when carried by the MiG-31K and 3,000 km (1,900 mi; 1,600 nmi) when carried by the Tu-22M3. [19]

Operational history

The first operational unit armed with the hypersonic Kinzhal missiles was formed in Southern Military District of Russia in December 2017.[ citation needed ] In May 2018, ten MiG-31Ks capable of using Kinzhal missiles were on experimental combat duty and ready to be deployed. [20] By December 2018, aircraft armed with Kinzhal missiles had conducted 89 sorties over the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. [21]

By February 2019, crews of the MiG-31K Kinzhal missile carriers had performed more than 380 training sorties with the missile, of which at least 70 have used mid-air refueling. [17] [22] [23] The weapon made its public debut during the Aviadarts international contest in August 2019. [24]

According to TASS, the first launch of Kinzhal in the Arctic took place mid-November, 2019. Reportedly, the launch was carried out by a MiG-31K from Olenya air base. The missile hit a ground target at "Pemboy" proving ground, reaching the speed of Mach 10. [25] In June 2021, a Kinzhal missile was launched by a MiG-31K from Khmeymim, on a ground target in Syria. [26]


Flag of Russia.svg  Russia

See also

Related Research Articles

Cruise missile Guided missile which remains in the atmosphere and flies with approximately constant speed

A cruise missile is a guided missile used against terrestrial targets, that remains in the atmosphere and flies the major portion of its flight path at approximately constant speed. Cruise missiles are designed to deliver a large warhead over long distances with high precision. Modern cruise missiles are capable of travelling at supersonic or high subsonic speeds, are self-navigating, and are able to fly on a non-ballistic, extremely low-altitude trajectory.

Mikoyan MiG-31 Interceptor aircraft

The Mikoyan MiG-31 is a supersonic interceptor aircraft that was developed for use by the Soviet Air Forces. The aircraft was designed by the Mikoyan design bureau as a replacement for the earlier MiG-25 "Foxbat"; the MiG-31 is based on and shares design elements with the MiG-25. The MiG-31 is among the fastest combat jets in the world. It continues to be operated by the Russian Air Force and the Kazakhstan Air Force following the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. The Russian Defence Ministry expects the MiG-31 to remain in service until 2030 or beyond and was confirmed in 2020 when an announcement was made to extend the service lifetime from 2,500 to 3,500 hours on the existing airframes.

Tupolev Tu-160 Russian strategic bomber aircraft

The Tupolev Tu-160 is a supersonic, variable-sweep wing heavy strategic bomber designed by the Tupolev Design Bureau in the Soviet Union in the 1970s. It is the largest and heaviest Mach 2+ supersonic military aircraft ever built and next to the experimental XB-70 Valkyrie in overall length. As of 2021, it is the largest and heaviest combat aircraft, the fastest bomber in use and the largest and heaviest variable-sweep wing airplane ever flown.

Tupolev Tu-95 Russian strategic bomber aircraft

The Tupolev Tu-95 is a large, four-engine turboprop-powered strategic bomber and missile platform. First flown in 1952, the Tu-95 entered service with the Long-Range Aviation of the Soviet Air Forces in 1956 and is expected to serve the Russian Aerospace Forces until at least 2040. A development of the bomber for maritime patrol is designated Tu-142, while a passenger airliner derivative was called Tu-114.

Mikoyan MiG-29M Strike fighter aircraft project

The Mikoyan MiG-29M is a Russian multirole fighter developed in 2005. It is based on unified platform together with Mikoyan MiG-29K. Far predecessor of current MiG-29M was designed by Mikoyan Design Bureau in the Soviet Union during the mid-1980s and was known as "MiG-33" during the 1990s.

Tupolev Tu-22M Russian long-range supersonic strategic bomber

The Tupolev Tu-22M is a supersonic, variable-sweep wing, long-range strategic and maritime strike bomber developed by the Tupolev Design Bureau in the 1960s. According to some sources, the bomber was believed to be designated Tu-26 at one time. During the Cold War, the Tu-22M was operated by the Soviet Air Forces (VVS) in a missile carrier strategic bombing role, and by the Soviet Naval Aviation in a long-range maritime anti-shipping role. Significant numbers remain in service with the Russian Air Force, and as of 2014 more than 100 Tu-22Ms are in use.

Kh-55 Family of air-launched cruise missiles

The Kh-55 is a Soviet/Russian subsonic air-launched cruise missile, designed by MKB Raduga. It has a range of up to 2,500 km (1,350 nmi) and can carry nuclear warheads. Kh-55 is launched exclusively from bomber aircraft and has spawned a number of conventionally armed variants mainly for tactical use, such as the Kh-65SE and Kh-SD, but only the Kh-101 and Kh-555 appear to have made it into service. Contrary to popular belief, the Kh-55 was not the basis of the submarine- and ground-launched S-10 Granat or RK-55 Relief designed by NPO Novator. The RK-55 is very similar to the air-launched Kh-55 but the Kh-55 has a drop-down turbofan engine and was designed by MKB Raduga. Both have formed the basis of post-Cold-War missiles, in particular the Sizzler which has a supersonic approach phase.

Sukhoi Su-34 Strike fighter version of the Su-27 fighter aircraft

The Sukhoi Su-34 is a Soviet-origin Russian twin-engine, twin-seat, all-weather supersonic medium-range fighter-bomber/strike aircraft. It first flew in 1990, intended for the Soviet Air Forces, and it entered service in 2014 with the Russian Air Force.

Northern Fleet

The Northern Fleet is the fleet of the Russian Navy in the Arctic.

Russian Air Force Air warfare branch of Russias military

The Russian Air Force is a branch of the Russian Aerospace Forces, the latter being formed on 1 August 2015 with the merging of the Russian Air Force and the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces. The modern Russian Air Force was originally established on 7 May 1992 following Boris Yeltsin's creation of the Ministry of Defence; however, the Russian Federation's air force can trace its lineage and traditions back to the Imperial Russian Air Service (1912–1917) and the Soviet Air Forces (1918–1991).

Olenya (air base)

Olenya has been a major Russian Navy reconnaissance base, located on the Kola Peninsula 92 km south of Murmansk. As of 2020 units at the base are subordinate to the Long Range Aviation branch of the Russian Aerospace Forces.The base and its staff settlement, across Lake Permusozero from the city of Olenegorsk, are served by the Olenegorsk rail station. Olenya has served as the headquarters for 5 MRAD, and has hosted to two reconnaissance regiments. Its 3500-meter runway is the longest on the Kola Peninsula, making it a key facility for intercontinental flights across the North Atlantic basin.

The S-500 Prometey, also known as 55R6M "Triumfator-M", is a Russian surface-to-air missile/anti-ballistic missile system intended to replace the A-135 missile system currently in use, and supplement the S-400. The S-500 is under development by the Almaz-Antey Air Defence Concern. Initially planned to be in production by 2014, it is currently targeting 2021 for first delivery. With its characteristics, according to Pravda Report, it is unrivaled by any other similar system in the world, being the first in a new class of space-defense weapons. Also according to Pravda Report, it shares with the US Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system the trait that it will be integrated into a single network of aerospace defense assets.

Air-launched ballistic missile Experimental weapon

An air-launched ballistic missile or ALBM is a ballistic missile launched from an aircraft. An ALBM allows the launch aircraft to stand off at long distances from its target, keeping it well outside the range of defensive weapons like anti-aircraft missiles and interceptor aircraft. Once launched, the missile is essentially immune to interception. This combination of features allowed a strategic bomber to present a credible deterrent second-strike option in an era when improving anti-aircraft defences appeared to be rendering conventional bombers obsolete.

Hypersonic flight Flight at altitudes lower than 90km and at speeds above Mach 5

Hypersonic flight is flight through the atmosphere below about 90 km at speeds ranging between Mach 5-10, a speed where dissociation of air begins to become significant and high heat loads exist.

The Tupolev PAK DA or PAK DA, codename Poslannik, is a next-generation stealth strategic bomber being developed by Tupolev for the Long-Range Aviation branch of the Russian Aerospace Forces. The PAK DA is set to complement and eventually replace the older Tupolev Tu-95 in Russia's Air Force service.

Mikoyan MiG-35 Strike fighter aircraft

The Mikoyan MiG-35 is a Russian multirole fighter that is designed by Mikoyan, a division of the United Aircraft Corporation (UAC). Marketed as a 4++ generation jet fighter, it is a further development of the MiG-29M/M2 and MiG-29K/KUB fighters. According to a Russian defense industry source Mikoyan MiG-35 is essentially an upgraded variant of MiG-29KR. Many consider MiG-35 a new name given by Mikoyan for marketing. The first prototype was a modification of the aircraft that previously served as a MiG-29M2 model demonstrator. Mikoyan first officially presented the MiG-35 internationally during the 2007 Aero India air show. but the first two serial production aircraft entered service in 2019.

The Mikoyan PAK DP is a Russian programme to develop a stealth interceptor aircraft/heavy fighter under development by Mikoyan to replace the Mikoyan MiG-31 in the Russian Air Force in mid-2020s or mid-2030s. It is often referenced as Mikoyan MiG 41, because its project code is izd.41, but its official designation has never been given, as Russian planes only get their official designation when they are about to enter service. According to the Russian defence analyst Vasily Kashin, the MiG-41 would be considered as a 5++ or 6th generation project.

The 3M22 Zircon also spelled as 3M22 Tsirkon is a scramjet powered maneuvering anti-ship hypersonic cruise missile currently in testing by Russia.

Avangard (hypersonic glide vehicle) Russian Hypersonic glide vehicle

The Avangard is a Russian hypersonic glide vehicle (HGV) that can be carried as a MIRV payload by the UR-100UTTKh, R-36M2 and RS-28 Sarmat heavy ICBMs. It can deliver both nuclear and conventional payloads.

AGM-183 ARRW U.S. Air Force prototype missile

The AGM-183 ARRW is a hypersonic weapon planned for use by the United States Air Force. Developed by Lockheed Martin, the boost glide weapon is propelled to a maximum speed of Mach 7+ by a missile before gliding towards its target.


  1. "Kh-47M2 Kinzhal ("Dagger") – Missile Defense Advocacy Alliance".
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Alexey Leonkov (2018-05-23). "Hypersonic Dagger Throw: competitors are still in diapers". . Retrieved 2018-05-24.
  3. Victor Baranets (2018-03-01). ""Avant-garde", "Sarmat" and "Dagger": what is the latest Russian weapons". Komsomolskaya Pravda . Retrieved 2018-03-12.
  4. "Эксперт: новое российское оружие сделано для адекватного отражения угроз". 12 March 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  5. "Russia should deploy MiG-31 squadrons with Kinzhal missiles in Black Sea region — expert" . Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  6. "Бомбардировщики Ту-22М3 вооружат гиперзвуковыми ракетами "Кинжал" (The Tu-22M3 bomber will be able to carry four hypersonic "Dagger" missiles)". 2 July 2018.
  7. "Ten Years Later, Russia Finally Begins Production of the Su-57 Stealth Fighter". Popular Mechanics. 31 July 2019.
  8. "Russia unveils Kinzhal hypersonic missile". Jane's 360.
  9. Majumdar, Dave (10 May 2018). "Russia Places 10 Deadly MiG-31s on "Experimental Combat Duty" to Carry "Hypersonic" Missile".
  10. "Russian Aerospace Forces test launch Kinzhal hypersonic missile".
  11. "Kinzhal complex substantially boosts Russia's Aerospace Force capabilities – commander". Tass.
  12. "Putin unveils new nuclear missile, says 'listen to us now'". Retrieved 2 March 2018.
  13. ""Hipersoniczny" Kindżał zagrożeniem dla Europy [OPINIA]". Defence24.
  14. "Новое российское оружие стратегического сдерживания. Комплекс "Кинжал"".
  15. "Совершенное оружие: "Кинжал" быстр и практически невидим".
  16. "От "Кинжала" нет защиты".
  17. 1 2 "Russia picks MiG-31 fighter as a carrier for cutting-edge hypersonic weapon". TASS . 6 April 2018. Retrieved 18 September 2018.
  18. Majumdar, Dave (12 March 2018). "Russia Just Fired a Hypersonic Missile from a MiG-31 Fighter. Should America be Worried?".
  19. "Russian strategic bomber to extend Kinzhal hypersonic missile's range — source". TASS . 18 July 2018. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
  20. "Интервью заместителя Министра обороны России Юрия Борисова о новой военной технике". 6 May 2018. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  21. "Russian MoD sums up 2018 results, details 2019 deliveries". 3 February 2019. Archived from the original on 4 May 2019.
  22. "Russian fighters armed with Kinzhal hypersonic missiles hold drills with strategic bombers". TASS . 19 July 2018. Retrieved 18 September 2018.
  23. "New Russian weapons to guarantee security of the country without increasing costs and involvement in the arms race". 20 February 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  24. "ЦАМТО / Новости / Авиамикс в этом году стал самым зрелищным за историю конкурса "Авиадартс-2019"".
  25. "Источники: испытания гиперзвуковой ракеты "Кинжал" впервые проведены в Арктике". TASS (in Russian). 30 November 2019. Retrieved 30 November 2019.
  26. "Истребитель МиГ-31К нанёс удар гиперзвуковой ракетой "Кинжал" по неизвестной цели в Сирии". (in Russian). 29 June 2021. Retrieved 2 July 2021.