|Federal district||Far Eastern|
|Economic region||Far Eastern|
|Established||20 October 1938|
|• Body||Legislative Duma|
|• Governor||Mikhail Degtyarev (acting) (LDPR)|
|• Total||788,600 km2 (304,500 sq mi)|
|• Estimate||1,328,302 (−1.2%)|
|• Density||1.7/km2 (4.4/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+10 (MSK+7 )|
|ISO 3166 code||RU-KHA|
Khabarovsk Krai (Russian:Хаба́ровский край, tr. Khabarovsky kray,IPA: [xɐˈbarəfskʲɪj kraj] ) is a federal subject (a krai) of Russia. It is geographically located in the Far East region of the country and is a part of the Far Eastern Federal District. The administrative centre of the krai is the city of Khabarovsk, which is home to roughly half of the krai's population and the largest city in the Russian Far East (just ahead of Vladivostok). Khabarovsk Krai is the fourth-largest federal subject by area, and has a population of 1,343,869 as of 2010.
The southern region lies mostly in the basin of the lower Amur River, with the mouth of the river located at Nikolaevsk-on-Amur draining into the Strait of Tartary, which separates Khabarovsk Krai from the island of Sakhalin. The north occupies a vast mountainous area along the coastline of the Sea of Okhotsk, a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean. Khabarovsk Krai is bordered by Magadan Oblast to the north, Amur Oblast, Jewish Autonomous Oblast and the Sakha Republic to the west, Primorsky Krai to the south, and Sakhalin Oblast to the east.
The population consists of mostly ethnic Russians, but indigenous people of the area are numerous such as the Tungusic peoples (Evenks, Negidals, Ulchs, Nanai, Oroch, Udege) and Amur Nivkhs and Ainu.
Khabarovsk Krai shares its borders with Magadan Oblast in the north, with the Sakha Republic and Amur Oblast in the west, with the Jewish Autonomous Oblast, China (Heilongjiang), and Primorsky Krai in the south, and is limited by the Sea of Okhotsk in the east. In terms of area, it is the fourth-largest federal subject within Russia. Major islands include Shantar Islands.
Taiga and tundra in the north, swampy forest in the central depression, and deciduous forest in the south are the natural vegetation in the area.
Khabarovsk Krai has a severely continental climate with its northern areas being subarctic with stronger maritime summer moderation in the north. In its southerly areas, especially inland, annual swings are extremely strong, with Khabarovsk itself having hot, wet and humid summers which rapidly transforms into severely cold and long winters, where temperatures hardly ever go above freezing. This is because of the influence of the East Asian monsoon in summer and the bitterly cold Siberian High in winter. The second-largest city of Komsomolsk-on-Amur has even more violent temperature swings than Khabarovsk with winter average lows below −30 °C (−22 °F) but in spite of this avoiding being subarctic because of the significant heat in summer.
There are a number of peninsulas along the krai's extensive coast, the main ones being (north to south) the Lisyansky Peninsula, Nurki Peninsula, Tugurskiy Peninsula and the Tokhareu Peninsula.
The main islands of Khabarovsk Krai (north to south) are Malminskiye Island, the Shantar Islands, Menshikov Island, Reyneke Island (Sea of Okhotsk), Chkalov Island, Baydukov Island and the Chastye Islands. The island of Sakhalin (Russia's largest) is administered separately as Sakhalin Oblast, along with the Kuril Islands.
According to various Chinese and Korean records, the southern part of Khabarovsk Krai was originally occupied by one of the five semi-nomadic Shiwei, the Bo Shiwei tribes and the Black Water Mohe tribes living respectively on the west and the east of the Bureya and the Lesser Khingan ranges.
In 1643, Vassili Poyarkov's boats descended the Amur, returning to Yakutsk by the Sea of Okhotsk and the Aldan River, and in 1649–1650 Yerofey Khabarov occupied the banks of the Amur. The resistance of the Chinese, however, obliged the Cossacks to quit their forts, and by the Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689), Russia abandoned its advance into the basin of the river.
Although the Russians were thus deprived of the right to navigate the Amur River, the territorial claim over the lower courses of the river was not settled in the Treaty of Nerchinsk of 1689. The area between Uda River and Greater Khingan mountain range (i.e. most of Lower Amuria) was left undemarcated and the Sino-Russian border was allowed to fluctuate.
Later in the nineteenth century, Nikolay Muravyov conducted an aggressive policy with China by claiming that the lower reaches of the Amur River belonged to Russia. In 1852, a Russian military expedition under Muravyov explored the Amur, and by 1857 a chain of Russian Cossacks and peasants had been settled along the whole course of the river. In 1858, in the Treaty of Aigun, China recognized the Amur River downstream as far as the Ussuri River as the boundary between Russia and the Qing Empire, and granted Russia free access to the Pacific Ocean.The Sino-Russian border was later further delineated in the Treaty of Peking of 1860 when the Ussuri Territory (the Maritime Territory), which was previously a joint possession, became Russian.
Khabarovsk Krai was established on 20 October 1938, when the Far Eastern Krai was split into the Khabarovsk and Primorsky Krais.Kamchatka Oblast, which was originally subordinated to the Far Eastern Krai, fell under the Jurisdiction of Khabarovsk Krai, along with its two National Okrugs, Chukotka and Koryak. In 1947, the northern part of Sakhalin was removed from the Krai to join the southern part and form Sakhalin oblast. In 1948, parts of its southwestern territories were removed from the Krai to form Amur Oblast. In 1953, Magadan Oblast was established from the northern parts of the Krai and was given jurisdiction over Chukotka National Okrug which was originally under jurisdiction of Kamchatka oblast. The Krai took its modern form in 1956 when Kamchatka oblast became its own region and took Koryak National Okrug with it. On April 24, 1996, Khabarovsk Krai signed a power sharing agreement with the federal government granting them autonomy. On 24 April 1996 Khabarovsk signed a power-sharing agreement with the federal government, granting it autonomy. This agreement would be abolished on 12 August 2002.
During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Khabarovsk CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.
The Charter of Khabarovsk Krai is the fundamental law of the krai. The Legislative Duma of Khabarovsk Krai is the regional standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Duma exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Krai Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Krai Administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.
On 9 July 2020, the governor of the region, Sergei Furgal, was arrested and flown to Moscow. The 2020 Khabarovsk Krai protests began on 11 July 2020 in support of Furgal.
Khabarovsk Krai is the most industrialized territory of the Far East of Russia, producing 30% of the total industrial products in the Far Eastern Economic Region.
The machine construction industry consists primarily of a highly developed military-industrial complex of large-scale aircraft- and shipbuilding enterprises.The Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association is currently among the krai's most successful enterprises, and for years has been the largest taxpayer of the territory. Other major industries include timber-working and fishing, along with metallurgy in the main cities. Komsomolsk-on-Amur is the iron and steel centre of the Far East; a pipeline from northern Sakhalin supplies the petroleum-refining industry in the city of Khabarovsk. In the Amur basin, there is also some cultivation of wheat and soybeans. The administrative centre, Khabarovsk, is at the junction of the Amur River and the Trans-Siberian Railway.
The region's own mineral resources are underdeveloped. The region hosts large Gold mining operations (Highland Gold, Polus Gold), a major but low-grade Copper deposit being explored by IG Integro Group and a world-class tin district which was a major contributor to the Soviet Industrial complex and is currently being revitalised by Far Eastern Tin (Festivalnoye mine) and by Sable Tin Resources which is developing the Sable Tin Deposit (Sobolinoye) large high grade deposit, 25 km from Solnechny town.
Population: 1,343,869 (2010 Census); 1,436,570 (2002 Census); 1,824,506 (1989 Census).
According to the 2010 Census,91.8% of the population are Russians, 2.1% Ukrainians, 0.8% Nanais, 0.6% Tatars, 0.6% Koreans, and 0.4% Belarusians. 55,038 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.
In addition to the Nanai, other indigenous groups include the Evenks and Evens in the northern part of the province, and Ulchs in the lower Amur river (Ulchsky District). Some Nivkhs (Gilyak), an indigenous fishing people speaking an isolate language, live around the Amur river delta as well. Smaller groups indigenous to the area are Negidals (567), Orochs (686), and Udege (1,657) and Taz people (3) according to the 2002 census.
The birth rate for 2008 is 5.2% higher than that in 2007, and the death rate is 1.4% lower. Birth rate was recorded at 11.6 for 2007 (11.1 for Urban areas and 13.8 for Rural areas) per 1000 people. The death rate was 14.2 in 2007 (14.3 for Urban areas and 14.0 for Rural areas). Rural locations of Khabarovsk Krai had a positive natural growth of population in 2008 (for the first time in the last 16 years).
Largest cities or towns in Khabarovsk Krai
2010 Russian Census
|1||Khabarovsk||Khabarovsky District||577,441|| |
|5||Sovetskaya Gavan||Sovetsko-Gavansky District||27,712|
Total fertility rate:
2009 – 1.59 | 2010 – 1.56 | 2011 – 1.57 | 2012 – 1.70 | 2013 – 1.74 | 2014 – 1.79 | 2015 – 1.85 | 2016 – 1.79(e)
According to a 2012 survey,26.2% of the population of Khabarovsk Krai adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 4% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% adheres to other Orthodox churches or is a believer in Orthodox Christianity who does not belong to any church, 1% is an adherent of Islam. In addition, 28% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 23% is atheist, and 16.8% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.
There are the following institutions of higher education in Khabarovsk Krai.
The city was a host to the 1981 Bandy World Championship as well as to the 2015 Bandy World Championship. For the 2015 games, twenty-one teams originally were expected, which would have been four more than the record-making seventeen from the 2014 tournament, but eventually only sixteen teams came. The A Division of 2018 Bandy World Championship will again be played in Khabarovsk.
Khabarovsk is the largest city and the administrative center of Khabarovsk Krai, Russia, located 30 kilometers (19 mi) from the Chinese border, at the confluence of the Amur and Ussuri Rivers, about 800 kilometers (500 mi) north of Vladivostok. The city was the administrative center of the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia from 2002 until December 2018, when Vladivostok took over that role. It is the largest city in the Russian Far East, having overtaken Vladivostok in 2015. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 577,441. It was previously known as Khabarovka. As typical of the interior of the Russian Far East, Khabarovsk has an extreme climate with very strong seasonal swings resulting in strong winter cold and relatively hot and humid summers.
Amur Oblast is a federal subject of Russia, located on the banks of the Amur and Zeya Rivers in the Russian Far East. The administrative center of the oblast, the city of Blagoveshchensk, is one of the oldest settlements in the Russian Far East, founded in 1856. It is a traditional center of trade and gold mining. The territory is accessed by two railways: the Trans-Siberian Railway and the Baikal–Amur Mainline. As of the 2010 Census, the oblast's population was 830,103.
Okha is a town and the administrative center of Okhinsky District of Sakhalin Oblast, Russia, located on the east coast of the far north of Sakhalin island, approximately 850 kilometers (530 mi) north of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, near the shoreline of the Sea of Okhotsk. Population: 23,008 (2010 Census); 27,963 (2002 Census); 36,104 (1989 Census).
Sakhalin Oblast is a federal subject of Russia comprising the island of Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands in the Russian Far East. The oblast has an area of 87,100 square kilometers (33,600 sq mi). Its administrative center and largest city is Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. As of the 2010 Census, the oblast has a population of 497,973. Besides people from other parts of the former Soviet Union and the Korean Peninsula, the oblast is home to Nivkhs and Ainu, with the latter having lost their language in Sakhalin recently. Sakhalin is rich in natural gas and oil, and is Russia's fourth wealthiest federal subject and wealthiest oblast. It borders Khabarovsk Krai to the west and Kamchatka Krai to the north, along with Hokkaido, Japan to the south.
Komsomolsk-on-Amur is a city in Khabarovsk Krai, Russia, located on the west bank of the Amur River in the Russian Far East. It is located on the Baikal-Amur Mainline, 356 kilometers (221 mi) northeast of Khabarovsk. As of 2010, it had a population of 263,906 (2010 Census); 281,035 (2002 Census); 315,325 (1989 Census).
Nikolayevsk-on-Amur is a town in Khabarovsk Krai, Russia located on the Amur River close to its liman in the Pacific Ocean. Population: 22,752 (2010 Census); 28,492 (2002 Census); 36,296 (1989 Census).
Sovetskaya Gavan is a town in Khabarovsk Krai, Russia, and a port on the Strait of Tartary which connects the Sea of Okhotsk in the north with the Sea of Japan in the south. Population: 27,712 (2010 Census); 30,480 (2002 Census); 34,915 (1989 Census).
Yuzhno-Kurilsky District is an administrative district (raion) of Sakhalin Oblast, Russia; one of the seventeen in the oblast. Municipally, it is incorporated as Yuzhno-Kurilsky Urban Okrug. It is located on the southern Kuril Islands southeast of the Island of Sakhalin, comprising the islands of Kunashir, Shikotan, and the Habomai. The area of the district is 1,856.1 square kilometers (716.6 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Yuzhno-Kurilsk, located on the Kunashir Island. Population: 9,501 (2010 Census); 9,727 (2002 Census); 13,597 (1989 Census). The population of Yuzhno-Kurilsk accounts for 61.4% of the district's total population.
Kamchatka Krai is a federal subject of Russia. It is geographically located in the Far East region of the country, and it is administratively part of the Far Eastern Federal District. Kamchatka Krai has a population of 322,079 (2010).
Amursk is a town in Khabarovsk Krai, Russia, located on the left bank of the Amur River 45 kilometers (28 mi) south of Komsomolsk-on-Amur. Population: 42,970 (2010 Census); 47,759 (2002 Census); 58,395 (1989 Census).
Lesozavodsk is a town in Primorsky Krai, Russia, located on the Ussuri River, 10 kilometers (6.2 mi) from the Sino–Russian border and about 300 kilometers (190 mi) north of Vladivostok, the administrative center of the krai. Population: 37,034 (2010 Census); 42,185 (2002 Census); 44,065 (1989 Census); 37,000 (1972).
Makarov is a coastal town and the administrative center of Makarovsky District of Sakhalin Oblast, Russia, located on the eastern coast of the Sakhalin Island, 235 kilometers (146 mi) north of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. Population: 6,705 (2010 Census); 7,271 (2002 Census); 11,351 (1989 Census).
Tomari is a coastal town and the administrative center of Tomarinsky District in Sakhalin Oblast, Russia, located on the western coast of the Sakhalin Island, 167 kilometers (104 mi) northwest of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, the administrative center of the oblast. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 4,541.
Zabaykalsky Krai is a federal subject of Russia that was created on March 1, 2008 as a result of a merger of Chita Oblast and Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug, after a referendum held on the issue on March 11, 2007. Formerly part of the Siberian Federal District, the Krai is now part of the Russian Far East as of November 2018 in accordance with a decree issued by Russian President Vladimir Putin. The administrative center of the krai is located in the city of Chita. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 1,107,107.
Fevralsk is an urban locality in Selemdzhinsky District of Amur Oblast, Russia, located between the Selemdzha River and its tributary the Byssa, about 340 kilometers (210 mi) northeast of Blagoveshchensk, the oblast's administrative center, and 204 kilometers (127 mi) southwest of Ekimchan, the administrative center of the district. Population: 5,128 (2010 Census); 4,690 (2002 Census); 8,816 (1989 Census).
Novy Urgal is an urban locality in Verkhnebureinsky District of Khabarovsk Krai, Russia, located in the valley of the Bureya River, close to its confluence with the Urgal River, about 340 kilometers (210 mi) northwest of the krai's administrative center of Khabarovsk and 28 kilometers (17 mi) west of the district's administrative center of Chegdomyn. Population: 6,803 (2010 Census); 7,274 (2002 Census); 9,126 (1989 Census).
Komsomolsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the seventeen in Khabarovsk Krai, Russia. It is located in the southern central part of the krai. The area of the district is 25,167 square kilometers (9,717 sq mi). Its administrative center is the city of Komsomolsk-on-Amur. Population: 29,072 (2010 Census); 31,563 (2002 Census); 33,649 (1989 Census).
Nikolayevsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the seventeen in Khabarovsk Krai, Russia. It is located in the east of the krai. The area of the district is 17,188 square kilometers (6,636 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Nikolayevsk-on-Amur. Population: 9,942 (2010 Census); 13,850 (2002 Census); 19,683 (1989 Census).
Smidovichsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the five in the Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Russia. It is located in the east of the autonomous oblast and borders Khabarovsk Krai in the north and east, China in the south, and Birobidzhansky District in the west. The area of the district is 5,900 square kilometers (2,300 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Smidovich. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 28,165, with the population of Smidovich accounting for 18.2% of that number.
Selikhino is a rural locality in Komsomolsky District of Khabarovsk Krai, Russia. Population: 4,255 (2010 Census); 4,865 (2002 Census).
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