Khabash

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Khabash, also Khababash or Khabbash, resided at Sais in the fifth nome of Lower Egypt in the fourth century BCE. During the second Persian occupation of Egypt (343–332 BCE) he led a revolt against the Persian rule in concert with his eldest son, from ca. 338 to 335 BCE, a few years before the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great. [5] It is said that Nectanebo II, the exiled last native ruler of Egypt, may have helped in these events, but was possibly sidelined for good as a result of the failure of the revolt.[ citation needed ]

Lower Egypt northernmost region of Egypt

Lower Egypt is the northernmost region of Egypt: the fertile Nile Delta, between Upper Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea — from El Aiyat, south of modern-day Cairo, and Dahshur. Historically, the Nile River split into seven branches of the delta in Lower Egypt. Lower Egypt was divided into nomes and began to advance as a civilization after 3600 BC. Today, it contains two channels major that flow through the delta of the Nile River.

Thirty-first Dynasty of Egypt

The Thirty-first Dynasty of Egypt, also known as the Second Egyptian Satrapy, was effectively a short-lived province (satrapy) of the Achaemenid Persian Empire between 343 BC to 332 BC. It was founded by Artaxerxes III, the King of Persia, after his reconquest of Egypt and subsequent crowning as Pharaoh of Egypt, and was disestablished upon the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great.

Alexander the Great King of Macedon

Alexander III of Macedon, commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty. He was born in Pella in 356 BC and succeeded his father Philip II to the throne at the age of 20. He spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through Asia and northeast Africa, and by the age of thirty he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from Greece to northwestern India. He was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of history's most successful military commanders.

Little is known about Khabash. He is referred to as "Lord of both lands", [6] i.e. King of Upper and Lower Egypt, and as "Son of Ra", another pharaonic title, and given the throne name of Senen-setep-en-Ptah in a decree by Ptolemy Lagides, [7] who became King Ptolemy I Soter in 305 BCE.

Prenomen (Ancient Egypt)

The prenomen, cartouche name or throne name of ancient Egypt was one of the five royal names of pharaohs. The first pharaoh to have a Sedge and Bee name was Den during the First Dynasty.

Nomen (Ancient Egypt)

The nomen of Ancient Egyptian pharaohs was one of the "Great five names". It was introduced by king Djedefre, third pharaoh of the 4th Dynasty, as an emendation to the traditional nswt-bity crest. The nomen was later separated from the prenomen to become an independent royal name.

Ptolemy I Soter Macedonian general

Ptolemy I Soter was a companion and historian of Alexander the Great of the Kingdom of Macedon in northern Greece who became ruler of Egypt, part of Alexander's former empire. Ptolemy was pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt from 305/304 to 282 BC. He was the founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty which ruled Egypt until the death of Cleopatra in 30 BC, turning the country into a Hellenistic kingdom and Alexandria into a center of Greek culture.

Sometime in the 330s BCE, an Egyptian ruler called Kambasuten – who is widely recognized as Khabash – led an invasion into the kingdom of Kush which was defeated by king Nastasen as recorded in a stela now in the Berlin museum. An Apis bull sarcophagus bearing his name was found at Saqqara [8] and dated to his regnal Year 2. [9]

This article concerns the period 339 BC – 330 BC.

Kingdom of Kush ancient African kingdom

The Kingdom of Kush or Kush was an ancient kingdom in Nubia, located at the Sudanese and southern Egyptian Nile Valley.

Nastasen Nubian king

Nastasen was a king of the African civilisation of Kush. According to a stela from Dongola his mother was named Queen Pelkha and his father may have been King Harsiotef. His successor was Aryamani.

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References

  1. Henri Gauthier, Le Livre des rois d'Égypte, IV, (=MIFAO 20), Cairo, 1916, p. 139 (here misinterpreted as Cambyses II).
  2. Henri Gauthier, Le Livre des rois d'Égypte, IV, (=MIFAO 20), Cairo, 1916, p. 139 (here misinterpreted as Cambyses II).
  3. Placed in this dynasty only for chronological reasons, as he was not related to the Achaemenids.
  4. Henri Gauthier, op. cit., p. 196.
  5. Phiroze Vasunia, The Gift of the Nile: Hellenizing Egypt from Aeschylus to Alexander, University of California Press 2001, p.266
  6. Records of the Past Being English Translations of the Assyrian and Egyptian Monuments, Adamant Media Corporation 2001, p.73
  7. The decree of Ptolemy Lagides
  8. Karl Baedeker, Egypt, Adamant Media Corporation 2000. p.130
  9. Samuel Birch, Ancient history from the monuments. Egypt from the earliest times to B.C. 300, Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge 1883, p.189