Khakassia

Last updated
Republic of Khakassia
Республика Хакасия
Other transcription(s)
  KhakasХакас Республиказы
Coat of arms of Khakassia.svg
Coat of arms
Anthem: Xakas gįmn
(State Anthem of the Republic of Khakassia)
[1]
Map of Russia - Khakassia.svg
Coordinates: 53°30′N90°00′E / 53.500°N 90.000°E / 53.500; 90.000 Coordinates: 53°30′N90°00′E / 53.500°N 90.000°E / 53.500; 90.000
CountryRussia
Federal district Siberian [2]
Economic region East Siberian [3]
Established3 July 1991 [4]
Capital Abakan
Government
  Body Supreme Council [5]
   Head [6] Valentin Konovalov [7]
Area
[8]
  Total61,900 km2 (23,900 sq mi)
Area rank 46th
Population
  Rank 70th
   Rural
32.7%
Time zone UTC+7 (MSK+4   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg [9] )
ISO 3166 code RU-KK
License plates 19
OKTMO ID95000000
Official languagesRussian; [10]   Khakas [11]
Website www.r-19.ru

Khakassia (Russian : Хака́сия; Khakas: Хака́сия), officially the Republic of Khakassia (Russian:Респу́блика Хака́сия, tr. Respúblika Khakásiya, pronounced  [rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə xɐˈkasʲɪjə] ; Khakas: Хака́с Респу́бликазы, tr. Khakás Respúblikazy), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia. Its capital city is Abakan, which is also the largest city in the republic. As of the 2010 Census, the republic's population was 532,403. [12]

Contents

Geography

The republic is located in the southwestern part of Eastern Siberia and borders Krasnoyarsk Krai in the north and east, the Tuva Republic in the southeast and south, the Altai Republic in the south and southwest, and Kemerovo Oblast in the west and northwest. It stretches for 460 kilometers (290 mi) from north to south and for 200 kilometers (120 mi) from east to west. Mountains (eastern slopes of Kuznetsk Alatau and the Abakan Range) cover two-thirds of the republic's territory and serve as the natural boundaries of the republic. The remaining territory is flat, with the Minusinsk Hollow being the most prominent feature. The Yenisei is the largest river in the republic. Other significant rivers include the Abakan, Tom’, White Iyus, Black Iyus, and the Chulym (between the Yenisei and the eastern mountains), with the last four part of the Ob basin. There are over three hundred lakes in the republic, both salt- and fresh-water. Climate is continental, with the average annual temperature of 0 °C (32 °F). Natural resources are abundant and include iron, gold, silver, coal, oil, and natural gas. Molybdenum deposits are the largest in Russia. Forests cover the south and the west of the republic.

History

Ancient burial ground in the steppe Kurgan, Khakassia.jpg
Ancient burial ground in the steppe

The territory of modern Khakassia was the core of the old Yenisei Kirghiz state from the 6th century CE. In the 13th century, following a defeat by the Mongols, the majority of the Kyrgyz people migrated southwest to Central Asia to what now is Kyrgyzstan. Modern Khakas people regard themselves as the descendants of those Kyrgyz who remained in Siberia. Khakassia was incorporated into the Russian state under Peter the Great. This incorporation was confirmed in a treaty between Russia and China in 1729. As it was common to deport convicted criminals from European Russia to Siberia, forts were quickly constructed in Khakassia (1707 and 1718). Many prisoners remained even after release. Many of the indigenous Khakas people converted to the Russian Orthodox faith and gradually abandoned their nomadic way of life.

By the time of the 1917 Russian Revolution, Russians made up approximately half of the population. Under Soviet rule, autonomy was granted on 20 October 1930, when Khakas Autonomous Oblast was established. The borders of the autonomy are the same as the borders of the modern Khakas Republic.

During the 1920s and 1930s, the Soviet authorities resettled an estimated quarter of a million Russians in the region. These were followed by 10,000 Volga Germans deported in World War II. By the time of the 1959 Census, ethnic Khakas people represented little more than 10% of the population.

Until 1991, Khakas Autonomous Oblast was administratively subordinated to Krasnoyarsk Krai. In July 1991, it was elevated in status to that of a Soviet socialist republic within the Russian Federation, and in February 1992 it became the Republic of Khakassia.

Administrative divisions

Map of the Republic of Khakassia Khakassia republic map.png
Map of the Republic of Khakassia

Demographics

Population: 532,403(2010 Census); [12] 546,072(2002 Census); [13] 568,605(1989 Census). [14]

Khakas people Khakasskaia narodnaia odezhda- Annenkoan.jpg
Khakas people

Vital statistics

Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service
Average population (x 1000)Live birthsDeathsNatural changeCrude birth rate (per 1000)Crude death rate (per 1000)Natural change (per 1000)Fertility rates
19704487,3473,7493,59816.48.48.0
19754769,1064,4854,62119.19.49.7
19805089,9945,3454,64919.710.59.2
198554110,3825,5464,83619.210.38.9
19905728,7246,0602,66415.310.64.72,27
19915738,1146,1951,91914.210.83.32,14
19925746,9176,8437412.011.90.11,81
19935746,1528,387- 2,23510.714.6- 3.91,58
19945726,2199,426- 3,20710.916.5- 5.61,57
19955715,8078,186- 2,37910.214.3- 4.21,44
19965695,7278,093- 2,36610.114.2- 4.21,40
19975665,3097,766- 2,4579.413.7- 4.31,28
19985635,6027,821- 2,21910.013.9- 3.91,34
19995595,3128,304- 2,9929.514.8- 5.31,25
20005565,6348,104- 2,47010.114.6- 4.41,32
20015525,5768,561- 2,98510.115.5- 5.41,28
20025476,1189,280- 3,16211.217.0- 5.81,39
20035426,4179,660- 3,24311.817.8- 6.01,44
20045396,4538,763- 2,31012.016.3- 4.31,43
20055366,1989,411- 3,21311.617.6- 6.01,35
20065336,4657,927- 1,46212.114.9- 2.71,40
20075317,3847,3246013.913.80.11,60
20085317,9357,42750814.914.01.01,72
20095318,0627,25580715.213.71.51,81
20105328,0107,37363715.013.81.21,80
20115328,0137,15485915.113.41.71,83
20125338,5347,1371,39716.013.42.62,00
20135348,3626,9871,37515.713.12.62,01
20145358,1456,9991,14615.213.12.12,01
20155367,9117,21669514.813.51.31,99
20165377,5926,86972314.112.81.31,97
20175376,6626,752-9012.412.5-0.11,78

In 2007, the republic recorded a positive natural increase of population for the first time in many years (Although very small, less than +0.01% per year), being one of the 20 Russian regions to have a positive natural population growth rate. [15] [16] [17]

Ethnic groups

According to the 2010 Russian Census, [12] ethnic Russians make up 81.7% of the republic's population, while the ethnic Khakas are only 12.1%. Other groups include ethnic Germans (1.1%), Ukrainians (1%), Tatars (0.6%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population.

Ethnic
group
1926 census1939 census1959 census1970 census1979 census1989 census2002 census2010 census1
Number %Number %Number %Number %Number %Number %Number %Number %
Khakas 44,21949.8%45,79916.8%48,51211.8%54,75012.3%57,28111.5%62,85911.1%65,42112.0%63,64312.1%
Russians 41,39046.6%205,25475.3%314,45576.5%349,36278.4%395,95379.4%450,43079.5%438,39580.3%427,64781.7%
Germans 460.1%3330.1%10,5122.6%10,5472.4%11,1302.2%11,2502.0%9,1611.7%5,9761.1%
Ukrainians 8360.9%7,7882.9%14,6303.6%9,4802.1%10,3982.1%13,2232.3%8,3601.5%5,0391.0%
Others2,3812.7%13,5565.0%22,9385.6%21,6854.9%23,6224.7%29,0995.4%24,7354.5%21,4094.1%
18,689 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group. [18]

Religion

Religion in Khakassia as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas) [19] [20]
Russian Orthodoxy
31.6%
Other Orthodox
1.4%
Protestantism
0.8%
Other Christians
6%
Islam
0.6%
Rodnovery and other native faiths
2%
Spiritual but not religious
37.6%
Atheism and irreligion
15.8%
Other and undeclared
4.2%

According to a 2012 survey, [19] 31.6% of the population of Khakassia adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 6% are unaffiliated Christians, 1% are Orthodox Christian believers without belonging to any church or are members of other (non-Russian) Orthodox churches. 2% of the population adheres to Slavic native faith (Rodnovery) or Khakas Tengrism and folk religion, 1% to Islam, 1% to forms of Protestantism, 0.4% to forms of Hinduism (Vedism, Krishnaism or Tantrism) and another 0.4% to Tibetan Buddhism. In addition, 38% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 16% is atheist, and 2.6% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question. [19]

Economy

The main industries in the republic are coal mining, ore mining, and timber.

Transport

The road network is most developed around the major cities of the centre, west and southwest. Federal highway R-257 runs through Khakassia. Other major highways include the regional highway A161 south from R-257 in Abakan along the Abakan valley to Abaza and across the mountains to Ak-Dovurak (Tuva). The most developed sections of roads are Abakan - Sayanogorsk, Abakan - Beya, Abakan - Abaza, Abakan - Sorsk, Bograd - Shira - Kopyevo, and Kopyevo - Priiskovy. Roads to other smaller settlements are mainly dirt roads, although they are currently being replaced with hard surface.

663 km of railways, electrified from Abakan to Kaltas. Other non-electrified sections are Tigey - Kopievo, Askiz - Abaza, Biskamzha - Toya.

The section of the Tigey-Kopyёvo railway and further to Uzhur, Achinsk connects two railway arteries: the Trans-Siberian Railway and Yuzhsib (South-Siberian: Taishet - Abakan - Novokuznetsk - Artyshta - Barnaul - Kulunda - Pavlodar - Astana - Tobol - Kartaly - Magnitogorsk). In addition to Abakan, the central station is Biskamzha. The city of Sayanogorsk is connected to the railway network through the station Kamyshta.

Airports: Abakan International Airport has regular flights to Moscow, Norilsk, Novosibirsk, Tomsk and Krasnoyarsk.

Sports

Sayany-Khakassia [21] has been playing in the highest division of Russian bandy, the Russian Bandy Super League, for a long time, but was relegated after the 2012–13 season. Now they play in the 2nd highest division.

Views of Khakassia

See also

Related Research Articles

Abakan City in Khakassia, Russia

Abakan is the capital city of the Republic of Khakassia, Russia, located in the central part of Minusinsk Depression, at the confluence of the Yenisei and Abakan Rivers. As of the 2010 Census, it had a population of 165,214—a slight increase over 165,197 recorded during the 2002 Census and a further increase from 154,092 recorded during the 1989 Census.

Sayanogorsk Town in Khakassia, Russia

Sayanogorsk is a town in the Republic of Khakassia, Russia, located on the left bank of the Yenisei River, 80 kilometers (50 mi) south of Abakan, the capital of the republic. Population: 49,887 (2010 Census); 50,255 (2002 Census); 50,188 (1989 Census).

Chernogorsk Town in Khakassia, Russia

Chernogorsk is a town in the Republic of Khakassia, Russia. Population: 72,147 (2010 Census); 73,077 (2002 Census); 79,355 (1989 Census).

Sorsk Town in Khakassia, Russia

Sorsk is a town in the Republic of Khakassia, Russia, located 145 kilometers (90 mi) northwest of Abakan. Population: 12,143 (2010 Census); 13,313 (2002 Census); 15,130 (1989 Census).

Abaza (town) Town in Khakassia, Russia

Abaza is a town in the Republic of Khakassia, Russia, located on the Abakan River 144 kilometers (89 mi) south of Abakan. Population: 17,115 (2010 Census); 18,052 (2002 Census); 17,630 (1989 Census).

Askizsky District District in Republic of Khakassia, Russia

Askizsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the eight in the Republic of Khakassia, Russia. It is located in the central and western parts of the republic. The area of the district is 7,536 square kilometers (2,910 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Askiz. Population: 40,912 (2010 Census); 43,601 (2002 Census); 49,793 (1989 Census). The population of the administrative center accounts for 17.8% of the district's total population.

Beysky District District in Republic of Khakassia, Russia

Beysky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the eight in the Republic of Khakassia, Russia. It is located in the east of the republic. The area of the district is 4,536 square kilometers (1,751 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Beya. Population: 19,305 (2010 Census); 21,100 (2002 Census); 21,418 (1989 Census). The population of Beya accounts for 27.2% of the district's total population. Beysky district is 18,71% Khakass (2010)

Bogradsky District District in Republic of Khakassia, Russia

Bogradsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the eight in the Republic of Khakassia, Russia. It is located in the northeast of the republic. The area of the district is 4,524 square kilometers (1,747 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Bograd. Population: 15,869 (2010 Census); 16,286 (2002 Census); 19,801 (1989 Census). The population of Bograd accounts for 29.4% of the district's total population.

Ordzhonikidzevsky District, Republic of Khakassia District in Republic of Khakassia, Russia

Ordzhonikidzevsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the eight in the Republic of Khakassia, Russia. It is located in the north of the republic. The area of the district is 6,620 square kilometers (2,560 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Kopyovo. Population: 12,841 (2010 Census); 15,779 (2002 Census); 19,414 (1989 Census). The population of the administrative center accounts for 34.3% of the district's total population.

Shirinsky District District in Republic of Khakassia, Russia

Shirinsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the eight in the Republic of Khakassia, Russia. It is located in the north of the republic. The area of the district is 6,880 square kilometers (2,660 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Shira. Population: 29,371 (2010 Census); 31,720 (2002 Census); 39,385 (1989 Census). The population of Shira accounts for 32.2% of the district's total population.

Tashtypsky District District in Republic of Khakassia, Russia

Tashtypsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the eight in the Republic of Khakassia, Russia. It is located in the south of the republic. The area of the district is 20,290 square kilometers (7,830 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Tashtyp. Population: 16,582 (2010 Census); 34,686 (2002 Census); 36,240 (1989 Census). The population of Tashtyp accounts for 38.7% of the district's total population.

Ust-Abakansky District District in Republic of Khakassia, Russia

Ust-Abakansky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the eight in the Republic of Khakassia, Russia. It is located in the center of the republic. The area of the district is 8,880 square kilometers (3,430 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Ust-Abakan. Population: 39,397 (2010 Census); 52,694 (2002 Census); 56,733 (1989 Census). The population of Ust-Abakan accounts for 37.0% of the district's total population.

Askiz (urban-type settlement) Urban-type settlement in Khakassia, Russia

Askiz is an urban-type settlement in Askizsky District of the Republic of Khakassia, Russia. Population: 5,208 (2010 Census); 7,030 (2002 Census); 4,572 (1989 Census).

Askiz (rural locality) Selo in Khakassia, Russia

Askiz is a rural locality and the administrative center of Askizsky District of the Republic of Khakassia, Russia. Population: 7,267 (2010 Census); 7,030 (2002 Census); 6,703 (1989 Census).

Bely Yar, Republic of Khakassia Rural locality and the administrative center of Altaysky District of the Republic of Khakassia, Russia

Bely Yar is a rural locality and the administrative center of Altaysky District of the Republic of Khakassia, Russia. Population: 10,014 (2010 Census); 9,083 (2002 Census); 7,721 (1989 Census).

Prigorsk Work settlement in Khakassia, Russia

Prigorsk is an urban locality under the administrative jurisdiction of the town of republican significance of Chernogorsk of the Republic of Khakassia, Russia. Population: 2,626 (2010 Census); 3,351 (2002 Census); 1,767 (1989 Census).

Biskamzha Urban-type settlement in Khakassia, Russia

Biskamzha is an urban-type settlement in Askizsky District of the Republic of Khakassia, Russia. Population: 1,267 (2010 Census); 1,990 (2002 Census); 1,876 (1989 Census)..

Vershina Tyoi Urban-type settlement in Khakassia, Russia

Vershina Tyoi is an urban-type settlement in Askizsky District of the Republic of Khakassia, Russia. Population: 3,756 (2010 Census); 4,482 (2002 Census); 5,565 (1989 Census).

Ust-Abakan Urban-type settlement in Khakassia, Russia

Ust-Abakan is an urban-type settlement and the administrative center of Ust-Abakansky District of the Republic of Khakassia, Russia. Population: 14,578 (2010 Census); 14,913 (2002 Census); 15,831 (1989 Census).

Tashtyp is a rural locality and the administrative center of Tashtypsky District of the Republic of Khakassia, Russia. Population: 6,423 (2010 Census); 6,473 (2002 Census); 7,536 (1989 Census).

References

Notes

  1. Law #06-ZRKh
  2. Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", No. 20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  3. Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  4. Law #1539-I
  5. Constitution of the Republic of Khakassia, Article 72
  6. Constitution of the Republic of Khakassia, Article 88
  7. Official website of the Republic of Khakassia. Viktor Mikhaylovich Zimin Archived November 25, 2014, at the Wayback Machine , Head of the Republic of Khakassia (in Russian)
  8. Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (May 21, 2004). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved November 1, 2011.
  9. "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  10. Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  11. Constitution of the Republic of Khakassia, Article 69
  12. 1 2 3 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  13. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000](XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  14. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 via Demoscope Weekly.
  15. Постоянное население России на начало 2008 года - 142 миллиона человек. Demoscope.ru. Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  16. В 2007 году естественная убыль снизилась до 478 тысяч человек, а миграционный прирост увеличился до 240 тысяч. Demoscope.ru. Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  17. Каталог публикаций::Федеральная служба государственной статистики. Gks.ru (2010-05-08). Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  18. Перепись-2010: русских становится больше. Perepis-2010.ru (2011-12-19). Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  19. 1 2 3 "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia". Sreda, 2012.
  20. 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived.
  21. Official home page

Sources