Khalid al-Mihdhar

Last updated
Khalid al-Mihdhar
Khalid al-mihdhar 2.jpg
Native name
خالد المحضار
Born
Khalid Muhammad Abdallah al-Mihdhar

(1975-05-16)May 16, 1975
DiedSeptember 11, 2001(2001-09-11) (aged 26)
Known for September 11 attacks
Spouse(s)Hoda al-Hada
Children2 daughters
Relatives Ahmed al-Darbi (brother-in-law)

Khalid Muhammad Abdallah al-Mihdhar (Arabic : خالد المحضار, Khālid al-Miḥḍār; also transliterated as Almihdhar) (May 16, 1975 [lower-alpha 1] – September 11, 2001) was a Saudi Arabian terrorist. He was one of the five hijackers of American Airlines Flight 77, which was flown into the Pentagon as part of the September 11 attacks.

Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters in predictable ways.

Saudi Arabia Country in Western Asia

Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,, is a country in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula. With a land area of approximately 2,150,000 km2 (830,000 sq mi), Saudi Arabia is geographically the largest sovereign state in the Middle East, the second-largest in the Arab world, the fifth-largest in Asia, and the 12th-largest in the world. Saudi Arabia is bordered by Jordan and Iraq to the north, Kuwait to the northeast, Qatar, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates to the east, Oman to the southeast and Yemen to the south; it is separated from Israel and Egypt by the Gulf of Aqaba. It is the only nation with both a Red Sea coast and a Persian Gulf coast, and most of its terrain consists of arid desert, lowland and mountains. As of October 2018, the Saudi economy was the largest in the Middle East and the 18th largest in the world. Saudi Arabia also enjoys one of the world's youngest populations; 50 percent of its 33.4 million people are under 25 years old.

American Airlines Flight 77 9/11 hijacked passenger flight, hit the Pentagon

American Airlines Flight 77 was a scheduled American Airlines domestic transcontinental passenger flight from Washington Dulles International Airport in Dulles, Virginia, to Los Angeles International Airport in Los Angeles, California. The Boeing 757-223 aircraft serving the flight was hijacked by five men affiliated with al-Qaeda on September 11, 2001, as part of the September 11 attacks. They deliberately crashed the plane into the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia, near Washington, D.C., killing all 64 people on board, including the five hijackers and six crew, as well as 125 people in the building.

Contents

Mihdhar was born in Saudi Arabia and fought with the Bosnian mujahideen during the Bosnian War of the 1990s. In early 1999, he traveled to Afghanistan where, as an experienced and respected jihadist, he was selected by Osama bin Laden to participate in the attacks. Mihdhar arrived in California with fellow hijacker Nawaf al-Hazmi in January 2000, after traveling to Malaysia for the Kuala Lumpur al-Qaeda Summit. At this point, the CIA was aware of Mihdhar, and he was photographed in Malaysia with another al-Qaeda member who was involved in the USS Cole bombing. The CIA did not inform the FBI when it learned that Mihdhar and Hazmi had entered the United States, and Mihdhar was not placed on any watchlists until late August 2001.

Bosnian mujahideen, also called El Mudžahid, were foreign Muslim volunteers who fought on the Bosniak side during the 1992–95 Bosnian War. These first arrived in central Bosnia in the second half of 1992 with the aim of fighting for Islam, helping their Bosnian Muslim co-religionists to defend themselves from the Serb and Croat forces. Mostly they came from North Africa, the Near East and the Middle East. Estimates of their numbers vary from 500–5,000.

Bosnian War international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995

The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995. Following a number of violent incidents in early 1992, the war is commonly viewed as having started on 6 April 1992. The war ended on 14 December 1995. The main belligerents were the forces of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and those of the self-proclaimed Bosnian Serb and Bosnian Croat entities within Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republika Srpska and Herzeg-Bosnia, which were led and supplied by Serbia and Croatia, respectively.

Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan 1990s state in Central Asia

The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan was a totalitarian Islamic state established in September 1996 when the Taliban began their rule of Afghanistan after the fall of Kabul. At its peak, the Taliban established control over approximately 90% of the country, whereas remaining parts of the country in the northeast were held by the Northern Alliance, who maintained broad international recognition as a continuation of the Islamic State of Afghanistan. After 9/11, international opposition to the regime drastically increased, with diplomatic recognition from the United Arab Emirates, and Pakistan being rescinded. The Islamic Emirate ceased to exist on December 17, 2001, after being overthrown by the Northern Alliance, which had been bolstered by a US-led invasion of the country.

Upon arriving in San Diego County, California, Mihdhar and Hazmi were to train as pilots, but spoke English poorly and did not do well with flight lessons. In June 2000, Mihdhar left the United States for Yemen, leaving Hazmi behind in San Diego. Mihdhar spent some time in Afghanistan in early 2001 and returned to the United States in early July 2001. He stayed in New Jersey in July and August, before arriving in the Washington, D.C. area at the beginning of September.

San Diego County, California County in California, United States

San Diego County, officially the County of San Diego, is a county in the southwestern corner of the state of California, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,095,313. making it California's second-most populous county and the fifth-most populous in the United States. Its county seat is San Diego, the eighth-most populous city in the United States. It is the southwesternmost county in the 48 contiguous United States.

Flight training training of aircraft pilots and aircrew

Flight training is a course of study used when learning to pilot an aircraft. The overall purpose of primary and intermediate flight training is the acquisition and honing of basic airmanship skills.

Yemen Republic in Western Asia

Yemen , officially the Republic of Yemen, is a country at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. It is the second-largest Arab sovereign state in the peninsula, occupying 527,970 square kilometres. The coastline stretches for about 2,000 kilometres. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, the Gulf of Aden and Guardafui Channel to the south, and the Arabian Sea and Oman to the east. Yemen's territory encompasses more than 200 islands, including the largest island in the Middle East, Socotra. Yemen is a member of the Arab League, United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.

On the morning of September 11, 2001, Mihdhar boarded American Airlines Flight 77, which was hijacked approximately 30 minutes after take off. The plane was deliberately crashed into the Pentagon, killing all 64 people aboard the flight, along with 125 on the ground.

Background

Al-Mihdhar was born on May 16, 1975, in Mecca, Saudi Arabia to a prominent family, related to the Quraysh tribe of Mecca. [2] Little is known about his life before the age of 20, when he and childhood friend Nawaf al-Hazmi went to Bosnia and Herzegovina to fight with the mujahideen in the Bosnian War. [3] [4] After the war, Mihdhar and Hazmi went to Afghanistan where they fought alongside the Taliban against the Northern Alliance, [5] and al-Qaeda would later dub Hazmi his "second in command". [2] In 1997, Mihdhar told his family that he was leaving to fight in Chechnya, [6] though it is not certain that he actually went to Chechnya. [7] The same year, both men attracted the attention of Saudi Intelligence, who believed they were involved in arms smuggling, and the following year they were eyed as possible collaborators in the 1998 United States embassy bombings in East Africa after it emerged that Mohamed Rashed Daoud Al-Owhali had given the FBI the phone number of Mihdhar's father-in-law; 967-1-200578, which turned out to be a key communications hub for al-Qaeda militants, and eventually tipped off the Americans about the upcoming Kuala Lumpur al-Qaeda Summit. [8] [9]

Mecca Saudi Arabian city and capital of the Makkah province

Mecca, also spelled Makkah, is a city in the Hejazi region of Saudi Arabia. 70 km (43 mi) inland from Jeddah, in a narrow valley 277 m (909 ft) above sea level, 340 kilometres (210 mi) south of Medina, its population in 2012 was 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj, held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah.

Nawaf al-Hazmi 9/11 hijacker

Nawaf Muhammed Salim al-Hazmi was one of five hijackers of American Airlines Flight 77, which they crashed into the Pentagon as part of the September 11 attacks in the United States.

Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina former country

The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was the direct legal predecessor to the modern-day state of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

In the late 1990s, Mihdhar married Hoda al-Hada, who was the sister of a comrade from Yemen, and they had two daughters. [5] Through marriage, Mihdhar was related to a number of individuals involved with al-Qaeda in some way. Mihdhar's father-in-law, Ahmad Mohammad Ali al-Hada, helped facilitate al-Qaeda communications in Yemen, [10] [11] and in late 2001, Mihdhar's brother-in-law, Ahmed al-Darbi, was captured in Azerbaijan and sent to Guantanamo Bay on charges of supporting a plot to bomb ships in the Strait of Hormuz. [12] [13]

Al-Qaeda Salafi jihadist organization

Al-Qaeda is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988 by Osama bin Laden, Abdullah Azzam, and several other Arab volunteers during the Soviet–Afghan War.

Ahmad Mohammad Ali al-Hada is an al-Qaeda operative from Yemen whose family is described by US government officials as a "supercell" within the al-Qaeda network.

Ahmed Muhammed Haza al-Darbi is a citizen of Saudi Arabia who was held in the United States Guantanamo Bay detainment camps, in Cuba from August 2002 to May 2018; in May 2018, he was transferred to Saudi Arabia's custody. Al-Darbi was born on January 9, 1975, in Ta'if, Saudi Arabia. He was arrested in Azerbaijan in June 2002, renditioned by United States forces to Afghanistan, where he was held at Bagram Air Force Base, and then transferred to Guantanamo in August that year.

Selection for the attacks

In Spring 1999, al-Qaeda founder Osama bin Laden committed to support the 9/11 attacks plot, which was largely organized by prominent al-Qaeda member Khalid Sheikh Mohammed. Mihdhar and Hazmi were among the first group of participants selected for the operation, along with Tawfiq bin Attash and Abu Bara al Yemeni, al-Qaeda members from Yemen. Mihdhar, who had spent time in al-Qaeda camps in the 1990s, was known and highly regarded by Bin Laden. [7] Mihdhar was so eager to participate in jihad operations in the United States that he had already obtained a one-year B-1/B-2 (tourist/business) multiple-entry visa from the consulate in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, on April 7, 1999, one day after obtaining a new passport. [3] [14] Mihdhar listed the Los Angeles Sheraton as his intended destination. [15]

Osama bin Laden Co-founder of al-Qaeda

Osama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden, also rendered Usama bin Ladin, was a Saudi Arabian-born Yemeni terrorist who was the founder of the pan-Islamic militant organization al-Qaeda. He was a Saudi Arabian citizen until 1994, a member of the wealthy bin Laden family, and an ethnic Yemeni Kindite.

Khalid Sheikh Mohammed militant who was allegedly a member of Osama bin Ladens al-Qaeda

Khalid Sheikh Mohammed is a Pakistani Islamist militant held by the United States at the Guantanamo Bay detention camp under terrorism-related charges. He was named as "the principal architect of the 9/11 attacks" in the 9/11 Commission Report.

According to the 9-11 Commission Report, Abu Bara al Yemeni was a citizen of Yemen who was slated to participate in al Qaeda's attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001. Abu Bara al Yemeni did not end up participating in the 9-11 attacks because he was not able to get a visa to travel to the United States.

Once selected, Mihdhar and Hazmi were sent to the Mes Aynak training camp in Afghanistan. In late 1999, Hazmi, Attash and Yemeni went to Karachi, Pakistan to see Mohammed, who instructed them on Western culture and travel; however, Mihdhar did not go to Karachi, instead returning to Yemen. [3] He was known as Sinaan during the preparations. [2]

2000

Malaysia summit

Khalid al-Mihdhar KAlmihdhar.JPG
Khalid al-Mihdhar

The CIA was aware of Mihdhar and Hazmi's involvement with al-Qaeda, having been informed by Saudi intelligence during a 1999 meeting in Riyadh. Based on information uncovered by the FBI in the 1998 United States embassy bombings case, the National Security Agency (NSA) began tracking the communications of Hada, Mihdhar's father-in-law. In late 1999, the NSA informed the CIA of an upcoming meeting in Malaysia, which Hada mentioned would involve "Khalid", "Nawaf", and "Salem", who was Hazmi's younger brother, Salem al-Hazmi. [16]

On January 4, 2000, Mihdhar left Yemen and flew to Dubai, United Arab Emirates, where he spent the night. The CIA broke into his hotel room and photocopied his passport, which gave them his full name, birth information and passport number for the first time, and alerted them that he held an entry visa to the United States. [17] The photocopy was sent to the CIA's Alec Station, which was tracking al-Qaeda. [16]

On January 5, 2000, Mihdhar traveled to Kuala Lumpur, where he joined Hazmi, Attash and Yemeni, who were all arriving from Pakistan. Hamburg cell member Ramzi bin al-Shibh was also at the summit, and Mohammed possibly attended. [18] [19] The group was in Malaysia to meet with Hambali, the leader of Jemaah Islamiyah, an Asian al-Qaeda affiliate. During the Kuala Lumpur al-Qaeda Summit, many key details of the 9/11 attacks may have been arranged. At the time, the attacks plot had an additional component involving hijacking aircraft in Asia, as well as in the United States. Attash and Yemeni were slated for this part of the plot. However, it was later canceled by Bin Laden for being too difficult to coordinate with United States operations. [3]

In Malaysia, the group stayed with Yazid Sufaat, a local Jemaah Islamiyah member, who provided accommodation at Hambali's request. [3] Both Mihdhar and Hazmi were secretly photographed at the meeting by Malaysian authorities, whom the CIA had asked to provide surveillance. The Malaysians reported that Mihdhar spoke at length with Attash, and he met with Fahd al-Quso and others who were later involved in the USS Cole bombing. [16] [19] After the meeting, Mihdhar and Hazmi traveled to Bangkok, Thailand, on January 8 and left a week later on January 15 for the United States. [21]

United States entry

Parkwood Apartments complex, located in the Clairemont Mesa section of San Diego, where Mihdhar and Nawaf al-Hazmi lived from February until the end of May 2000 Parkwood apts.jpg
Parkwood Apartments complex, located in the Clairemont Mesa section of San Diego, where Mihdhar and Nawaf al-Hazmi lived from February until the end of May 2000

On January 15, 2000, Mihdhar and Hazmi arrived at Los Angeles International Airport from Bangkok and were admitted as tourists for a period of six months. [22] Immediately after entering the country, Mihdhar and Hazmi met Omar al-Bayoumi in an airport restaurant. Bayoumi claimed he was merely being charitable in assisting the two seemingly out-of-place Muslims with moving to San Diego, where he helped them find an apartment near his own, co-signed their lease, and gave them $1,500 to help pay their rent. [23] Mohammed later claimed that he suggested San Diego as their destination, based on information gleaned from a San Diego phone book that listed language and flight schools. Mohammed also recommended that the two seek assistance from the local Muslim community, since neither spoke English nor had experience with Western culture. [24]

While in San Diego, witnesses told the FBI he and Hazmi had a close relationship with Anwar Al Awlaki, an imam who served as their spiritual advisor. [25] Authorities say the two regularly attended the Masjid Ar-Ribat al-Islami mosque Awlaki led in San Diego, and Awlaki had many closed-door meetings with them, which led investigators to believe Awlaki knew about the 9/11 attacks in advance.

Anwar al-Awlaki Anwar al-Awlaki sitting on couch, lightened.jpg
Anwar al-Awlaki

In early February 2000, Mihdhar and Hazmi rented an apartment at the Parkwood Apartments complex in the Clairemont Mesa area of San Diego, and Mihdhar purchased a used 1988 Toyota Corolla. [26] Neighbors thought that Mihdhar and Hazmi were odd because months passed without the men getting any furniture, and they slept on mattresses on the floor, yet they carried briefcases, were frequently on their mobile phones, and were occasionally picked up by a limousine. [27] Those who met Mihdhar in San Diego described him as "dark and brooding, with a disdain for American culture". [28] Neighbors also said that the pair constantly played flight simulator games. [29]

Mihdhar and Hazmi took flight lessons on May 5, 2000, at the Sorbi Flying Club in San Diego, with Mihdhar flying an aircraft for 42 minutes. They took additional lessons on May 10; [30] however, with poor English skills, they did not do well with flight lessons. Mihdhar and Hazmi raised some suspicion when they offered extra money to their flight instructor, Richard Garza, if he would train them to fly jets. Garza refused the offer but did not report them to authorities. [27] After the 9/11 attacks, Garza described the two men as "impatient students" who "wanted to learn to fly jets, specifically Boeings". [31]

Return to Yemen

Mihdhar and Hazmi moved out of the Parkwood Apartments at the end of May 2000, and Mihdhar transferred registration for the Toyota Corolla to Hazmi. [32] On June 10, 2000, Mihdhar left the United States and returned to Yemen to visit his wife, against the wishes of Mohammed who wanted him to remain in the United States to help Hazmi adapt. [33] [34] Mohammed was so angered by this that he decided to remove Mihdhar from the 9/11 plot, but he was overruled by bin Laden. Mihdhar remained part of the plot as a muscle hijacker, who would help take over the aircraft. [35] On October 12, 2000, the USS Cole was bombed by a small boat laden with explosives. After the bombing, Yemeni Prime Minister Abdul Karim al-Iryani reported that Mihdhar had been one of the key planners of the attack and had been in the country at the time of the attacks. [36] In late 2000, Mihdhar was back in Saudi Arabia, staying with a cousin in Mecca. [35]

2001

In February 2001, Mihdhar returned to Afghanistan for several months, possibly entering across the Iranian border after a flight from Syria. [37] FBI director Robert Mueller later stated his belief that Mihdhar served as the coordinator and organizer for the muscle hijackers. He was the last of the muscle hijackers to return to the United States. [38] On June 10, he returned to Saudi Arabia for a month, where he applied to re-enter the United States through the Visa Express program, indicating that he intended to stay at a Marriott hotel in New York City. [37] On his visa application, Mihdhar falsely stated that he had never previously traveled to the United States. [39]

On July 4, Mihdhar returned to the United States, arriving at New York City's John F. Kennedy International Airport, [37] using a new passport obtained the previous month. [40] A digital copy of one of Mihdhar's passports was later recovered during a search of an al-Qaeda safe house in Afghanistan, which held indicators, such as fake or altered passport stamps, that Mihdhar was a member of a known terrorist group. [41] At the time when Mihdhar was admitted to the United States, immigration inspectors had not been trained to look for such indicators. Upon arriving, Mihdhar did not check into the Marriott but instead spent a night at another hotel in the city. [37]

Mihdhar bought a fake ID on July 10 from All Services Plus in Passaic County, New Jersey, which was in the business of selling counterfeit documents, including another ID to Flight 11 hijacker Abdulaziz al-Omari. [42] On August 1, Mihdhar and fellow Flight 77 hijacker Hani Hanjour drove to Virginia in order to obtain driver's licenses. Once they arrived, they scouted out a 7-Eleven convenience store and a dollar store in Falls Church, and found two Salvadoran immigrants who, for $50 each, were willing to vouch for Mihdhar and Hanjour as being Virginian residents. With notarized residency forms, Mihdhar and Hanjour were able to obtain driver's licenses at a Virginian motor vehicle office. Flight 77 hijackers Salem al-Hazmi and Majed Moqed, and United Airlines Flight 93 hijacker Ziad Jarrah used the same addresses obtained from the Salvadorans to obtain Virginian driver's licenses. [43] [44]

In August 2001, Mihdhar and Hazmi made several visits to the library at William Paterson University in Wayne, New Jersey, where they used computers to look up travel information and book flights. [45] On August 22, Mihdhar and Hazmi tried to purchase flight tickets from the American Airlines online ticket-merchant, but had technical difficulties and gave up. [46] Mihdhar and Moqed were able to make flight reservations for Flight 77 on August 25, using Moqed's credit card; however, the transaction did not fully go through because the billing address and the shipment address for the tickets did not match. [47]

On August 31, Mihdhar closed an account at Hudson United Bank in New Jersey, having opened the account when he arrived in July, and was with Hanjour when he made a withdrawal from an ATM in Paterson on September 1. The next day, Mihdhar, Moqed and Hanjour traveled to Maryland, where they stayed at budget motels in Laurel. Mihdhar was among the muscle hijackers who worked out at a Gold's Gym in Greenbelt in early September. [48] [49] On September 5, Mihdhar and Moqed went to the American Airlines ticket counter at Baltimore-Washington International Airport to pick up their tickets for Flight 77, paying $2,300 in cash. [49]

Intelligence leads

Mihdhar was placed on a CIA watchlist on August 21, 2001, and a note was sent on August 23 to the Department of State and the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) suggesting that Mihdhar and Hazmi be added to their watchlists. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) was not notified about the two men. [50] On August 23, the CIA informed the FBI that Mihdhar had obtained a U.S. visa in Jeddah. The FBI headquarters received a copy of the Visa Express application from the Jeddah embassy on August 24, showing the New York Marriott as Mihdhar's destination. [51]

On August 28, the FBI New York field office requested that a criminal case be opened to determine whether Mihdhar was still in the United States, but the request was refused. [52] The FBI ended up treating Mihdhar as an intelligence case, which meant that the FBI's criminal investigators could not work on the case, due to the barrier separating intelligence and criminal case operations. An agent in the New York office sent an e-mail to FBI headquarters saying, "Whatever has happened to this, someday someone will die, and the public will not understand why we were not more effective and throwing every resource we had at certain 'problems.'" The reply from headquarters was, "we [at headquarters] are all frustrated with this issue ... [t]hese are the rules. NSLU does not make them up." [53]

The FBI contacted Marriott on August 30, requesting that they check guest records, and on September 5, they reported that no Marriott hotels had any record of Mihdhar checking in. [51] The day before the attacks, Robert Fuller of the New York office requested that the Los Angeles FBI office check all local Sheraton Hotels, [51] as well as Lufthansa and United Airlines bookings, because those were the two airlines Mihdhar had used to enter the country. [52] Neither the Treasury Department's Financial Crimes Enforcement Network nor the FBI's Financial Review Group, which have access to credit card and other private financial records, were notified about Mihdhar prior to September 11. [50]

Regarding the CIA's refusal to inform the FBI about Mihdhar and Hazmi, author Lawrence Wright suggests the CIA wanted to protect its turf and was concerned about giving sensitive intelligence to FBI Agent John P. O'Neill, who Alec Station chief Michael Scheuer described as duplicitous. Wright also speculates that the CIA may have been protecting intelligence operations overseas, and might have been eying Mihdhar and Hazmi as recruitment targets to obtain intelligence on al-Qaeda, although the CIA was not authorized to operate in the United States and might have been leaving them for Saudi intelligence to recruit. [16] [54]

September 11 attacks

The Pentagon, minutes after American Airlines Flight 77 crashed into it DM-SD-02-03886.JPEG
The Pentagon, minutes after American Airlines Flight 77 crashed into it

On September 10, 2001, Mihdhar and the other hijackers checked into the Marriott Residence Inn in Herndon, Virginia, near Washington Dulles International Airport. [55] Saleh Ibn Abdul Rahman Hussayen, a prominent Saudi Arabian government official, was staying at the same hotel that night, although there is no evidence that they met or knew of each other's presence. [56]

At 6:22 a.m. on September 11, 2001, the group checked out of the hotel and headed to Dulles airport. [57] At 7:15 a.m., Mihdhar and Moqed checked in at the American Airlines ticket counter [58] and arrived at the passenger security checkpoint at 7:20 a.m. [59] Both men set off the metal detector and were put through secondary screening. Security video footage later released shows that Moqed was wanded, but the screener did not identify what set off the alarm, and both Moqed and Mihdhar were able to proceed without further hindrance. [60] [61] Mihdhar was also selected by the Computer Assisted Passenger Prescreening System (CAPPS), which involved extra screening of his luggage; however, because Mihdhar did not check any luggage, this had no effect. [62] By 7:50 a.m., Mihdhar and the other hijackers, carrying knives and box cutters, had made it through the airport security checkpoint and boarded Flight 77 to Los Angeles. Mihdhar was seated in seat 12B, next to Moqed. [58]

The flight was scheduled to depart from Gate D26 at 8:10 a.m. but was delayed by 10 minutes. [62] The last routine radio communication from the plane to air traffic control occurred at 8:50:51 a.m. [63] At 8:54 a.m., Flight 77 deviated from its assigned flight path and began to turn south, [58] at which point the hijackers set the flight's autopilot setting for Washington, D.C. [64] Passenger Barbara Olson called her husband, United States Solicitor General Ted Olson (whose 61st birthday was on that day), and reported that the plane had been hijacked. [58] [65] At 9:37:45 a.m, Flight 77 crashed into the west facade of the Pentagon, killing all 64 people aboard, along with 125 in the Pentagon. [66] In the recovery process, remains of the five hijackers were identified through a process of elimination, since their DNA did not match any from the victims, and put into the custody of the FBI. [67] [68]

Aftermath

After the attacks, the identification of Mihdhar was one of the first links suggesting that bin Laden had played a role in their organization, since Mihdhar had been seen at the Malaysian conference speaking to bin Laden's associates. [69] [70] The FBI interrogated Quso, who was arrested following the USS Cole bombing and in custody in Yemen. Quso was able to identify Mihdhar, Hazmi and Attash in photos provided by the FBI, and he also knew Marwan al-Shehhi, a hijacker aboard United Airlines Flight 175. From Quso, the FBI was able to establish an al-Qaeda link to the attacks. [71]

On September 12, 2001, the Toyota Corolla purchased by Mihdhar was found in Dulles International Airport's hourly parking lot. Inside the vehicle, authorities found a letter written by Mohamed Atta, a hijacker aboard American Airlines Flight 11; maps of Washington, D.C. and New York City; a cashier's check made out to a Phoenix, Arizona flight school; four drawings of a Boeing 757 cockpit; a box cutter; and a page with notes and phone numbers, which contained evidence that led investigators to San Diego. [72]

On September 19, 2001, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) distributed a special alert that listed Mihdhar as still alive, [73] and other reports began suggesting that a number of the alleged hijackers were likewise still alive. For instance, on September 23, 2001, the BBC published an article that suggested Mihdhar and others named as hijackers were still at large. [74] The German magazine Der Spiegel later investigated the BBC's claims of "living" hijackers and reported they were cases of mistaken identities. [75] In 2002, Saudi Arabian officials stated that the names of the hijackers were correct and that 15 of the 19 hijackers were Saudi Arabian. [76] In 2006, in response to 9/11 conspiracy theories surrounding its original news story, the BBC said that confusion had arisen with the common Arabic names, and that its later reports on the hijackers superseded its original story. [77]

In 2005, U.S. Army Lt. Col. Anthony Shaffer and Congressman Curt Weldon alleged that the Defense Department data mining project Able Danger identified Mihdhar, Hazmi, Shehhi, and Atta as members of a Brooklyn-based al-Qaeda cell in early 2000. [78] Shaffer largely based his allegations on the recollections of Navy Captain Scott Phillpott, [79] who later recanted his recollection, telling investigators that he was "convinced that Atta was not on the chart that we had". Phillpott said that Shaffer was "relying on my recollection 100 percent", and the Defense Department Inspector General's report indicated that Philpott strongly supported the social network analysis techniques used in Able Danger, and might have exaggerated claims of identifying the hijackers. [80] [81]

See also

Notes

  1. There is some discrepancy over Mihdhar's date of birth. The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States observes that "Mihdhar uses May 16, 1975 as his birthdate on his ID, as well as on his U.S. visa. See 9/11 and Terror Travel Archived 2008-10-05 at the Wayback Machine , p. 192 for ID card; see also copy of Mihdhar's visa [1] . George Tenet gave testimony that "The CIA gave Mihdhar's birthdate as May 5, 1975" ( "11 September 2001 Hijackers" (PDF). Testimony by George Tenet before the Joint Inquiry into Terrorist Attacks Against the United States. Federation of American Scientists (FAS). 2002-06-18. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2008-10-05. Retrieved 2008-09-29.).

Related Research Articles

Abdulaziz al-Omari 9/11 hijacker

Abdulaziz al-Omari was a Saudi airport security guard and imam who was one of five hijackers of American Airlines Flight 11 as part of the September 11 attacks.

Hani Hanjour 9/11 hijacker

Hani Saleh Hasan Hanjour was the Saudi Arabian hijacker-pilot of American Airlines Flight 77, crashing the plane into the Pentagon as part of the September 11 attacks.

Majed Moqed 9/11 hijacker

A former law student, Majed Mashaan Ghanem Moqed was one of five hijackers of American Airlines Flight 77 as part of the September 11 attacks.

The hijackers in the September 11 attacks were 19 men affiliated with al-Qaeda. 15 of the 19 were citizens of Saudi Arabia, two were from the United Arab Emirates, one was from Lebanon, and one was from Egypt. The hijackers were organized into four teams, each led by a pilot-trained hijacker with three or four "muscle hijackers," who were trained to help subdue the pilots, passengers, and crew.

Salem al-Hazmi 9/11 hijacker

Salem al-Hazmi was one of five hijackers of American Airlines Flight 77 as part of the September 11 attacks.

John P. ONeill American counter-terrorism expert

John Patrick O'Neill was an American counter-terrorism expert, who worked as a special agent and eventually a Special Agent in Charge in the Federal Bureau of Investigation. In 1995, O'Neill began to intensely study the roots of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing after he assisted in the capture of Ramzi Yousef, who was the leader of that plot.

Omar al-Bayoumi is a Saudi national who claims to have befriended, rather than ran as agents, two of the 9/11 hijackers in the United States. FBI files dating back to before the attacks demonstrate that he is a Saudi Arabian intelligence agent.

Satam al-Suqami 9/11 hijacker

Satam Muhammed Abdel Rahman al-Suqami was a Saudi law student and one of five hijackers of American Airlines Flight 11 as part of the September 11 attacks.

On September 11, 2001, 19 Arab-Muslim hijackers took control of four commercial aircraft and used them as suicide weapons in a series of four coordinated acts of terrorism to strike the World Trade Center in New York City, The Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia, and an additional target in Washington, D.C. Two aircraft hit the World Trade Center while the third hit the Pentagon. A fourth plane never arrived at its target, crashing in a field in Pennsylvania after a passenger revolt. The intended target is believed to have been either the United States Capitol or the White House. As a result, 2,977 victims were killed, making it the deadliest terrorist attack on U.S. soil; also the deadliest foreign attack on U.S. soil, exceeding Japan's surprise attack on Pearl Harbor in Honolulu, Hawaii, on December 7, 1941, which killed 2,403 victims. It was carefully planned by al-Qaeda, who sent 19 terrorists to take over Boeing 757 and Boeing 767 aircraft, operated by American Airlines and United Airlines.

PENTTBOM is the codename for the Federal Bureau of Investigation's probe into the September 11 attacks of 2001, the largest criminal inquiry in the FBI's history. Its name stands for 'Pentagon/Twin Towers Bombing Investigation'. The investigation was launched on September 11, 2001, and involved 4,000 special agents and 3,000 professional employees.

September 11 attacks Attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001

The September 11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, and caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage. Additional people died of 9/11-related cancer and respiratory diseases in the months and years following the attacks.

Fahd Mohammed Ahmed al-Quso, also known as Abu Huthaifah, Abu Huthaifah Al-Yemeni, Abu Al-Bara', Abu Hathayfah Al-Adani, Abu Huthaifah Al-Adani, Fahd Mohammed Ahmed Al-Awlaqi, Huthaifah Al-Yemeni, or Abu Huthaifah Al-Abu Al-Bara, was alleged to be a terrorist by American and Yemeni officials, and on the FBI Most Wanted Terrorists list. He was wanted by the FBI, Interpol, and the United States Department of State, which had offered 5 million dollars to anyone with information about him. He was killed by a US drone strike in Yemen on May 6, 2012.

The Bin Laden Issue Station (1996–2005) was a unit of the Central Intelligence Agency dedicated to tracking Osama bin Laden and his associates.

Mark Rossini is a former agent with the Federal Bureau of Investigation who played a role in trying to track al-Qaeda before its attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001.

Several vehicles were used by the hijackers of the September 11 attacks. Reports by the FBI and other agencies and press accounts provide details of some of these automobiles.

Two weeks after the September 11 attacks, the Federal Bureau of Investigation connected the hijackers to al-Qaeda, a global, decentralized terrorist network. In a number of video, audio, interview and printed statements, senior members of al-Qaeda have also asserted responsibility for organizing the September 11 attacks. It is believed that Osama bin Laden, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, and Mohammed Atef were the ones who plotted the attacks after meeting together in 1999. It is also believed Khalid Sheikh Mohammed was the one who planned the attacks and that Atef was the one who organized the hijackers.

Ahmed al-Ghamdi 9/11 hijacker

Ahmed Salah Said al-Ghamdi was one of five hijackers of United Airlines Flight 175 as part of the September 11 attacks.

Hamza al-Ghamdi 9/11 hijacker

Hamza al-Ghamdi was one of five hijackers of United Airlines Flight 175 as part of the September 11 attacks.

References

  1. "U.S.D.C. Eastern District of Virginia". www.vaed.uscourts.gov. Archived from the original on 2009-05-13. Retrieved 2008-10-01.
  2. 1 2 3 Videotape of recorded will of Abdulaziz al-Omari and others
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 9/11 Commission Report, Chapter 5.2, pp. 153–159
  4. McDermott (2005), p. 191
  5. 1 2 Wright (2006), p. 309
  6. McDermott, Terry (2002-09-01). "The Plot: How Terrorists hatched a simple plan to use planes as bombs". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 2008-10-09.
  7. 1 2 Burke (2004), p. 237
  8. Mayer, Jane, "The Dark Side", 2008.
  9. "Saudis, US Disclose Intel Operations on Terror". FOX News. 2003-10-16. Archived from the original on 2008-10-09. Retrieved 2008-09-30.
  10. "Dead Suspect Had Links To Terrorism". The New York Times. 2002-02-15. Archived from the original on 2008-10-09. Retrieved 2008-09-30.
  11. Hosenball, Mark; et al. (2002-02-25). "Periscope". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 2008-10-09. Retrieved 2008-09-30.
  12. Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense, Guantanamo Detainee Charged (ISN 768), December 21, 2007
  13. Rosenberg, Carol (2008-04-09). "Saudi Terror Suspect: Military Trials a `Sham'". Miami Herald. Archived from the original on 2008-10-09. Retrieved 2008-09-30.
  14. 9/11 and Terrorist Travel, pp. 9–10
  15. FBI Hijackers' Timeline, p. 40
  16. 1 2 3 4 Wright, Lawrence (2006-07-10). "The Agent: Did the CIA Stop an FBI Detective from Preventing 9/11". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 2008-10-09. Retrieved 2008-09-30.
  17. "Report of the Joint Inquiry into the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001" (PDF). U.S. Government Printing Office. 2002. p. 144. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 5, 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-30.
  18. "The Man Who Knew: What If..." Frontline. PBS. Archived from the original on 2008-10-09. Retrieved 2008-09-29.
  19. 1 2 Fouda and Fielding (2003), pp. 129–130
  20. Bamford, James; Willis, Scott (February 3, 2009). "The Spy Factory". PBS. Archived from the original on 2014-04-11. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
  21. FBI Hijackers' Timeline, p. 52
  22. 9/11 and Terror Travel, p. 10
  23. Iskioff, Michael and Evan Thomas (2002-12-02). "The Saudi Money Trail". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 2008-10-09. Retrieved 2008-09-30.
  24. "Outline of the 9/11 Plot, Staff Statement No. 16" (PDF). National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. 2004. p. 5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2008-10-05. Retrieved 2008-09-30.
  25. Eckert, Toby, and Stern, Marcus, "9/11 investigators baffled FBI cleared 3 ex-San Diegans", The San Diego Union, September 11, 2003, November 30, 2009
  26. FBI Hijackers' Timeline, pp. 54–55
  27. 1 2 Aust (2002), pp. 17–18
  28. Fouda and Fielding (2003), p. 136
  29. McGeary, Johanna; David Van Biema (2001-09-24). "The New Breed of Terrorist". TIME Magazine. Archived from the original on 2008-10-09. Retrieved 2008-09-30.
  30. FBI Hijackers' Timeline, pp. 63–64
  31. Helmore, Edward; Ed Vulliamy (2001-10-07). "Saudi hijacker 'was key link to bin Laden'". The Observer. Archived from the original on 2008-10-09. Retrieved 2008-09-30.
  32. FBI Hijackers' Timeline, p. 67
  33. 9/11 and Terror Travel, p. 11
  34. Substitution for the Testimony of KSM at the trial of Zacarias Moussaoui
  35. 1 2 9/11 Commission Report, Chapter 7.2 – The Attack Looms, First Arrivals in California, pp. 215–222
  36. Smith (2005), p. 60
  37. 1 2 3 4 9/11 Commission Report, Chapter 7.3 – The Attack Looms, Assembling the Teams, pp. 231–240
  38. Simpson, Cam (2002-09-27). "2 hijackers' roles in organizing 9/11 plot revealed". Chicago Tribune.
  39. 9/11 and Terror Travel, pp. 24–25
  40. 9/11 and Terror Travel, p. 27
  41. 9/11 and Terror Travel, p. 42
  42. Miller, Jonathan (2003-03-08). "A Plea Deal, Then Freedom, in Terror Case Where Prosecutors Kept Evidence a Secret". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2008-10-09. Retrieved 2008-09-29.
  43. "Risk to Homeland Security from Identity Fraud and Identity Theft" (PDF). Testimony before the House Committee on the Judiciary. Government Printing Office. 2002-06-25. p. 7. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2008-10-12. Retrieved 2008-10-08.
  44. 9/11 and Terror Travel, p. 29
  45. Cohen, Robert and Kelly Heyboer (2005-04-29). "9/11 pair used state college to buy airfare". Star-Ledger (Newark).
  46. "Statement of Robert S. Mueller: Joint Investigation Into September 11". Federation of American Scientists (FAS). 2002-09-26. Archived from the original on 2008-12-05. Retrieved 2008-09-30.
  47. FBI Hijackers' Timeline, p. 235
  48. Masters, Brook A.; et al. (2001-09-19). "Dulles Hijackers Made Maryland Their Base". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2008-10-09.
  49. 1 2 FBI Hijackers' Timeline, p. 255
  50. 1 2 Smith, R. Jeffrey (2003-07-25). "A History of Missed Connections". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-09-30.
  51. 1 2 3 "Testimony of Michael E. Rolince". Joint Inquiry into the Events of September 11, 2001. Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2002-09-20. Archived from the original on 2011-01-12. Retrieved 2008-09-29.
  52. 1 2 Hill, Eleanor (2002-09-20). "The Intelligence Community's Knowledge of the September 11 Hijackers Prior to September 11, 2001". Joint Inquiry into the Events of September 11, 2001. Federation of American Scientists (FAS). Archived from the original on 2008-10-10. Retrieved 2008-09-29.
  53. "Prepared Statement of a New York Special Agent". Joint Inquiry into the Events of September 11, 2001. Federation of American Scientists (FAS). 2002-09-20. Archived from the original on 2008-10-14. Retrieved 2008-09-29.
  54. Wright (2006), pp. 310–315
  55. FBI Hijackers' Timeline, p. 284
  56. Schmidt, Susan (2003-10-02). "Spreading Saudi Fundamentalism in U.S." The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2008-10-09. Retrieved 2008-09-29.
  57. FBI Hijackers' Timeline, p. 290
  58. 1 2 3 4 9/11 Commission Report, Chapter 1.1 (2004), pp. 1–13
  59. FBI Hijackers' Timeline, p. 288
  60. "New Video of 9/11 hijackers at Dulles Airport before attacks". Anderson Cooper 360 Degrees. 2004-07-21. CNN. Archived from the original on 2008-10-09. Retrieved 2008-09-30.
  61. "The Aviation Security System and the 9/11 Attacks – Staff Statement No. 3" (PDF). National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. p. 9. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2008-05-28. Retrieved 2008-05-30.
  62. 1 2 "Staff Monograph on the "Four Flights and Civil Aviation Security"" (PDF). National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. September 2005. pp. 27–29. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-11-05. Retrieved 2008-08-14.
  63. Gregor, Joseph A. (2001-12-21). "ATC Report American Airlines Flight 77" (PDF). National Transportation Safety Board. p. 13. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 9, 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-01.
  64. O'Callaghan, John; Bower, Daniel (2002-02-13). "Study of Autopilot, Navigation Equipment, and Fuel Consumption Activity Based on United Airlines Flight 93 and American Airlines Flight 77 Digital Flight Data Recorder Information" (PDF). National Transportation Safety Board. p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 9, 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-01.
  65. Johnson, Glen (November 23, 2001). "Probe reconstructs horror, calculated attacks on planes". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on 2008-10-09. Retrieved 2008-06-01.
  66. "American Airlines Flight 77 FDR Report" (PDF). National Transportation Safety Board. 2002-01-31. p. 2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-03-16. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  67. "Remains Of 9 Sept. 11 Hijackers Held". CBS News. 2002-08-17. Archived from the original on 2008-10-09. Retrieved 2008-09-30.
  68. Edson, S. M.; et al. (January 2004). "Naming the Dead – Confronting the Realities of Rapid Identification of Degraded Skeletal Remains". Forensic Science Review. 16 (1): 64–90. PMID   26256813.
  69. Blackhurst, Chris (2001-09-30). "Piece by piece, the jigsaw of terror revealed". The Independent. Archived from the original on 2017-05-10. Retrieved 2017-09-02.
  70. Burns, Vincent (2005). Terrorism: A Documentary and Reference Guide. Greenwood Press. p. 139. ISBN   0-313-33213-4.
  71. Wright (2006), pp. 362–637
  72. Meyer, Josh; Eric Lichtblau (2001-09-27). "Authorities' Dragnet Snags More Suspects". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 2008-10-09.
  73. "Inactive Financial Institution Letters". Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. 2001-09-19. Archived from the original on 2008-10-05. Retrieved 2008-09-29.
  74. "Hijack 'suspects' alive and well". BBC News. 23 September 2001. Archived from the original on 2008-10-09. Retrieved 2008-09-30.
  75. Cziesche, Dominik; et al. (2003-09-08). "Panoply of the Absurd". Der Spiegel. Archived from the original on 2008-10-09. Retrieved 2008-09-30.
  76. "Official: 15 of 19 Sept. 11 hijackers were Saudi". USA Today. 2002-02-06. Archived from the original on 2008-10-09. Retrieved 2008-09-30.
  77. Hermann, Steve (2006-10-27). "9/11 conspiracy theory". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2008-10-09. Retrieved 2008-09-30.
  78. Jehl, Douglas (2005-08-09). "Four in 9/11 Plot Are Called Tied to Qaeda in '00". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2008-10-09. Retrieved 2008-09-29.
  79. Eggen, Dan (2005-08-19). "Officer Says 2 Others Are Source of His Atta Claims". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2008-10-09. Retrieved 2008-09-29.
  80. White, Josh (2006-09-22). "Hijackers Were Not Identified Before 9/11, Investigation Says". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2008-10-09. Retrieved 2008-09-29.
  81. "Office Inspector General's Report" (PDF). Department of Defense. 2006-09-18. pp. 17–22. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2008-08-20. Retrieved 2008-09-29.

Sources