Khanate of Khiva

Last updated

Khanate of Khiva

خیوه خانلیگی
Khivâ Khânligi
1511–1920
Flag of the Khanate of Khiva.svg
Khivinskoe khanstvo.png
The Khanate of Khiva (bordered in red), c. 1700.[ citation needed ]
StatusSemi-independent state
(under Russian protection 1873–1917)
Capital Khiva
Common languages
Religion
Sunni Islam
GovernmentAbsolute monarchy
Khan  
 1511–1518
Ilbars I  [ ru ](first)
 1918–1920
Sayid Abdullah (last)
History 
 Established
1511
 Kungrad dynasty established
1804
  Russian conquest
12 August 1873
 Disestablished
2 February 1920
Area
1911 [6] 67,521 km2 (26,070 sq mi)
Population
 1902 [7]
700,000
 1908 [8]
800,000
 1911 [6]
550,000
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Timurid.svg Timurid Empire
Khorezm People's Soviet Republic Flag of Khiva 1920-1923.svg
Today part of

The Khanate of Khiva (Chagatay : خیوه خانلیگیKhivâ Khânligi, Persian : خانات خیوهKhânât-e Khiveh, Uzbek : Xiva xonligi, Turkmen : Hywa hanlygy) was a Central Asian polity [9] that existed in the historical region of Khwarezm in Central Asia from 1511 to 1920, except for a period of Afsharid occupation by Nader Shah between 1740 and 1746. Centred in the irrigated plains of the lower Amu Darya, south of the Aral Sea, with the capital in the city of Khiva, the country was ruled by a Turco-Mongol tribe, the Khongirads, who came from Astrakhan. It covered present western Uzbekistan, southwestern Kazakhstan and much of Turkmenistan before Russian arrival at the second half of the 19th century.

Contents

In 1873, the Khanate of Khiva was much reduced in size and became a Russian protectorate. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, Khiva had a revolution too, and in 1920 the Khanate was replaced by the Khorezm People's Soviet Republic. In 1924, the area was formally incorporated into the Soviet Union and today is largely a part of Karakalpakstan, Xorazm Province in Uzbekistan, and Dashoguz velayat of Turkmenistan.

History

Early history

See Khwarezm, the local name of the region.

After 1500

Khanate of Khiva (labeled Karasm), on a 1734 French map. The Khanate on the map surrounds the Aral Sea CEM-44-La-Chine-la-Tartarie-Chinoise-et-le-Thibet-1734-Central-Asia-2574.jpg
Khanate of Khiva (labeled Karasm), on a 1734 French map. The Khanate on the map surrounds the Aral Sea
A 1903 Polish map showing Khiva (Chiwa, in Polish) within the much reduced borders the Khanate had during 1874-1920 Zakaukazie-Turkestan1903.jpg
A 1903 Polish map showing Khiva (Chiwa, in Polish) within the much reduced borders the Khanate had during 1874–1920
Khiva protectorate in 1903 XXth Century Citizen's Atlas map of Central Asia.png
Khiva protectorate in 1903

After the capital was moved to Khiva, Khwarazm came to be called the Khanate of Khiva (the state had always referred to itself as Khwarazm, the Khanate of Khiva as a name was popularized by Russian historians in honor of its capital, Khiva). [10] Some time around 1600, [11] the Daryaliq or west branch of the Oxus dried up causing the capital to be moved south to Khiva from Konye-Urgench. Although based in the Oxus delta, the Khanate usually controlled most of what is now Turkmenistan. The population consisted of agriculturalists along the river, the Turkic Sarts, and nomads or semi-nomads away from the river. It is overall arbitrary to anachronistically project modern ethnic and national identifications, largely based on Soviet national delimitation policies, on pre-modern societies. The settled population was composed by aristocratic and peasants bound to the land. There were many Persian slaves who had been captured by Turkmens and a few Russian slaves. Before and during this period, the settled area was increasingly infiltrated by Uzbeks from the north,[ citation needed ] with their Turkic dialects evolving into what is now the Uzbek language while the original Iranian Khwarezmian language died out. The swampy area of the lower delta was increasingly populated by Karakalpak and there were Kazakh nomads on the northern border. The Turkmen nomads paid taxes to the Khan and were a large part of his army but often revolted. Since the heart of the Khanate was surrounded by semi-desert the only easy military approach was along the Oxus. This led to many wars with the Khanate of Bukhara further up the river (1538–40, 1593, 1655, 1656, 1662, 1684, 1689, 1694, 1806, and others).

Persian slave in the Khanate of Khiva, 19th century Persian slave.jpg
Persian slave in the Khanate of Khiva, 19th century

Before 1505, Khwarazm was nominally dependent on the Timurid Sultan Husayn Mirza Bayqara who was based in Khorasan. From 1488 Muhammad Shaybani built a large but short-lived empire in southern Central Asia, taking Khwarazm in 1505. At nearly the same time, Shah Ismail I was building a powerful Shiite state in Persia. The two necessarily clashed and in 1510 Muhammad was killed and Khwarazm soon occupied. The Shah's religion provoked resistance and in 1511 his garrison was expelled and power passed to Ilbars, who founded the long-lived Arabshahid dynasty. [12]

Around 1540 and 1593, the Khans were driven out by the Bukharans. In both cases they fled to Persia and soon returned. In 1558, Anthony Jenkinson visited Old Urgench and was not impressed. Following Arap Munhammad (1602–23), who moved the capital to Khiva, there was a period of disorder, including an invasion by the Kalmyks, who left laden with plunder. Disorder was ended by Abu al-Ghazi Bahadur (1643–63) who twice defeated the Kalmyks and wrote a history of Central Asia. His son Anusha (1663–85) presided over a period of urban growth until he was deposed and blinded. From 1695, Khiva was for some years a vassal of Bukhara which appointed two khans. Shir Gazi Khan (1714–27), who was killed by Persian and Russian slaves, is said to have been the last proper Arabshahid. [13] Khan Ilbars (1728–40) was a Shibanid ruler, son of Shakhniyaz khan [14] who unwisely killed some Persian ambassadors. In a repeat of the Shah Ismail story, Nadir Shah conquered Khiva, beheaded Ilbars and freed some 12–20,000 Persian slaves. Next year the Persian garrison was slaughtered, but the rebellion was quickly suppressed. Persian pretensions ended with Nadir's murder in 1747. After 1746, the Qongrat tribe became increasingly powerful and appointed puppet khans. Their power was formalized as the KQngrat dynasty by Iltuzar Khan in 1804. Khiva flourished under Muhammad Rahim Khan (1806–25) and Allah Quli Khan (1825–40) and then declined. After Muhammad Amin Khan was killed trying to re-take Serakhs on March 19, 1855, [15] there was a long Turkmen rebellion (1855–67). In the first two years of the rebellion, two or three Khans were killed by Turkmens.[ citation needed ]

Russian Empire Period

Khanate of Khiva in 1900 (in grey) Turkestan 1900-en.svg
Khanate of Khiva in 1900 (in grey)
Muhammad Rahim Khan II and his officials at the coronation of Nicholas II, Khan of Khiva is sitting third from the right Representatives of the Khanate of Khiva at the coronation of Nicholas II.jpg
Muhammad Rahim Khan II and his officials at the coronation of Nicholas II, Khan of Khiva is sitting third from the right

Russians made five attacks on Khiva. Around 1602 some free Ural Cossacks unsuccessfully raided Khwarazm. In 1717 Alexander Bekovich-Cherkassky attacked Khiva from the Caspian. After he won the battle, Shir Ghazi Khan (1715–28) made a treaty and suggested that the Russians disperse so that they could be better fed. After they dispersed they were all killed or enslaved, only a few surviving to tell the tale. In 1801 an army was sent toward Khiva but was recalled when Paul I was murdered. In the Khivan campaign of 1839 Perovsky tried an attack from Orenburg. The weather was unusually cold and he was forced to turn back after losing many men and most of his camels. Khiva was finally conquered by the Khivan campaign of 1873.

The conquest of Khiva was part of the Russian conquest of Turkestan. British attempts to deal with this were called the Great Game. One of the reasons for the 1839 attack was the increasing number of Russian slaves held at Khiva. To remove this pretext Britain launched its own effort to free the slaves. Major Todd, the senior British political officer stationed in Herat (in Afghanistan) dispatched Captain James Abbott, disguised as an Afghan, on Christmas Eve, 1839, for Khiva. Abbott arrived in late January 1840 and, although the khan was suspicious of his identity, he succeeded in talking the khan into allowing him to carry a letter for the Tsar regarding the slave issue. He left on 7 March 1840, for Fort Alexandrovsk, and was subsequently betrayed by his guide, robbed, then released when the bandits realized the origin and destination of his letter. His superiors in Herat, not knowing of his fate, sent another officer, Lieutenant Richmond Shakespear, after him. Shakespear had more success than Abbott: he convinced the khan to free all Russian subjects under his control, and also to make the ownership of Russian slaves a crime punishable by death. The freed slaves and Shakespear arrived in Fort Alexandrovsk on 15 August 1840, and Russia lost its primary motive for the conquest of Khiva, for the time being.

A permanent Russian presence on the Aral Sea began in 1848 with the building of Fort Aralsk at the mouth of the Syr Darya. The Empire's military superiority was such that Khiva and the other Central Asian principalities, Bukhara and Kokand, had no chance of repelling the Russian advance, despite years of fighting. [16] In 1873, after Russia conquered the great cities of Tashkent and Samarkand, General Von Kaufman launched an attack on Khiva consisting of 13,000 infantry and cavalry. The city of Khiva fell on 10 June 1873 and, on 12 August 1873, a peace treaty was signed that established Khiva as a quasi-independent Russian protectorate. See Khivan campaign of 1873. After the conquest of what is now Turkmenistan (1884) the protectorates of Khiva and Bukhara were surrounded by Russian territory.

The first significant settlement of Europeans in the Khanate was a group of Mennonites who migrated to Khiva in 1882. The German-speaking Mennonites had come from the Volga region and the Molotschna colony under the leadership of Claas Epp Jr. The Mennonites played an important role in modernizing the Khanate in the decades prior to the October Revolution by introducing photography, resulting in the development of Uzbek photography and filmmaking, more efficient methods for cotton harvesting, electrical generators, and other technological innovations. [17]

Civil war and Soviet Republic

Flag used by the Khanate of Khiva during the civil war (1917-1922) Flag of the Khanate of Khiva.svg
Flag used by the Khanate of Khiva during the civil war (1917–1922)

After the 1917 Bolshevik seizure of power in the October Revolution, anti-monarchists and Turkmen tribesmen joined forces with the Bolsheviks at the end of 1919 to depose the khan. By early February 1920, the Khivan army under Junaid Khan was completely defeated. On 2 February 1920, Khiva's last Kungrad khan, Sayid Abdullah, abdicated and a short-lived Khorezm People's Soviet Republic (later the Khorezm SSR) was created out of the territory of the old Khanate of Khiva, before it was finally incorporated into the Soviet Union in 1924, with the former Khanate divided between the new Turkmen SSR and Uzbek SSR. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, these became Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan respectively. Today, the area that was the Khanate has a mixed population of Uzbeks, Karakalpaks, Turkmens, and Kazakhs.

Khans of Khiva (1511–1920)

The borders of the Russian imperial territories of Khiva, Bukhara and Kokand in the time period of 1902-1903 XXth Century Citizen's Atlas map of Central Asia.png
The borders of the Russian imperial territories of Khiva, Bukhara and Kokand in the time period of 1902–1903

Data on the Khivan Khans is sparse and sometimes contradictory, especially for the minor khans. Names and dates from Bregel/Muniz [19] which probably gives the best modern scholarship. Short biographies are from Howarth's 1880 book [20] which is old but has biographies of most of the khans. RU: is data from the Russian Wikipedia when nothing could be found in English or there was a major contradiction. RU: has sources in local languages.

Arabshahid Dynasty (Yadigarid Shibanid Dynasty, 1511–1804)

Qungrat Dynasty (1804–1920)

Qungrat Inaks

Qungrat Khans

Seid Muhammad Rahim, c. 1880 Russian Central Asia - including Kuldja, Bokhara, Khiva and Merv (1885) (14784746615).jpg
Seid Muhammad Rahim, c. 1880
Isfandiyar Jurji Bahadur circa 1911 Isfandiyar Jurji Bahadur.png
Isfandiyar Jurji Bahadur circa 1911

See also

Notes and sources

  1. After the original flag on display in the museum of Khiva. Described by J. Renault and H. Calvarin, Franciae Vexilla # 5/51 (April 1997), cited after Ivan Sache on the Khiva page at Flags of the World (FOTW). According to David Straub (1996) on FOTW Archived 27 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine , "The flag of the Khivan Khanate in the pre-Soviet period is unknown."
  2. Grenoble, Lenore (2003). Language Policy of the Soviet Union. Kluwer Academic Publishers. p. 143. ISBN   1-4020-1298-5.
  3. Roy, Oliver (2007). The New Central Asia: Geopolitics and the Birth of Nations. I.B.Tauris. p. 10. ISBN   9781845115524." They all had Persian as both their court language and the language of culture, and all the successive sovereigns in each of the three instances were of Turkish origin: the Safavid followed by the Qajars in Iran; the Moghuls in India, in the various emirates Transoxiаnia (Bukhara Khiva and Kokand).
  4. Nancy Rosenberger (2011), Seeking Food Rights: Nation, Inequality and Repression in Uzbekistan, p.27
  5. Bregel, Y.E. (1961). Khwarazm Turkmens in the 19th Century. Moscow: Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Institute of Asian Peoples. Publishing house of Oriental literature. pp. 7–38.
  6. 1 2 The Politics of Muslim Cultural Reform: Jadidism in Central Asia , Adeeb Khalid, page 16, 1998
  7. Vegetation Degradation in Central Asia Under the Impact of Human Activities, Nikolaĭ Gavrilovich Kharin, page 49, 2002
  8. http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-BCdEMgFhAzg/URYO6A8B1HI/AAAAAAAADLw/-HAzla6bBMk/s1600/muslim-world-1900.jpg
  9. Peter B. Golden (2011), Central Asia in World History, p.114
  10. Bregel 1961, p. 442.
  11. A previous version of this article dated the move to Khiva as 1619, without citation. It was during the reign of Arap Muhammad (1602–23) according to Annanepesov and Bababekov, page 66. Abul Ghazi dates the river change to circa 575 (quoted in Alexandr Gloukhovskoy, The Passage of the Water of the Amu-Darya, 1895, page 25). For more on the changing course of the Oxus see Uzboy River
  12. The Arabshaids or Yadigarids were Shaybanids and are sometimes distinguished from the Abulkhayrids, another branch of the family. They are named after Yadigar Sultan who was proclaimed khan north of the Aral Sea about 1458 and from his great-grandfather Arabshah. Bregel places them north of the Aral Sea and lower Syr Darya circa 1400–1500. See Yuri Bregel, Historical Atals of Central Asia, 2003, map 24
  13. Cambridge History of Inner Asia, p. 393; This is not mentioned in other sources.
  14. Šir-Moḥammad Mirāb Munes and Moḥammad-Reżā Mirāb Āgahi, Ferdaws al-eqbāl, ed., tr., and annotated by Yuri Bregel as Firdaws al-iqbal: History of Khorezm, 2 vols., Leiden, 1988-99. p. 162,62,567-68
  15. Noelle-Karimi, Christine (2014). The Pearl in Its Midst: Herat and the Mapping of Khurasan (15th-19th Centuries). Austrian Academy of Sciences Press. ISBN   978-3-7001-7202-4.
  16. John Ayde, Indian Frontier Policy.
  17. Ratliff, Walter (2010). Pilgrims on the Silk Road: A Muslim-Christian Encounter in Khiva. Wipf & Stock. ISBN   978-1-60608-133-4.
  18. After the original flag on display in the museum of Khiva. Described by J. Renault and H. Calvarin, Franciae Vexilla # 5/51 (April 1997), cited after Ivan Sache on the Khiva page at Flags of the World (FOTW). According to David Straub (1996) on FOTW Archived 27 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine , "The flag of the Khivan Khanate in the pre-Soviet period is unknown."
  19. Compiled after Y. Bregel, ed. (1999), fr:Mounis Khorezmi, author, Firdaws al-Iqbal: History of Khorezm. Leiden: Brill.
  20. Henry Hoyle Howorth, History of the Mongols,1880, pp 876–977
  21. ru: has Samarqand, Howorth says 'the city' implying Bukhara.
  22. Šir-Moḥammad Mirāb Munes and Moḥammad-Reżā Mirāb Āgahi, Ferdaws al-eqbāl, ed., tr., and annotated by Yuri Bregel as Firdaws al-iqbal: History of Khorezm, 2 vols., Leiden, 1988-99. p. 162,62,567-68

Related Research Articles

Khwarazm Oasis region in Central Asia

Khwarazm, or Chorasmia, is a large oasis region on the Amu Darya river delta in western Central Asia, bordered on the north by the (former) Aral Sea, on the east by the Kyzylkum Desert, on the south by the Karakum Desert, and on the west by the Ustyurt Plateau. It was the center of the Iranian Khwarazmian civilization, and a series of kingdoms such as the Khwarazmian dynasty and the Afrighid dynasty, whose capitals were Kath, Gurganj and – from the 16th century on – Khiva. Today Khwarazm belongs partly to Uzbekistan and partly to Turkmenistan.

Khiva city in Xorazm Region, Uzbekistan

Khiva is a city of approximately 90,000 people in Xorazm Region, Uzbekistan. According to archaeological data, the city was established around 1500 years ago. It is the former capital of Khwarezmia and the Khanate of Khiva. Itchan Kala in Khiva was the first site in Uzbekistan to be inscribed in the World Heritage List (1991). The astronomer, historian and polymath, Al-Biruni was born in either Khiva or the nearby city of Kath.

Muhammad Shaybani Uzbek leader and warrior

Muhammad Shaybani Khan, was an Uzbek leader who consolidated various Uzbek tribes and laid the foundations for their ascendance in Transoxiana and the establishment of the Khanate of Bukhara. He was a Shaybanid or descendant of Shiban, the fifth son of Jochi, Genghis Khan's eldest son. He was the son of Shah-Budag, thus a grandson of the Uzbek conqueror Abu'l-Khayr Khan.

Uzbek Khanate Shaybanid state preceding the Shaybanid Empire and the Khanate of Bukhara

The Uzbek Khanate, also known as the Abulkhair Khanate was a Shaybanid state preceding the Khanate of Bukhara. During the few years it existed, the Uzbek Khanate was the preeminent state in Central Asia, ruling over most of modern-day Kazakhstan, much of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, and parts of southern Russia. This is the first state of the Abulkhairids, a branch of the Shaybanids.

Emirate of Bukhara Historical Central Asian state between the 18th and 20th centuries)

The Emirate of Bukhara was a Central Asian polity that existed from 1785 to 1920 in what is now modern-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. It occupied the land between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, known formerly as Transoxiana. Its core territory was the land along the lower Zarafshan River, and its urban centres were the ancient cities of Samarqand and the emirate's capital, Bukhara. It was contemporaneous with the Khanate of Khiva to the west, in Khwarazm, and the Khanate of Kokand to the east, in Fergana. In 1920, it ended with the establishment of the Bukharan People's Soviet Republic.

Khanate of Bukhara Former country in Central Asia

The Khanate of Bukhara was an Uzbek state from the second quarter of the 16th century to the late 18th century in Central Asia or Turkestan, founded by the Shaybanid dynasty. From 1533 to 1540, Bukhara briefly became its capital during the reign of Ubaydallah Khan. The khanate reached its greatest extent and influence under its penultimate Shaybanid ruler, the scholarly Abdullah Khan II.

Yuri Bregel

Yuri Enohovich Bregel was one of the world's leading historians of Islamic Central Asia. He published extensively on Persian- and Turkic-language history and historiography, and on political, economic and ethnic history in Central Asia and the Muslim world. He lived in the Soviet Union (1925–1974), Israel (1974–1981), and the United States (1981–2016).

Kazakh Khanate Former Islamic monarchy in Central Asia

The Kazakh Khanate was a successor of the Golden Horde existing from the 15th to 19th century, centered on the eastern parts of the Desht-i Qipchaq.

The Chowdur or Choudor are one of the ten major groups of people who merged after 1920 to form the modern Turkmen Republic. They live primarily in and around the Khorezm Oasis.

The Sufid dynasty was a Turkic dynasty that ruled in Khwarezm within the realm of Mongols' Golden Horde Khanate, in the Amu Darya river delta. Although the dynasty's independence was short-lived, its later members continued to rule Khwarezm intermittently as governors of the Timurid Empire until the takeover of Khwarezm by the Shaybanid Uzbeks in 1505. Unlike earlier dynasties that ruled from Khwarezm, the Sufids never used the title of Khwarezmshah.

Turkmen tribes Major modern Turkmen tribes

The major modern Turkmen tribes are Teke, Yomut, Ersari, Chowdur, Gokleng and Saryk. The most numerous are the Teke.

Yomut Modern Turkmen tribe

The Yomut or Yomud are a Turkmen tribe that lives from Gorgan to Turkmenbashi and eastern Caspian shores and Khiva and Dashoguz.

Naders Central Asian Campaign

During the mid-eighteenth century the Persian empire of Nader Shah embarked upon the conquest and annexation of the Khanates of Bukhara and Khiva. The initial engagements were fought in the late 1730s by Nader Shah's son and viceroy Reza Qoli Mirza who gained a few notable victories in this theatre while Nader was still invading India to the south. Reza Qoli's invasions of Khiva angered Ilbars khan, the leader of Khiva. When Ilbars threatened to make a counter-attack Nader ordered hostilities to cease despite his son's successes and later returned victoriously from Delhi to embark on a decisive campaign himself.

The Khivan Revolution refers to the events of 1917–1924 in the Khanate of Khiva, which led to the liquidation of the Khanate in Khiva, the establishment of the Khorezm People's Soviet Republic, and the subsequent inclusion of the republic into the USSR through national disengagement and the formation of the Uzbek SSR and the Turkmen SSR in 1924.

Isfandiyar Khan 53rd Khan of Khiva

Isfandiyar Khan or Asfandiyar Khan, born Isfandiyar Jurji Bahadur, was the Khan of Khiva between September 1910 and 1 October 1918, the 53rd Khan of Khiva, and the 12th Khongirad ruler of the Uzbeks. He was overthrown and executed by Junaid Khan in 1918.

Islam Khodja Grand Vizier of the Khiva Khanate

Seyid Islam Khodja was the Grand Vizier of the Khiva Khanate from 1898 until his death in 1913.

Bekjon Rakhmonov, known commonly as Mulla Bekjon, was an Uzbek and Soviet statesman, political and public figure, educator, linguist, polyglot, and journalist. He was one of the most prominent figures of the Khwarezmian Jadid movement and the Young Khivans.

Junaid Khan (Basmachi leader) Military commander, statesman

Junaid Khan – was a military commander from the Turkmen yomud tribe who was the (last) de facto ruler of the State of Khorezm from 1918 to 1920, Chief of the Armed forces (Serdar-Kerim) of Khorezm during the tumultuous years after the Russian October revolution.

Begdili Oghuz-Turkmen tribe

Begdili (Middle Turkic: بَكْتِلى Begtili; also spelled Bekdili or Bigdeli, were an Oghuz Turkic people and a sub-branch of the Bozok tribal federation. Currently, the descendants of Begdili tribe and those who identify themselves as such are part of the Geklen Turkmens living in the Balkan velayat of Turkmenistan. They also can be found among Ersari Turkmens, who live predominantly in the Lebap velayat of Turkmenistan and northern provinces of Afghanistan. Turkish Begdili Turkomans live in Tarsus, Aleppo, and in many parts of Anatolia. Cerit Turkomans are branch of Begdili tribe.

Shajara-i Tarākima is a Chagatai-language historical work completed in 1659 by Khan of Khiva and historian Abu al-Ghazi Bahadur.