Khedive ( // , Ottoman Turkish : الخدیویhıdīv) was an honorific title of Persian origin used for the sultans and grand viziers of the Ottoman Empire, but most famously for the viceroy of Egypt from 1805 to 1914.
It is attested in Persian poetry from the 10th century and was used as an Ottoman honorific from the 16th. It was borrowed into Turkish directly from Persian.It was first used in Egypt, without official recognition, by Muhammad Ali Pasha, the governor of Egypt and Sudan from 1805 to 1848. The initially self-declared title was officially recognized by the Ottoman government in 1867, and used subsequently by Ismail Pasha, and his dynastic successors until 1914. The term entered Arabic in Egypt in the 1850s.
This title is recorded in English since 1867, borrowed from French khédive, in turn from Ottoman Turkish خدیوhıdiv, from Persian خدیوkhadīv ("lord").
Following the French invasion of Egypt in 1798 and Napoleon's defeat of Egyptian forces, which consisted largely of the ruling Mamluk military caste, the Ottoman Empire dispatched troops from Rumelia (the Balkan provinces of the Ottoman Empire) under the command of Muhammad Ali Pasha to restore the Empire's authority in what had hitherto been an Ottoman province. However, upon the French defeat and departure, Muhammad Ali seized control of the country, and declared himself ruler of Egypt, quickly consolidating an independent local powerbase. After repeated failed attempts to remove and kill him, in 1805, the Sublime Porte officially recognized Muhammad Ali as Pasha and Wāli (Governor) of Egypt. However, demonstrating his grander ambitions, he claimed for himself the higher title of Khedive (Viceroy), as did his successors, Abbas I, Sa'id I and Ibrahim Pasha.
The Muhammad Ali dynasty’s use of the title Khedive was not sanctioned by the Ottoman Empire until 1867when Sultan Abdülaziz officially recognized it as the title of Ismail Pasha. Moreover, the Porte accepted Ismail's alteration of the royal line of succession to go from father to son, rather than brother to brother, as was the tradition in the Ottoman Empire, and Arab dynasties. In May 1879, the British Empire and France began pressuring the Ottoman Sultan Abdülhamid II to depose Ismail Pasha, and this was done on June 26, 1879. The more pliable Tewfik Pasha, Ismail's son, was made his successor as the new Khedive. Ismail Pasha left Egypt and initially went into exile to Naples, but was eventually permitted by Sultan Abdülhamid II to retire to his Palace of Emirgan on the Bosphorus in Istanbul. There he remained, more or less a state prisoner, until his death. He was later buried in Cairo.
After the nationalist Urabi Revolt of 1882, Britain invaded Egypt in support of Tewfik Pasha, and would continue to occupy and dominate the country for decades. During this period, the Muhammad Ali Dynasty under Tewfik Pasha and his son Abbas Hilmi Pasha continued to rule Egypt and Sudan using the title Khedive, whilst still under nominal (de jure) Ottoman sovereignty until 1914.
Abbas Hilmi Pasha was deposed by the British in 1914, and Egypt was declared a protectorate of Britain, the Sultanate of Egypt, which was ruled by Abbas's uncle Hussein Kamel under the title of Sultan.
Abbas II Helmy Bey was the last Khedive of Egypt and Sudan, ruling from 8 January 1892 to 19 December 1914. In 1914, after the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers in World War I, the nationalist Khedive was removed by the British, then ruling Egypt, in favor of his more pro-British uncle, Hussein Kamel, marking the de jure end of Egypt's four-century era as a province of the Ottoman Empire, which had begun in 1517.
Abdulaziz was the 32nd Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and reigned between 25 June 1861 and 30 May 1876. He was the son of Sultan Mahmud II and succeeded his brother Abdulmejid I in 1861.
The history of Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty (1805–1953) spanned the later period of Ottoman Egypt, the Khedivate of Egypt under British patronage, and the nominally independent Sultanate of Egypt and Kingdom of Egypt, ending with the Revolution of 1952 and the formation of the Republic of Egypt.
Isma'il Pasha, known as Ismail the Magnificent, was the Khedive of Egypt and Sudan from 1863 to 1879, when he was removed at the behest of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Sharing the ambitious outlook of his grandfather, Muhammad Ali Pasha, he greatly modernized Egypt and Sudan during his reign, investing heavily in industrial and economic development, urbanization, and the expansion of the country's boundaries in Africa.
Mohamed Tewfik Pasha, also known as Tawfiq of Egypt, was khedive of Egypt and the Sudan between 1879 and 1892 and the sixth ruler from the Muhammad Ali Dynasty.
Sultan of Egypt was the status held by the rulers of Egypt after the establishment of the Ayyubid dynasty of Saladin in 1174 until the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517. Though the extent of the Egyptian Sultanate ebbed and flowed, it generally included Sham and Hejaz, with the consequence that the Ayyubid and later Mamluk sultans were also regarded as the Sultans of Syria. From 1914, the title was once again used by the heads of the Muhammad Ali dynasty of Egypt and Sudan, later being replaced by the title of King of Egypt and Sudan in 1922.
Sultan Hussein Kamel was the Sultan of Egypt from 19 December 1914 to 9 October 1917, during the British protectorate over Egypt. He was the first person to hold the title of Sultan of Egypt since the killing of Sultan Tuman II by the Ottomans in 1517 following their conquest of Egypt.
The Eyalet of Egypt operated as an administrative division of the Ottoman Empire from 1517 to 1867. It originated as a result of the conquest of Mamluk Egypt by the Ottomans in 1517, following the Ottoman–Mamluk War (1516–1517) and the absorption of Syria into the Empire in 1516. The Ottomans administered Egypt as an eyalet of the their Empire from 1517 until 1867, with an interruption during the French occupation of 1798 to 1801.
The Muhammad Ali dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Egypt and Sudan from the 19th to the mid-20th century. It is named after its progenitor, Muhammad Ali Pasha, regarded as the founder of modern Egypt. It was also more formally known as the Alawiyya dynasty. Because a majority of the rulers from this dynasty bore the title khedive, it was often referred to by contemporaries as the Khedival dynasty.
The Khedivate of Egypt was an autonomous tributary state of the Ottoman Empire, established and ruled by the Muhammad Ali Dynasty following the defeat and expulsion of Napoleon Bonaparte's forces which brought an end to the short-lived French occupation of Lower Egypt. The United Kingdom invaded and took control in 1882. In 1914 the Ottoman Empire connection was ended and Britain established a protectorate called the Sultanate of Egypt.
Pasha or Paşa, in older works sometimes anglicized as bashaw, was a higher rank in the Ottoman political and military system, typically granted to governors, generals, dignitaries and others. As an honorary title, Pasha, in one of its various ranks, is similar to a British peerage or knighthood, and was also one of the highest titles in the 20th century Kingdom of Egypt.
Prince Abbas Hilmi bin Prince Muhammad Abdel Moneim bin Khedive Abbas Hilmi II Bey is an Egyptian and Imperial Ottoman prince and financial manager. A member of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty and the Imperial House of Osman, he is the only son of Prince Muhammad Abdel Moneim and his Ottoman wife Princess Neslişah, and grandson of Khedive Abbas Hilmi II Bey.
Emina Ilhamy, also Amina Ilhami, was an Egyptian princess, and a member of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty. She was the first Khediva of Egypt from 1879 to 1892 as the wife of Khedive Tewfik Pasha, and Walida Pasha to their son Khedive Abbas Hilmi II Pasha from 1892 to 1914.
Ikbal Hanim, was the Khediva consort of Egypt from 1895 to 1900 as the first wife of Abbas Hilmi II Pasha, the last Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.
Neshedil Qadin, meaning "Gay-Hearted", "Joy of Soul", was a consort to Khedive Isma'il Pasha of Egypt.
Shafaq Nur Hanim was the Princess consort of Khedive Isma'il Pasha and was Walida Pasha to their son Tewfik Pasha, the next Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.
Under the Muhammad Ali dynasty, the line of succession to the former Egyptian throne was subject to a number of changes during its history. From its founding in 1805 until 1866, the dynasty followed the imperial Ottoman practice of agnatic seniority, whereby the eldest male in any generation would succeed to the throne. In 1866, however, the then Khedive of Egypt Isma'il Pasha obtained a firman from the Ottoman Emperor which restricted the succession to the male-line descendants of Isma'il Pasha. The resulting succession remained in force until the abolition of the Egyptian monarchy in 1953, following the 1952 Egyptian Revolution.
Çubuklu is a neighborhood in Beykoz ilçe (district) of İstanbul Province, Turkey. Çubuklu is on the Anatolian side of Bosphorus. The place was called Katangion in ancient imes.
| Style of the Egyptian sovereign|
Sultan of Egypt