Khorramabad

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Khorramabad

خرم‌آباد
City
Khorramabad Mosaic 2.jpg
Montage of Khorramabad, Clockwise:Falak-ol-Aflak Castle, Keeyow lake, Shapuri bridge, View of the Khorramabad city, Brick Minaret, Panorama of the Khorramabad
Khorramabad government logo.svg
Seal
Khorramabad-County.png
The territory of the Khorramabad inside the province of Lorestan
Iran location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Khorramabad
Coordinates: 33°29′16″N48°21′21″E / 33.48778°N 48.35583°E / 33.48778; 48.35583 Coordinates: 33°29′16″N48°21′21″E / 33.48778°N 48.35583°E / 33.48778; 48.35583
Country Flag of Iran.svg  Iran
Province Lorestan
County Khorramabad
Bakhsh Central
Elevation
1,147 m (3,763 ft)
Population
(2016 Census)
   Urban
373,416 [1]
Time zone UTC+3:30 (IRST)
  Summer (DST) UTC+4:30 (IRDT)
Climate Csa
Website www.Khorramabad.ir

Khorramabad Loudspeaker.svg pronunciation   (Persian : خرم‌آباد - also Romanized as Khorramābād, Khoramabad, Khurramabad, Khorram Abad and occasionally Khur Ramābād [2] ) is a city and capital of Lorestan Province, Iran. At the time of the 2006 census, its population was 328,544, in 75,945 families. [3] Khorramabad is situated in the Zagros Mountains. Khorramabad Airport is 3 km south of the city proper.

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is a pluricentric language primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

Lorestan Province Province in Region 4, Iran

Lorestan Province, is a province of western Iran in the Zagros Mountains. The population of Lorestan was estimated at 1,716,527 people in 2006. In 2014 it was placed in Region 4.

Iran Country in Western Asia

Iran, also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center.

Contents

The city population is predominantly Lur and Lak, although the two groups are closely related. [4] Although not a major tourist destination, it is quite scenic and possesses several attractions, such as five Paleolithic cave-dwelling sites. [5] In the city center, a tall citadel called Falak-ol-Aflak (The Heaven of Heavens), a relic of the Sassanid era, is now a nationally popular museum.

Lurs Iranian people

Lurs are an Iranian people living mainly in western and south-western Iran. Their population is estimated at around five million. They occupy Lorestan, Kohkiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad, Khuzestan and Fars, Bushehr, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, Hamadan, Ilam, and Isfahan provinces. The Lur people mostly speak the Lurish language, a Southwestern Iranian language related to Persian. According to the Encyclopaedia of Islam, the Lurish language is the closest living language to Archaic and Middle Persian. According to the linguist Don Still, Lori-Bakhtiari like Persian is derived directly from Old Persian. Michael M. Gunter states that Lur people are closely related to the Kurds but that they "apparently began to be distinguished from the Kurds 1,000 years ago." There is also a significant population of Iraqi Lurs in the eastern and central parts of Iraq, mainly known as Feylis.

Paleolithic Prehistoric period, first part of the Stone Age

The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 99% of human technological prehistory. It extends from the earliest known use of stone tools by hominins c. 3.3 million years ago, to the end of the Pleistocene c. 11,650 cal BP.

Economically, it is the regional base of the agricultural industry.

Agriculture Cultivation of plants and animals to provide useful products

Agriculture is the science and art of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11,500 years ago. Pigs, sheep and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Plants were independently cultivated in at least 11 regions of the world. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture in the twentieth century came to dominate agricultural output, though about 2 billion people still depended on subsistence agriculture into the twenty-first.

History

Pre-Islamic era

Elam and Khaydalu destruction by Assyrians Susa-destruction.jpg
Elam and Khaydalu destruction by Assyrians

Khaydalu

Khaydalu was an important city of the Elam civilization. The city of Shapurkhast was built on the ruins of Khaydalu on the orders of Shapur I Sasanid. Many experts believes that the ancient city of Khaydalu was the core of modern Khorramabad.

Elam ancient Pre-Iranic civilization

Elam was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq. The modern name Elam stems from the Sumerian transliteration elam(a), along with the later Akkadian elamtu, and the Elamite haltamti. Elamite states were among the leading political forces of the Ancient Near East. In classical literature Elam was also known as Susiana, a name derived from its capital Susa.

Shapur I Shah of Persia

Shapur I, also known as Shapur the Great, was the second shahanshah of the Sasanian Empire. The dates of his reign are commonly given as 240/42 – 270, but it is likely that he also reigned as co-regent prior to his father's death in 242.

Shapurkhast

In the texts of historians Shapurkhast has been considered one of the most important and developed cities of the region during this period. Falak-ol-Aflak castle ( Dež-e Shāpūr-Khwāst) was built by Shapur I the Sasanid.

Islamic era

Probably in the late seventh century CE, Shapurkhast was destroyed and the people of Shapurkhast moved to the western part of Falak-ol-Aflak Castle, which offered plenty of water as well as safety.

Hamdallah Mustawfi writes: Khorramabad was a beautiful city, now it is destroyed.

Hamdallah Mustawfi Iranian writer and scholar

Ḥamdallāh Mustawfī Qazvīnī was a Persian historian, geographer and epic poet who was descended from a family of Arab origin.

Hazaraspids

The founder of the Hazaraspid dynasty was Abu Tahir ibn Muhammad, a descendant of the Shabankara chieftain Fadluya. Fadluya was initially a commander of the Salghurids of Fars and was appointed governor of Kuhgiluya [6] but eventually gained independence in Luristan and extended his realm as far as Isfahan. He assumed the prestigious title of atabeg.

Safavid dynasty

During the reign of the Safavid dynasty, Khorramabad was the administrative center of Luristan Province. In the wake of the demise of the Safavids, after the signing of the Treaty of Constantinople (1724) with Imperial Russia, the Ottomans conquered Khorramabad on 6 September 1725. [7]

Khorramabad city - Luristan Xuramabad city.jpg
Khorramabad city - Luristan

Qajar dynasty

In this period, the city of Khorramabad was limited to environs of Falak-ol-Aflak Castle.This period was the beginning of a migration of people from small villages into Khorramabad. The increase in population led to the expansion of the city and the creation of new districts.

Pahlavi dynasty

Khorramabad Municipality was formed in 1913 and the first city council, consisting of seven members, was formed in 1916.

Geography and climate

Khorramabad has what is classed under the Köppen climate classification as a semi-arid (BSh) climate with continental influences, owing to its high altitude making it much wetter than lowland cities like Baghdad or cities more shielded from the Zagros Mountains like Esfahan and Tehran. It remains extremely hot in the summer even with very low humidity, but the winter is sufficiently wet for rainfed agriculture.

Climate data for Khorramabad, Iran
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)24.0
(75.2)
26.0
(78.8)
31.0
(87.8)
33.0
(91.4)
41.0
(105.8)
43.0
(109.4)
47.0
(116.6)
46.0
(114.8)
43.0
(109.4)
37.0
(98.6)
30.0
(86.0)
24.0
(75.2)
47.0
(116.6)
Average high °C (°F)10.9
(51.6)
13.3
(55.9)
17.5
(63.5)
22.6
(72.7)
28.9
(84.0)
36.0
(96.8)
39.5
(103.1)
39.1
(102.4)
35.0
(95.0)
27.7
(81.9)
19.7
(67.5)
13.1
(55.6)
25.3
(77.5)
Daily mean °C (°F)5.0
(41.0)
7.1
(44.8)
11.0
(51.8)
15.7
(60.3)
21.2
(70.2)
27.0
(80.6)
30.8
(87.4)
29.8
(85.6)
25.3
(77.5)
19.1
(66.4)
12.3
(54.1)
6.9
(44.4)
17.6
(63.7)
Average low °C (°F)0.1
(32.2)
1.4
(34.5)
4.6
(40.3)
8.3
(46.9)
11.9
(53.4)
15.4
(59.7)
19.5
(67.1)
18.7
(65.7)
14.1
(57.4)
10.0
(50.0)
5.5
(41.9)
1.8
(35.2)
9.3
(48.7)
Record low °C (°F)−14.6
(5.7)
−11.0
(12.2)
−11
(12)
−2.0
(28.4)
−1.8
(28.8)
7.0
(44.6)
9.2
(48.6)
8.0
(46.4)
4.6
(40.3)
−1.4
(29.5)
−7.8
(18.0)
−8.6
(16.5)
−14.6
(5.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches)86.0
(3.39)
73.1
(2.88)
82.5
(3.25)
71.6
(2.82)
36.5
(1.44)
0.3
(0.01)
0.1
(0.00)
0.2
(0.01)
1.2
(0.05)
23.5
(0.93)
54.3
(2.14)
83.6
(3.29)
512.9
(20.19)
Average rainy days11.910.712.911.06.20.40.30.20.44.87.610.176.5
Average snowy days2.61.50.700000000.10.95.8
Average relative humidity (%)69645854432824252839556646.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 163.4170.8187.2206.0264.2340.4347.2330.1302.7257.3191.4160.52,921.2
Source: NOAA (1961-1990) [8]

Main sights

Falak-ol-Aflak Castle

Falak-ol-Aflak Castle Falak ol aflak night.jpg
Falak-ol-Aflak Castle

Falak-ol-Aflak Castle, Dež-e Shāpūr-Khwāst, Falak-ol-Aflak Castle, known in ancient times as Dezbaz as well as Shapur-Khast, is one of the most impressive castles in Iran. It is situated on the top of a large hill with the same name within the city of Khorramabad, the regional capital of Lorestan province. The Khorramabad River runs past the eastern and south-western side of the Falak-ol-Aflak hill providing the fortress with an element of natural protection. Today, the western and northern sides of the hill are bordered by the residential districts of Khorramabad. This gigantic structure was built during the Sassanid era (226–651). It has been known by a number of names since it was built over 1800 years ago. Recorded names have referred to it as Shapur-Khast or Sabr-Khast fortress, Dezbaz, Khorramabad castle, and ultimately the Falak ol-Aflak Castle. The foundations of the actual castle measure approximately 300 meters by 400 meters. The height of the entire structure, including the hill, reaches up to 40 meters above the surrounding area. This space is divided into four large halls, and their associated rooms and corridors. The rooms all surround two courtyards with the following measurements: the first courtyard measures 31×22.50 meters and the second 29x21 meters. . When originally built the castle used to have 12 towers, but only 8 remain standing today. The building's entrance is situated towards the north, within the body of the north-western tower.

Gerdab sangi

Gerdab Sangi is located in Takhti Square in Khorramabad, Lorestan and is made of stones and plaster. It dates back to the Sassanid era (224-651 CE) and is a circular whirlpool built for the purpose of accurate and optimal distribution of water. Encircling several springs, the edifice sits near the prehistoric Qomri Cave. The construction was once used for rationing and distributing potable and agricultural water among local population and farmers. Its surrounding cylindrical stone wall has a height of 10 meters and a diameter of 18 meters. There are a few different-sized outlets in the wall for controlling the flow of water into a canal on the west of the structure. While originally there were 7 of such outlets, however, today only one is functional. This outlet measures 160 x 90 centimeters and opens and closes like a drawer. The water flowing out of this outlet, after a path of approximately 12 kilometers, would eventually make its way to a valley called Baba Abbas. In the vicinity of this valley, and the location of the ancient city of Shapurkhast, the remnants of an old mill, which was run using water from the springs, can be observed. Gerdab Sangi was registered on the National Heritage List in 1976.

Brick minaret

Brick Minaret is a 900-year-old brick tower located beside the ancient city of Shapur khawst, south of Khorramabad, Lorestan province. It was built as a guidepost for caravans in ancient times. The minaret is about 30 meters tall with a circumference of 17.5 meters. Inside the tower there is a spiral staircase of 99 stairs.

Inscribed stone

In a stone-edged circle beside thundering Shari’ati St is an inscribed stone from around AD 1150, apparently setting out details of local grazing rights.

Shapoori bridge

Shapoori Bridge (pl shkhsth (pl shpwry.jpg
Shapoori Bridge

Shapoori Bridge is located in southern KhorramAbad. It has been used to connect the western part of Lorestan (Tarhan) to the east, and then on to Khoozestan province and Taysafun, the capital city of the Sassanian. The bridge is 312 meters long and 10.75 meters high. It has 28 arches and 27 piles. The area of each pile is 61 square meters, and the distance between the two piles is 7.5 meters. Five of its arches are intact; the others have been destroyed by natural factors. The arches of the bridge are made in the form of a wishbone. The piles and breakwaters of the bridge are in the form of six lateral lozenges made of stone. Probably the bridge also was used to distribute water. Materials of the bridge are river stones and stone chips in the arches and truncated stones in the piles. The bridge floor is paved in red block stones that have lost their square shape due to erosion. This attractive, huge bridge belongs to Sassanian era, and it is registered as number 1058 in the list of Iranian national monuments.

Akhoond Aboo house

Akhoond Aboo house is located in the west of Falak-ol-Aflak Castle, in Khorramabad.

Keeyow lake

Keeyow lake is a natural lake located in the Northwest of Khorramabad. This lake spans a seven-hectare area and has a depth of 3 to 7 meters. There is an amusement park as well as other recreational facilities next to this lake. Keeyow lake, which is the only natural city lake in Iran, is a habitat for native and migratory Birds and Aquatic animals. [9]

Colleges and universities

Islamic Azad University of Khorramabad Islamic Azad University of Khorramabad 01.jpg
Islamic Azad University of Khorramabad

Sister cities and twin towns

CountryCityState / Province / Region / GovernorateDate
Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey Afyonkarahisar Afyonkarahisar Province 2015 [13]
Flag of Japan.svg Japan Yamagata Yamagata Prefecture October 2013 [14]

See also

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Falak-ol-Aflak Castle

Falak-ol-Aflak Castle is a castle situated on the top of a large hill with the same name within the city of Khorramabad, the regional capital of Lorestan province, Iran. This gigantic structure was built during the Sassanid era (224–651).

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Shapuri Bridge bridge in Iran

Shapuri Bridge or Broken Bridge is a historical bridge from Sassanid era located in the south of Khorramabad in Lorestan province. The bridge has 28 arches and 27 Pile bridges, each 61 square meters; five of its arches are intact and the others have been destroyed by natural factors. The arches of the bridge have been constructed of stone, whereas the bridge itself is a mixture of stone and mortar. Shapoori Bridge is registered on the list of National Monuments.

Gerdab-e Sangi Iranian national heritage site

Gerdab-e Sangi or Gerdau Bardineh (Persian: گرداب سنگی‎ is a historical stony whirlpool from sassanid era located in Takhti Square of Khorramabad in lorestan province. This Building with a diameter of 18 meters and width of 3 meters and a height of 12m of well floor has surrounded around the seasonal well. Well that Gerdab-e-Sangi is fed by it has water from mid-winter to mid-summer and at other times is dry. The stony whirlpool has been constructed of stone, whereas itself is a mixture of stone and mortar. Gerdab-e Sangi is registered on the list of National Monuments.

Keeyow Lake

Keeyow Lake is a natural lake located in the northwest of Khorramabad in Lorestan Province. This lake spans a seven-hectare area and has a depth of 3 to 7 meters. There is an amusement park as well as other recreational facilities next to this lake. This lake, which is the only natural city lake in Iran, is a habitat for native and migratory birds and aquatic animals.

Brick Minaret

Brick Minaret is a historical minaret in Khorramabad, Iran. This Minaret is close to the Falak-ol-Aflak Castle and was built to help caravans find their ways through dark nights. To facilitate this, a fire was lighted on top of the minaret, which was visible from long distances. Brick Minaret is now located in the south of Khorramabad, and it is registered on the list of National Monuments.

Izad-Khast Castle


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References

  1. https://www.amar.org.ir/english
  2. Khorramabad can be found at GEOnet Names Server , at this link , by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3071194" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".
  3. "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". Islamic Republic of Iran. Archived from the original (Excel) on 2011-11-11.
  4. Anonby, Erik John "Update on Luri: How many languages" JRAS (Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society) Series 3 13(2): pp. 171197, p.183, doi : 10.1017/S1356186303003067
  5. Baumler, Mark F. and Speth, John D. (1993) "A Middle Paleolithic Assemblage from Kunji Cave, Iran" pp. 174 In Olszewski, Deborah and Dibble, Harold Lewis (editors) (1993) The Paleolithic prehistory of the Zagros-Taurus The University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ISBN   978-0-924171-24-6
  6. B. Spuller,Atabakan-e Lorestan [ permanent dead link ], Encyclopædia Iranica.
  7. Somel, Selcuk Aksin (2003). Historical Dictionary of the Ottoman Empire. Scarecrow Press. p. xlvi. ISBN   978-0810866065.
  8. "Khoram Abad Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved December 28, 2012.
  9. "دریاچه کیو خرم‌آباد تنها دریاچه طبیعی درون‌شهری ایران". Young Jouranalists Club. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  10. Lorestan University" homepage, in English Archived September 20, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  11. "Lorestan University of Medical Sciences homepage". Lums.ac.ir. Retrieved 2012-09-12.
  12. "afpkh.ir". afpkh.ir. Archived from the original on 2012-09-11. Retrieved 2012-09-12.
  13. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2015-03-02.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  14. "روزنامه كيهان88/2/14: لرستان و "ياماگاتاي" ژاپن خواهرخوانده شدند". www.magiran.com.