Khorramabad

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Khorramabad

خرم‌آباد
City
Khorramabad Mosaic 2.jpg
Montage of Khorramabad, Clockwise:Falak-ol-Aflak Castle, Keeyow lake, Shapuri bridge, View of the Khorramabad city, Brick Minaret, Panorama of the Khorramabad
Khorramabad government logo.svg
Seal
Khorramabad-County.png
The territory of the Khorramabad inside the province of Lorestan
Iran location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Khorramabad
Coordinates: 33°29′16″N48°21′21″E / 33.48778°N 48.35583°E / 33.48778; 48.35583 Coordinates: 33°29′16″N48°21′21″E / 33.48778°N 48.35583°E / 33.48778; 48.35583
Country Flag of Iran.svg  Iran
Province Lorestan
County Khorramabad
Bakhsh Central
Elevation
1,147 m (3,763 ft)
Population
 (2016 Census)
   Urban
373,416 [1]
Time zone UTC+3:30 (IRST)
  Summer (DST) UTC+4:30 (IRDT)
Climate Csa
Website www.Khorramabad.ir

Khorramabad Loudspeaker.svg pronunciation   (Persian : خرم‌آباد or KhorMoa as local say - also Romanized as Khorramābād, Khoramabad, Khurramabad, Khorram Abad and occasionally Khur Ramābād [2] ) is a city and the capital of Lorestan Province, Iran. At the time of the 2006 census, its population was 328,544, in 75,945 families. [3] Khorramabad is situated on the Zagros Mountains. Khorramabad Airport is 3 km south of the city proper.

Contents

The city population is predominantly Lur and Lak, although the two groups are closely related. [4] Although not a major tourist destination, it is quite scenic and possesses several attractions, such as five Paleolithic cave-dwelling sites. [5] In the city center, a tall citadel called Falak-ol-Aflak (The Heaven of Heavens), a relic of the Sassanid era, is now a nationally popular museum.

Economically, it is the regional base of the agricultural industry.

Etymology

"KhorMoah" is the way local call it. "KhorMoa" in Lori and Laki, local languages, means the place that you can see the sunset.

"KhorMoah" has been translated as "KhorramAbad" in Farsi which means the green and beautiful place.

Modern Persian -âbâd, meaning "settlement" or "abode", derives from Middle Persian āpāt ("populous"). However, according to linguist Sasha Lubotsky, the Persian term ābād might derive from Proto-Iranian *āpāta ("protected"), rooting from Proto-Indo-European *peh₂- ("to protect"). Thus, it can mean "protected settlement".

History

Pre-Islamic era

Simash

During the late third millennium B.C. and early second millennium B.C., when Simashki sovereigns was ruling on Elam, for the first time a fort was built on the peak of a natural cliff to protect the city against its enemies. Sixty hundred years later, Ellipi kings built a new fort on the ruins of the old one. Simash was the name of the place. It was the capital of Simashki dynasty. [6]

Shapurkhast

In the texts of historians Shapurkhast has been considered one of the most important and developed cities of the region during this period. Falak-ol-Aflak castle ( Dež-e Shāpūr-Khwāst) was built by Shapur I the Sasanid.


ShapurKhast name, in Kufic, on Sang Nebeshteh monument Sangnebeshteh 03 1.jpg
ShapurKhast name, in Kufic, on Sang Nebeshteh monument

Islamic era

Probably in the late seventh century CE, Shapurkhast was destroyed and the people of Shapurkhast moved to the western part of Falak-ol-Aflak Castle, which offered plenty of water as well as safety.

Hamdallah Mustawfi writes: Khorramabad was a beautiful city, now it is destroyed.

Hazaraspids

The founder of the Hazaraspid dynasty was Abu Tahir ibn Muhammad, a descendant of the Shabankara chieftain Fadluya. Fadluya was initially a commander of the Salghurids of Fars and was appointed governor of Kuhgiluya [7] but eventually gained independence in Luristan and extended his realm as far as Isfahan. He assumed the prestigious title of atabeg .

Safavid dynasty

During the reign of the Safavid dynasty, Khorramabad was the administrative center of Luristan Province. In the wake of the demise of the Safavids, after the signing of the Treaty of Constantinople (1724) with Imperial Russia, the Ottomans conquered Khorramabad on 6 September 1725. [8]

Qajar dynasty

In this period, the city of Khorramabad was limited to environs of Falak-ol-Aflak Castle. This period was the beginning of a migration of people from small villages into Khorramabad. The increase in population led to the expansion of the city and the creation of new districts.

Pahlavi dynasty

Khorramabad Municipality was formed in 1913 and the first city council, consisting of seven members, was formed in 1916.

Geography

Location

KhorramAbad has mild and semi-humid Mediterranean climate with high amount of rainfall during spring and winter. It is the sixth cities in Iran having high level of annual rainfall. The city is located inside a valley and has been surrounded by mountains. The two main mountains around the city are EsbiKouh (SefidKouh) and Makhmalkouh. The city is rich of underground resources and five main springs passes through it. It has one river called as Gelal or KhorramRud (new name).

Climate

Khorramabad has what is classed under the Köppen climate classification as a Hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Csa) climate. Its elevation is 1147.8 above sea level. Average annual precipitation is 511.06 and its average annual temperature is 17.21 Celsius.

Climate data for Khorramabad, Iran
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)24.0
(75.2)
26.0
(78.8)
31.0
(87.8)
33.0
(91.4)
41.0
(105.8)
43.0
(109.4)
47.0
(116.6)
46.0
(114.8)
43.0
(109.4)
37.0
(98.6)
30.0
(86.0)
24.0
(75.2)
47.0
(116.6)
Average high °C (°F)10.5
(50.9)
12.9
(55.2)
16.5
(61.7)
20.7
(69.3)
27
(81)
35.5
(95.9)
39.5
(103.1)
39.0
(102.2)
35.3
(95.5)
28.1
(82.6)
18.7
(65.7)
13.4
(56.1)
25.3
(77.5)
Daily mean °C (°F)5.0
(41.0)
7.1
(44.8)
10.4
(50.7)
13.8
(56.8)
18.8
(65.8)
25.6
(78.1)
29.6
(85.3)
28.8
(83.8)
24.8
(76.6)
19.0
(66.2)
12.0
(53.6)
7.8
(46.0)
16.9
(62.4)
Average low °C (°F)−0.4
(31.3)
1.3
(34.3)
4.3
(39.7)
7
(45)
10.6
(51.1)
15.7
(60.3)
19.7
(67.5)
18.7
(65.7)
14.4
(57.9)
10.0
(50.0)
5.4
(41.7)
2.2
(36.0)
9.3
(48.7)
Record low °C (°F)−14.6
(5.7)
−11.0
(12.2)
−11
(12)
−2.0
(28.4)
−1.8
(28.8)
7.0
(44.6)
9.2
(48.6)
8.0
(46.4)
4.6
(40.3)
−1.4
(29.5)
−7.8
(18.0)
−8.6
(16.5)
−14.6
(5.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches)86.0
(3.39)
73.1
(2.88)
82.5
(3.25)
71.6
(2.82)
36.5
(1.44)
0.3
(0.01)
0.1
(0.00)
0.2
(0.01)
1.2
(0.05)
23.5
(0.93)
54.3
(2.14)
83.6
(3.29)
512.9
(20.19)
Average rainy days11.910.712.911.06.20.40.30.20.44.87.610.176.5
Average snowy days2.61.50.700000000.10.95.8
Average relative humidity (%)69645854432824252839556646.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 163.4170.8187.2206.0264.2340.4347.2330.1302.7257.3191.4160.52,921.2
Source: NOAA (1961-1990) [9]
KhorramAbad panorama pic.jpg

Main sights

ShapurKhast Castle

ShapurKhast Castle Shapur Khast Castle KhorramAbad.jpg
ShapurKhast Castle

ShapurKhast Castle, Dež-e Shāpūr-Khwāst, Falak-ol-Aflak Castle, known in ancient times as Dezbaz as well as Shapur-Khast, is one of the most impressive castles in Iran. It is situated on the top of a large hill with the same name within the city of Khorramabad, the regional capital of Lorestan province. The Khorramabad River runs past the eastern and south-western side of the ShapurKhast hill providing the fortress with an element of natural protection. Today, the western and northern sides of the hill are bordered by the residential districts of Khorramabad. This gigantic structure was built during the Sassanid era (226–651). It has been known by a number of names since it was built over 1800 years ago. Recorded names have referred to it as Shapur-Khast fortress, Dezbaz, Khorramabad castle, and ultimately the Falak ol-Aflak Castle. The foundations of the actual castle measure approximately 300 meters by 400 meters. The height of the entire structure, including the hill, reaches up to 40 meters above the surrounding area. This space is divided into four large halls, and their associated rooms and corridors. The rooms all surround two courtyards with the following measurements: the first courtyard measures 31×22.50 meters and the second 29x21 meters. . When originally built the castle used to have 12 towers, but only 8 remain standing today. The building's entrance is situated towards the north, within the body of the north-western tower.

From the initial day of erection the castle served a whole variety of purposes including political, military, governmental and social. Now, Dec. 2019, archaeology and anthropology museums are located inside the castle. Bronzes of Lorestan are among the interesting handmade objects inside the archaeology museum. This scarce monument has been inscribed on the National Heritage List under the registration number of 883.

Gerdaw Bardina

Gerdab Sangi or Gerdaw Bardina is a cylindrical shape monument from Sassanid dynasty (224-651 CE) located in Takhti Square. The main construction materials are lime-mortar and rocks exploited from SefidKouh mountain. Encircling several springs, the edifice sits near the prehistoric Qamari Cave. The construction was once used for rationing and distributing potable and agricultural water among local population and farmers. Its surrounding cylindrical stone wall has a height of 10 meters and a diameter of 18 meters. There are a few different-sized outlets in the wall for controlling the flow of water into a canal on the west of the structure. While originally there were 7 of such outlets, however, today only one is functional. This outlet measures 160 x 90 centimeters and opens and closes like a drawer. There is traces of another outlet which the water was flowing from it and was reaching to a stream called Nahre Naseri. The flowing water after a path of approximately 12 kilometers, would eventually made its way to a valley called Baba Abbas. The main interesting thing is the way that they have conducted the water to the stream. Gerdab Sangi has been inscribed on the National Heritage List in 1976.

Brick Minaret of KhorramAbad Brick Minaret KhorramAbad .jpg
Brick Minaret of KhorramAbad

Brick minaret

Brick Minaret is a cylindrical brick tower from Seljuq and Buyid dynasties located inside the ancient city of Shapur khast, south of Khorramabad.

ُThe Iranian minaret are combination of the Indian Stupa, commemorative columns, central Asia tradition of tower building for defensive and communication purposes. [10] Brick Minaret of KhorramAbad was probably used as a guidepost for caravans that pass the city, i.e. communication purpose.

The current height of minaret is 29.45 meters. Since one of the windows of the minaret is located on top of it, undoubtedly its height was higher. A cylindrical column was built inside the minaret and through 99 spiral staircases around the column one can reach to the top of the minaret. The entrance is opened to the west and its characteristics are as follows: length: 80 cm, height: 220 cm. The minaret has six windows of different sizes. The windows spread the light into the dark corridor. Brick and mortar are its main construction material.

This monument has been inscribed on the national heritage list under registration number 1930.

Sang Nebeshteh

Sang Nebeshteh monument, 1119 AD, KhorramAbad, Lorestan, Iran Sangnebeshteh 04 1.jpg
Sang Nebeshteh monument, 1119 AD, KhorramAbad, Lorestan, Iran

Sang Nebeshteh (inscribed stone) is an engraved cubic shape monument with 3.54 m heights located at the eastern part of KhorramAbad city. It dates back to 1119 AD and Saljuq dynasty. It has been written in Kufic script and its subject is governmental rules of ShapurKhast, which is currently known as KhorramAbad city. The carved name of ShapurKhast city can be clearly seen on this monument. This name verifies the existence of ShapurKhast city during old days. It has been inscribed on the national heritage list.

Pole Gap (Gap Bridge)

Pole Gap Pole Gap KhorramAbad Northern view .jpg
Pole Gap

Pole Gap is a Safavid multi-arch bridge passing through KhorramAbad city and located near to ShapurKhast castle. Its twenty arches except its breakwaters and piles are made from bricks and mortar. The height of bridge is about 18 meters. Some of its arches are in the underground of the shops in two sides of the bridge. The bridge is very similar to Si-o-se-pol at Isfahan. About fifty years ago, an inscription has been found inside one of the ruined arches. The inscription has two meters length and 85 centimeters height. Probably, it has been written to protect the bridge form evil eyes and natural phenomena.

Sahpuri Bridge (Tage Pil Eshkesa)

Shapuri bridge, broken bridge, Tage Pil Eshkesah (pl shkhsth (pl shpwry.jpg
Shapuri bridge, broken bridge, Tage Pil Eshkesah

Shapuri bridge has been constructed on KhorramAbad river (Gelal river) by the order of Shapur I during Sassanian period. It was built in the historic rout between Shapurkhast, Tarhan and Ctesiphon, the capital of Sassanian. Lorestan has more than 70 historical bridges and form this perspective is considered as the capital of ancient Iranian bridges.

Shapuri bridge has 312 meters length and elongated in the east-west direction. Some scholars believe that this bridge was the first gigantic bridge in Lorestan province and other bridges in the province has been built by inspiring from it. It has 28 arches and 27 piles, with surface are of 61 square meters. Currently, five of its arches are intact; the others have been destroyed by natural phenomena. The arches of the bridge are made in the form of a wishbone. The piles and breakwaters of the bridge are in the form of six lateral lozenges made of limestone. Probably the bridge also was used to distribute water. Materials of the bridge are river stones and stone chips in the arches and truncated stones in the piles. The bridge floor is paved in red block stones that have lost their square shape due to erosion. This attractive, huge bridge from Sassanid dynasty has been inscribed in the national heritage list under registration number 1058.

AkhoundAbu House

Akhound Abu House, Qajar dynasty, KhorramAbad, Lorestan AkhoundAbu House KhorramAbad.jpg
Akhound Abu House, Qajar dynasty, KhorramAbad, Lorestan

Akhound Abu House is located in the historical texture of KhorramAbad city near to BabaTaher neighborhood and ShapurKhast castle.

It belonged to Mirza Mohsen Gazi, who was chief justice of the city during late Qajar and early Pahlavi dynasties.

The house is semi-introverted and is divided to winter and summer sections. The first one which is used during winter has two important rooms: Panjdari and Sedari. Panjdari is also called Shahneshin and was the most attractive room of the house. Muqarnas, Zigzag bricks (Khefteh-Rasteh), Golandaz are the main decoration of the house. The construction materials of the house are stone, brick, wood and mortar.

Currently, museum of Lorestan's handicrafts is located inside the house. Tickets to visit this house are free. This monument has been inscribed on the national heritage list under registration number 2432.

Keeyow lake

Keeyow Lake in KhorramAbad city Keeyow Lake KhorramAbad.jpg
Keeyow Lake in KhorramAbad city

Keeyow lake is a natural lake located in the Northwest of Khorramabad city. In 1975, It has been constructed by the order of Ali Mohammad Saki, the late mayor of KhorramAbad. This lake spans a seven-hectare area and has a depth of 3 to 7 meters. It is the sole natural lake in Iran which is located inside a city. The lake is an appropriate place for aquatic animals, native and migratory birds. The amusement park as well as other recreational facilities next to the lake enhances its aesthetic and geotouristic values . The main spring of the lake is located in the northern part of the lake and is supplied by aquifers from nearby mountains. [11] Since the spring is a seasonal one, during winter the water is supplied from another permanent spring located under ShapurKhast castle, Golestanspring.

During holidays many tourists and locals spend their leisure time in the amusement park or use other facilities inside a park located near to the lake, KeeyowPark. It is the most important park of the city. Everyday morning, many locals come to use the sporting facilities and/or do the hiking and running around the lake.

Colleges and universities

Islamic Azad University of Khorramabad Islamic Azad University of Khorramabad 01.jpg
Islamic Azad University of Khorramabad

Sister cities and twin towns

CountryCityState / Province / Region / GovernorateDate
Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey Afyonkarahisar Afyonkarahisar Province 2015 [15]
Flag of Japan.svg Japan Yamagata Yamagata Prefecture October 2013 [16]

See also

Related Research Articles

Lorestan Province Province of Iran

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Ilam Province Province of Iran

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Shapur Khast Castle in Khorramabad

Shapur Khast or Falak-ol-Aflak is a castle situated on the top of a large hill with the same name within the city of Khorramabad, the regional capital of Lorestan province, Iran. This gigantic structure was built during the Sassanid era (224–651).

Taq-e Bostan Iranian national heritage site

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Valiollah Rostaminejad is a bird seller who has been elected into the city council in Khorramabad, Lorestan Province, Iran.

Shapuri Bridge bridge in Iran

Shapuri Bridge or Broken Bridge is a historical bridge from Sassanid era located in the south of Khorramabad in Lorestan province. The bridge has 28 arches and 27 Pile bridges, each 61 square meters; five of its arches are intact and the others have been destroyed by natural factors. The arches of the bridge have been constructed of stone, whereas the bridge itself is a mixture of stone and mortar. Shapoori Bridge is registered on the list of National Monuments.

Gerdab-e Sangi Iranian national heritage site

Gerdab-e Sangi or Gerdau Bardineh (Persian: گرداب سنگی‎ is a historical stony whirlpool from sassanid era located in Takhti Square of Khorramabad in lorestan province. This Building with a diameter of 18 meters and width of 3 meters and a height of 12m of well floor has surrounded around the seasonal well. Well that Gerdab-e-Sangi is fed by it has water from mid-winter to mid-summer and at other times is dry. The stony whirlpool has been constructed of stone, whereas itself is a mixture of stone and mortar. Gerdab-e Sangi is registered on the list of National Monuments.

Keeyow Lake

Keeyow Lake is a natural lake in the northwest of Khorramabad in Lorestan Province, Iran. The lake has a seven-hectare area and a depth of 3 to 7 meters. There is an amusement park as well as other recreational facilities next to the lake. It is the only natural city lake in Iran and is a habitat for native and migratory birds and aquatic animals.

Brick Minaret

Brick Minaret is a historical minaret in Khorramabad, Iran. This Minaret is close to the Falak-ol-Aflak Castle and was built to help caravans find their ways through dark nights. To facilitate this, a fire was lighted on top of the minaret, which was visible from long distances. Brick Minaret is now located in the south of Khorramabad, and it is registered on the list of National Monuments.

Izad-Khast Castle Iranian national heritage site

The Izad Khast Castle is located in Izadkhast in the Fars Province, central Iran. The castle was built during the Sassanid Empire and functioned as fortified walled city on the ancient Silk Road that ran through central Iran. Izadkhast was the first castle in the world made from adobe. And it is the second largest adobe building in the world after Arg-e Bam.

References

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  12. Lorestan University" homepage, in English Archived September 20, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
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  15. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2015-03-02.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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