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Khost (Matun) District (Pashto : خوست ولسوالۍ) is situated in the central and eastern part of Khost Province, Afghanistan. The district center is the town of Khost. Khost Airfield is situated 2 miles (3.2 km) southeast of the town of Khost.
When Nader Shah was a general, he was responsible for putting down an uprising in the district, where the locals had rebelled against the Amir due to heavy taxation and robbery.
On 2 January 1879, General Roberts entered Matun from Hazir Pir in the Kurram valley, with a small armed contingent.The intent was to pacify the district, which was described as "an unsophisticated country where the revenue had hitherto been collected in copper."
During the Soviet–Afghan War, the mujahideen guerrillas, blockaded Khost District, cutting off all lines of communication. The Soviets were forced to respond with Operation Magistral in 1987 to reopen the Khost–Gardez Road and bring relief to the District.Khost District was the scene of intense fighting in 1987, with over 1,500 guerrillas and one American adviser killed by DRA troops, according to Tass, the official Soviet news agency.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which small groups of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility, to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
The Soviet–Afghan War was a conflict wherein insurgent groups, as well as smaller Maoist groups, fought a nine-year guerrilla war against the Soviet Army and the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan government throughout the 1980s, mostly in the Afghan countryside. The Mujahideen were variously backed primarily by the United States, Pakistan, Iran, Saudi Arabia, China, and the United Kingdom; the conflict was a Cold War-era proxy war. Between 562,000 and 2,000,000 Afghans were killed and millions more fled the country as refugees, mostly to Pakistan and Iran. The war caused grave destruction in Afghanistan and is believed to have contributed to the Soviet collapse, in hindsight leaving a mixed legacy to people in both territories.
Khōst is the capital city of Khost Province, Afghanistan. It is the largest city in the southeastern part of the country, and also the largest in the region of Loya Paktia. To the south and east of Khost lie Waziristan and Kurram in Pakistan. Khost is the home of Shaikh Zayed University. Khost Airport serves the city as well as the larger region surrounding the city.
The Shah-i-Kot Valley is a valley located in Afghanistan's Paktia province, southeast of the town of Zormat. The terrain in and around the valley is notoriously rugged, located at a mean altitude of 9,000 feet (2,700 m). Shah-i-Kot means "Place of the King" and it has historically been a redoubt for Afghan guerrillas hiding from foreign invaders.
Logar is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan located in the eastern section of the country. It is divided into seven districts and contains hundreds of villages. Puli Alam is the capital of the province.
Paktia is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the east of the country. Forming part of the larger Loya Paktia region, Paktia Province is divided into 13 districts and has a population of roughly 611,952, which is mostly a tribal society living in rural areas. Pashtuns make up the majority of the population but smaller number of Tajiks are also found. Gardez is the provincial capital.
This article covers the Afghan history from the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan on 15 February 1989 until 27 April 1992, the day after the proclamation of the Peshawar Accords proclaiming a new interim Afghan government which was supposed to start serving on 28 April 1992.
Operation Magistral was a Soviet Army military operation during the Soviet–Afghan War that began in late November 1987 and ended in early January 1988.
The Panjshir offensives were a series of battles between the Soviet Army and groups of Afghan Mujahideen under Ahmad Shah Massoud for the control of the strategic Panjshir Valley, during the Soviet–Afghan War in the period from 1980 to 1985.
The Battles of Zhawar were fought during the Soviet–Afghan War between Soviet Army units, and their allies of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan against Afghan mujahideen groups. The Soviets' objective was to destroy the Mujahideen logistic base situated at Zhawar, 3 kilometers from the Pakistani border.
The following lists events that happened during 1933 in Afghanistan.
The following lists events that happened during 1987 in Afghanistan.
Mandozai District, also known as Ismail Khel, is situated in the central part of Khost Province, Afghanistan. It borders Nadir Shah Kot District to the north and west, Khost (Matun) District to the east, Gurbuz District to the southwest and Tani District to the south. The population is 50,000 (2006). The district center is the village of Dadwal.
Since the 1970s, the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) has engaged in multiple operations in Afghanistan. The first major operation, code-named Operation Cyclone, began in 1979. It was a program to arm and finance the mujahideen fighters in Afghanistan prior to and during the military intervention by the Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.). President Ronald Reagan had supported an expansion of the Reagan Doctrine, which aided anti-Soviet resistance movements. The program primarily supported militant Islamic groups that were favored by the regime of Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq in neighboring Pakistan, at the expense of other resistance groups fighting the Marxist-oriented Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA). Operation Cyclone was one of the longest and most expensive covert CIA operations ever undertaken; costing over $20–$30 million per year in 1980, and rising to $630 million per year in 1987. Funding continued after 1989 as the mujahideen battled the forces of Mohammad Najibullah's PDPA during the civil war in Afghanistan (1989–1992). After the withdrawal of Soviet troops, the CIA's objective was to topple the Najibullah government, which had been formed under the Soviet occupation. The three main factions that the CIA supported were: Ahmed Shah Massoud, Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, and Jalaluddin Haqqani. Another civil war developed in 1990, as the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) and Hekmatyar sought to violently eliminate all rivals, including Massoud. In spite of this internecine warfare, the ISI and CIA formulated a plan to topple the Najibullah government in a winter of 1989–1990 offensive on Kabul. As part of this offensive, the CIA paid Massoud $500,000, over and above his monthly stipend of $200,000, to close the Salang Pass, which Massoud failed to do. During this period, the U.S. became increasingly concerned with the relationship between Pakistan and the Taliban, as the Taliban became a more extreme and direct threat to the United States, its citizens, and its foreign dignitaries.
The Haqqani network is an Afghan guerrilla insurgent group using asymmetric warfare to fight against US-led NATO forces and the government of Afghanistan. Maulvi Jalaluddin Haqqani and his son Sirajuddin Haqqani have led the group. It is an offshoot of the Taliban.
The Khost rebellion, also known as the 1924 Mangal uprising, the Khost revolt or the Mangal Revolt was an uprising against the Westernization and modernizing reforms of Afghanistan’s king, Amanullah Khan. The uprising was launched in Southern Province, Afghanistan, and lasted from March 1924 to January 1925. It was fought by the Mangal Pashtun tribe, later joined by the Sulaiman Khel, Ali Khel, Jaji, Jadran and Ahmadzai tribes. After causing the death of over 14,000 Afghans, the revolt was finally quelled in January 1925.
The Khost rebellion was a rebellion in Khost that took place in 1912 in the Emirate of Afghanistan, and was the only serious crisis during the reign of Habibullah Khan.
The Afghan tribal revolts of 1944–1947 or the Khost disturbances were a series of tribal revolts in the Kingdom of Afghanistan by Zadran, Safi and Mangal tribesmen which lasted from February 1944 to January 1947. The causes of the revolts laid in the worsening conditions of farmers, changes in conscription laws, the elimination of the power of Safi tribal leaders, Amanullah loyalism, trading monopolies, government surveillance, taxation, and poverty. The conflict began when government forces clashed with the forces of a tribal leader named Mazrak, who led the Zadran tribe in revolt. The Zadran uprising was followed by additional uprisings by the Safi and Mangal, the former of which elected their own king, Salemai. Faqir Ipi, a tribal leader from Waziristan, also fought for the restoration of former king Amanullah Khan alongside other rebels.
Amanullah loyalism refers to several historical movements in the Kingdom of Afghanistan to restore Amanullah Khan as king of Afghanistan after he was deposed in January 1929 during the Afghan Civil War. Loyalists were sometimes referred to as Amanite. Loyalists tried to achieve this in various ways, including armed rebellions, political parties, colluding with foreign powers and assassinations. These movements were unsuccessful, and Amanullah died in exile in 1960 in Zürich, Switzerland without ever regaining control, other than a brief period of control in southern Afghanistan in the 1929 Afghan Civil War.