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Khowar written in the Arabic script
|Khowar alphabet (Arabic script)|
Khowar is a minor language of Pakistan which is mainly spoken in Chitral, it is given a space in this map.
Khowar (کهووار), is an Indo-Aryan language of the Dardic group spoken in Chitral and Gilgit region of Pakistan.
Khowar is spoken by the Kho people in the whole of Chitral, as well as in the Gupis-Yasin and Ghizer districts of Gilgit, and in parts of Upper Swat (Mateltan Village).[ citation needed ] Speakers of Khowar have also migrated heavily to Pakistan's major urban centres with Peshawar, Islamabad, Lahore and Karachi, having significant populations. It is also spoken as a second language by the Kalash people.
The native name of the language is Khō-wār,meaning "language" (wār) of the Kho people. During the British Raj it was known to the English as Chitrālī (a derived adjective from the name of the Chitral region) or Qāshqārī. Among the Pathans and Badakshis it is known as Kashkār. Another name, used by Leitner in 1880, is Arnyiá or Arniya, derived from the Shina language name for the part of the Yasin (a valley in Gilgit-Baltistan) where Khowar is spoken.
Georg Morgenstierne noted, "Khowar, in many respects [is] the most archaic of all modern Indian languages, retaining a great part of Sanskrit case inflexion, and retaining many words in a nearly Sanskritic form". 3:
Khowar has a variety of dialects, which may vary phonemically.The following tables lay out the basic phonology of Khowar.
Khowar may also have nasalized vowels and a series of long vowels /ɑː/, /ɛː/, /iː/, /ɔː/, and /uː/. Sources are inconsistent on whether length is phonemic, with one author stating "vowel-length is observed mainly as a substitute one. The vowel-length of phonological value is noted far more rarely." Unlike the neighboring and related Kalasha language, Khowar does not have retroflex vowels.
|Approximant||ʋ||l (ʲ) ɫ||j||( w )|
Allophones of /x ɣ h ʋ ɾ/ are heard as sounds [χ ʁ ɦ w ɹ].
Khowar, like many Dardic languages, has either phonemic tone or stress distinctions.
Since the early twentieth century Khowar has been written in the Khowar alphabet, which is based on the Urdu alphabet and uses the Nasta'liq script. Prior to that, the language was carried on through oral tradition. Today Urdu and English are the official languages and the only major literary usage of Khowar is in both poetry and prose composition. Khowar has also been occasionally written in a version of the Roman script called Roman Khowar since the 1960s.
|TV Channel||Genre||Founded||Official Website|
|Khyber News TV (خیبر نیوز ٹیلی ویژن)||News and current affairs||http://www.khybernews.tv/|
|AVT Khyber TV (اے وی ٹی خیبر)||Entertainment||http://www.avtkhyber.tv/|
|K2 TV (کے ٹو)||Entertainment, news and current affairs||http://www.kay2.tv/|
|Zeal News (ذیل نیوز)||News and Current Affairs||2016||http://www.khowar.zealnews.tv|
These are not dedicated Khowar channels but play most programmes in Khowar.
|Radio Channel||Genre||Founded||Official Website|
|Radio Pakistan Chitral FM93||Entertainment||http://www.radio.gov.pk/|
|Radio Pakistan Peshawar||Entertainment||http://www.radio.gov.pk/|
|Radio Pakistan Gilgit||Entertainment||http://www.radio.gov.pk/|
|Chitral Vision (چترال وژن)||Karachi, Chitral, Pakistan||https://www.chitralvision.com|
Pakistan's estimated population in 2021 was 225,199,937 according to the 2017 Census of Pakistan. Pakistan is the world's fifth-most-populous country. However, as per recent 2020 statistics, the current population of Pakistan is 222,903,998 with the growth rate of 2.0%.
Pakistan is home to many dozens of languages spoken as first languages. Five languages have more than 10 million speakers each in Pakistan – Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, Saraiki and Urdu. Almost all of Pakistan's languages belong to the Indo-Iranian group of the Indo-European language family.
The Nuristani languages, formerly known as Kafiri languages, are one of the three groups within the Indo-Iranian language family, alongside the much larger Indo-Aryan and Iranian groups. They have approximately 130,000 speakers primarily in eastern Afghanistan and a few adjacent valleys in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa's Chitral District, Pakistan. The region inhabited by the Nuristanis is located in the southern Hindu Kush mountains, and is drained by the Alingar River in the west, the Pech River in the center, and the Landai Sin and Kunar rivers in the east. The languages were previously often grouped with Indo-Aryan or Iranian until they were finally classified as forming a third branch in Indo-Iranian.
The Dardic languages are a subgroup of the Indo-Aryan languages natively spoken in northern Pakistan's Gilgit Baltistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Northern India's Kashmir Valley and Chenab Valley and parts of Eastern Afghanistan. Kashmiri is the most prominent Dardic language, with an established literary tradition; alongside official recognition as one of India's 22 scheduled languages.
The Dards are a group of Indo-Aryan peoples found predominantly in northern Pakistan, northwestern India and eastern Afghanistan. They speak Dardic languages, which belong to the Indo-Aryan family of Indo-European languages. The largest populations of Dards are in Gilgit-Baltistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan and in the Kashmir Valley and Chenab Valley in India. There are smaller populations in Ladakh in India and in eastern Afghanistan. The Kashmiri people are the largest Dardic group, with a population of over 5.5 million.
Chitral is a town situated on the Chitral River in northern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. It serves as the capital of the Chitral District and likewise served as the capital of the Chitral princely state that encompassed the region until its direct incorporation into West Pakistan in 1969.
Dardistan is a term coined by Gottlieb Wilhelm Leitner that refers to a region comprising Northern Pakistan, parts of Indian Kashmir and parts of Northeastern Afghanistan. It is inhabited by various Dards, who speak Dardic languages. It includes Chitral, the upper reaches of the Panjkora River, the Kohistan (highland) of Swat and the upper portions of the Gilgit Agency. Mentioned by the classical historians Pliny the Elder, Ptolemy and Herodotus, the Dards are said to be people of Aryan origin who ascended the Indus Valley from the Punjab plains, reaching as far north as Chitral. They converted to Islam in the 14th century and speak three distinct dialects of Gilgit: Khowar, Burushaski and Shina—employing the Persian script in writing.
Dameli is a Dardic language spoken by approximately 5,000 people in the Domel Valley, in the Chitral District of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Kalasha is an Indo-European language in the Indo-Aryan branch spoken by the Kalash people, further classified as a Dardic language in the Chitral group. The Kalasha language is phonologically atypical because it contrasts plain, long, nasal and retroflex vowels as well as combinations of these.
Palula and also known as Ashreti (Aćharêtâʹ) or Dangarikwar, is a Dardic language spoken by approximately 10,000 people in the valleys of Ashret and Biori, as well as in the village of Puri in the Shishi valley and at least by a portion of the population in the village Kalkatak, in the Chitral District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. It is closely related to the Sawi language of Afghanistan and to Kalkoti, which is spoken in Dir District. The area where Palula is spoken includes.
Gawar-Bati or Narsati is a Dardic language spoken in the Chitral region of northern Pakistan, and across the border in Afghanistan. It is also known as Aranduyiwar in Chitral because it is spoken in Arandu, which is the last village in lower Chitral and is also across the border from Berkot in Afghanistan. There are about 9,000 speakers of Gawar-Bati, with 1,500 in Pakistan, and 7,500 in Afghanistan. The name Gawar-Bati means "speech of the Gawar", a people detailed by the Cacopardos in their study of the Hindu Kush.
The Yidgha language is an Eastern Iranian language of the Pamir group spoken in the upper Lotkoh Valley of Chitral in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Yidgha is similar to the Munji language spoken on the Afghan side of the border.
Yasin, also known as Babaye-i-Yasen or Worshigum, is a high mountain valley in the Hindu Kush mountains, in the northern part of Gupis-Yasin District in the territory of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. The valley is about 148 kilometres (92 mi) from city of Gilgit. The Yasin Tehsil is situated on its territory.
Shina is a language from the Dardic sub-group of the Indo-Aryan family spoken by the Shina people, a plurality of the people in Gilgit-Baltistan and Chitral of Pakistan and a number of people in Ladakh, India, as well as in pockets in Jammu and Kashmir, India, such as in Gurez and Chanderkot.
Chitrali may refer to:
The Shina, also known as the Shin are a Dardic tribe residing in southern Gilgit–Baltistan, Chitral and the western part of the Kohistan district in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, as well as the Dras Valley and Kishenganga Valley in the northern region of Jammu and Kashmir, India. They speak an Indo-Aryan language, called Shina, which has varied dialects, such as Brokskat.
The Kho or Chitrali people are an Dardic ethnolinguistic group associated with the Dardistan region. They speak Khowar, which is a member of the Dardic subgroup of the Indo-Aryan language family. Many Kho people live in the Chitral, Ghizer in Gilgit-Baltistan, of Pakistan.
The Kalasha, or Kalash, also called Waigali or Wai, are a Dardic Indo-Aryan indigenous people residing in the Chitral District of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Chitrali usually refers to:
Gupis (Goopechh) Valley is located about 112 kilometers to the west of Gilgit on the bank of River Gilgit, District Ghizer, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. The Gupis is 2176 meters above sea level. This fort was once used by the military for defence purposes. Later the king (Raja) of the time lived in this fort for several years.
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