Khowar language

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Khowar
کهووار
Khowar language.png
Khowar written in the Arabic script
Native to Pakistan
Region Chitral District
Ethnicity Kho
Native speakers
290,000 (2004) [1]
Khowar alphabet (Arabic script)
Language codes
ISO 639-3 khw
Glottolog khow1242
ELP Khowar
Linguasphere 59-AAB-aa
Minor languages of Pakistan as of the 1998 census.png
Khowar is a minor language of Pakistan which is mainly spoken in Chitral, it is given a space in this map.
Khowar special letter U+076E Naskh style.svg
Khowar special letter

Khowar (کهووار), is an Indo-Aryan language of the Dardic group spoken in Chitral and Gilgit region of Pakistan. [2]

Contents

Khowar is spoken by the Kho people in the whole of Chitral, as well as in the Gupis-Yasin and Ghizer districts of Gilgit, and in parts of Upper Swat (Mateltan Village).[ citation needed ] Speakers of Khowar have also migrated heavily to Pakistan's major urban centres with Peshawar, Islamabad, Lahore and Karachi, having significant populations. It is also spoken as a second language by the Kalash people.

Names

The native name of the language is Khō-wār, [3] meaning "language" (wār) of the Kho people. During the British Raj it was known to the English as Chitrālī (a derived adjective from the name of the Chitral region) or Qāshqārī. [3] Among the Pathans and Badakshis it is known as Kashkār. [4] Another name, used by Leitner in 1880, is Arnyiá [5] or Arniya, derived from the Shina language name for the part of the Yasin (a valley in Gilgit-Baltistan) where Khowar is spoken. [3]

History

Georg Morgenstierne noted, "Khowar, in many respects [is] the most archaic of all modern Indian languages, retaining a great part of Sanskrit case inflexion, and retaining many words in a nearly Sanskritic form". [6] :3

Phonology

Khowar has a variety of dialects, which may vary phonemically. [7] The following tables lay out the basic phonology of Khowar. [8] [9] [10]

Vowels

Front Central Back
Close iu
Mid ɛɔ
Open ɑ

Khowar may also have nasalized vowels and a series of long vowels /ɑː/, /ɛː/, /iː/, /ɔː/, and /uː/. Sources are inconsistent on whether length is phonemic, with one author stating "vowel-length is observed mainly as a substitute one. The vowel-length of phonological value is noted far more rarely." [7] Unlike the neighboring and related Kalasha language, Khowar does not have retroflex vowels. [8]

Consonants

Labial Coronal Retroflex Palatal Velar Post-
velar
Glottal
Nasal m n
Stop voiceless p t ʈ k q
voiced b d ɖ g
aspirated ʈʰ
Affricate voiceless ts ʈʂ
voiced dz ɖʐ
aspirated tsʰʈʂʰtɕʰ
Fricative voiceless f s ʂ ɕ x h
voiced z ʐ ʑ ɣ
Approximant ʋ l (ʲ) ɫ j ( w )
Rhotic ɾ

Allophones of /x ɣ h ʋ ɾ/ are heard as sounds [χ ʁ ɦ w ɹ]. [10]

Tone

Khowar, like many Dardic languages, has either phonemic tone or stress distinctions. [11]

Writing system

Since the early twentieth century Khowar has been written in the Khowar alphabet, which is based on the Urdu alphabet and uses the Nasta'liq script. Prior to that, the language was carried on through oral tradition. Today Urdu and English are the official languages and the only major literary usage of Khowar is in both poetry and prose composition. Khowar has also been occasionally written in a version of the Roman script called Roman Khowar since the 1960s.

Dialects

Media

Television channels

TV ChannelGenreFoundedOfficial Website
Khyber News TV (خیبر نیوز ٹیلی ویژن)News and current affairs  http://www.khybernews.tv/
AVT Khyber TV (اے وی ٹی خیبر)Entertainment  http://www.avtkhyber.tv/
K2 TV (کے ٹو)Entertainment, news and current affairs  http://www.kay2.tv/
Zeal News (ذیل نیوز)News and Current Affairs2016 http://www.khowar.zealnews.tv

Radio

These are not dedicated Khowar channels but play most programmes in Khowar.

Radio ChannelGenreFoundedOfficial Website
Radio Pakistan Chitral FM93Entertainment http://www.radio.gov.pk/
Radio Pakistan PeshawarEntertainment http://www.radio.gov.pk/
Radio Pakistan GilgitEntertainment http://www.radio.gov.pk/
FM97 ChitralEntertainment http://www.hotfm.com.pk

Newspapers

NewspaperCity(ies)FoundedOfficial Website
Chitral Vision (چترال وژن)Karachi, Chitral, Pakistan   https://www.chitralvision.com
Chitral Today   http://chitraltoday.net

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Nuristani languages Language group of the Indo-Iranian language family

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The Dardic languages are a subgroup of the Indo-Aryan languages natively spoken in northern Pakistan's Gilgit Baltistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Northern India's Kashmir Valley and Chenab Valley and parts of Eastern Afghanistan. Kashmiri is the most prominent Dardic language, with an established literary tradition; alongside official recognition as one of India's 22 scheduled languages.

Dardic peoples Group of Indo-Aryan peoples

The Dards are a group of Indo-Aryan peoples found predominantly in northern Pakistan, northwestern India and eastern Afghanistan. They speak Dardic languages, which belong to the Indo-Aryan family of Indo-European languages. The largest populations of Dards are in Gilgit-Baltistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan and in the Kashmir Valley and Chenab Valley in India. There are smaller populations in Ladakh in India and in eastern Afghanistan. The Kashmiri people are the largest Dardic group, with a population of over 5.5 million.

Chitral Town in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Chitral is a town situated on the Chitral River in northern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. It serves as the capital of the Chitral District and likewise served as the capital of the Chitral princely state that encompassed the region until its direct incorporation into West Pakistan in 1969.

Dardistan is a term coined by Gottlieb Wilhelm Leitner that refers to a region comprising Northern Pakistan, parts of Indian Kashmir and parts of Northeastern Afghanistan. It is inhabited by various Dards, who speak Dardic languages. It includes Chitral, the upper reaches of the Panjkora River, the Kohistan (highland) of Swat and the upper portions of the Gilgit Agency. Mentioned by the classical historians Pliny the Elder, Ptolemy and Herodotus, the Dards are said to be people of Aryan origin who ascended the Indus Valley from the Punjab plains, reaching as far north as Chitral. They converted to Islam in the 14th century and speak three distinct dialects of Gilgit: Khowar, Burushaski and Shina—employing the Persian script in writing.

Dameli is a Dardic language spoken by approximately 5,000 people in the Domel Valley, in the Chitral District of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.

Kalasha-mun

Kalasha is an Indo-European language in the Indo-Aryan branch spoken by the Kalash people, further classified as a Dardic language in the Chitral group. The Kalasha language is phonologically atypical because it contrasts plain, long, nasal and retroflex vowels as well as combinations of these.

Palula language

Palula and also known as Ashreti (Aćharêtâʹ) or Dangarikwar, is a Dardic language spoken by approximately 10,000 people in the valleys of Ashret and Biori, as well as in the village of Puri in the Shishi valley and at least by a portion of the population in the village Kalkatak, in the Chitral District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. It is closely related to the Sawi language of Afghanistan and to Kalkoti, which is spoken in Dir District. The area where Palula is spoken includes 35°28′N71°53′E.

Gawar-Bati or Narsati is a Dardic language spoken in the Chitral region of northern Pakistan, and across the border in Afghanistan. It is also known as Aranduyiwar in Chitral because it is spoken in Arandu, which is the last village in lower Chitral and is also across the border from Berkot in Afghanistan. There are about 9,000 speakers of Gawar-Bati, with 1,500 in Pakistan, and 7,500 in Afghanistan. The name Gawar-Bati means "speech of the Gawar", a people detailed by the Cacopardos in their study of the Hindu Kush.

The Yidgha language is an Eastern Iranian language of the Pamir group spoken in the upper Lotkoh Valley of Chitral in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Yidgha is similar to the Munji language spoken on the Afghan side of the border.

Yasin Valley Valley in Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan

Yasin, also known as Babaye-i-Yasen or Worshigum, is a high mountain valley in the Hindu Kush mountains, in the northern part of Gupis-Yasin District in the territory of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. The valley is about 148 kilometres (92 mi) from city of Gilgit. The Yasin Tehsil is situated on its territory.

Shina language Language from the Dardic sub-group of the Indo-Aryan languages family spoken by the Shina people, living in Kashmir region in Pakistan and India

Shina is a language from the Dardic sub-group of the Indo-Aryan family spoken by the Shina people, a plurality of the people in Gilgit-Baltistan and Chitral of Pakistan and a number of people in Ladakh, India, as well as in pockets in Jammu and Kashmir, India, such as in Gurez and Chanderkot.

Chitrali may refer to:

Shina people Ethnic group in Pakistan and India

The Shina, also known as the Shin are a Dardic tribe residing in southern Gilgit–Baltistan, Chitral and the western part of the Kohistan district in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, as well as the Dras Valley and Kishenganga Valley in the northern region of Jammu and Kashmir, India. They speak an Indo-Aryan language, called Shina, which has varied dialects, such as Brokskat.

The Kho or Chitrali people are an Dardic ethnolinguistic group associated with the Dardistan region. They speak Khowar, which is a member of the Dardic subgroup of the Indo-Aryan language family. Many Kho people live in the Chitral, Ghizer in Gilgit-Baltistan, of Pakistan.

Kalash people Ethnic group of Chitral, Pakistan

The Kalasha, or Kalash, also called Waigali or Wai, are a Dardic Indo-Aryan indigenous people residing in the Chitral District of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.

Chitrali usually refers to:

Gupis (Goopechh) Valley is located about 112 kilometers to the west of Gilgit on the bank of River Gilgit, District Ghizer, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. The Gupis is 2176 meters above sea level. This fort was once used by the military for defence purposes. Later the king (Raja) of the time lived in this fort for several years.

References

  1. Khowar at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
  2. electricpulp.com. "DARDESTĀN – Encyclopaedia Iranica".
  3. 1 2 3 Grierson, George A. (1919). Linguistic Survey of India . Volume VIII, Part 2, Indo-Aryan family. North-western group. Specimens of the Dardic or Piśācha languages (including Kāshmiri) . Calcutta: Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, India. p. 133.
  4. O'Brien, Donatus James Thomond (1895). Grammar and vocabulary of the K̲h̲owâr dialect (Chitrâli). Lahore: Civil and military gazette press. p. i.
  5. Leitner, Gottlieb William (1880). Kafiristan. Section 1: the Bashgeli Kafirs and their language. Lahore: Dilbagroy. p. 43. Retrieved 6 June 2016.
  6. Morgenstierne, Georg (1974). "Languages of Nuristan and surrounding regions". In Jettmar, Karl; Edelberg, Lennart (eds.). Cultures of the Hindukush: selected papers from the Hindu-Kush Cultural Conference held at Moesgård 1970. Beiträge zur Südasienforschung, Südasien-Institut Universität Heidelberg. Bd. 1. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner. pp. 1–10. ISBN   978-3-515-01217-1.
  7. 1 2 Edelman, D. I. (1983). The Dardic and Nuristani Languages. Moscow: Institut vostokovedenii︠a︡ (Akademii︠a︡ nauk SSSR). p. 210.
  8. 1 2 Bashir, Elena L. (1988), "Topics in Kalasha Syntax: An areal and typological perspective" (PDF), Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan: 37–40
  9. Bashir, Elena L.; Nigah, Maula; Baig, Rahmat Karim, A Digital Khowar-English Dictionary with Audio
  10. 1 2 Liljegren, H.; Khan, A. (2017). "Khowar". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 47: 219–229.
  11. Baart, Joan L. G. (2003), Tonal features in languages of northern Pakistan (PDF), National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University and Summer Institute of Linguistics, pp. 3, 6

Additional references


https://www.chitraltoday.net/2015/06/cultural-diversity-of-chitral/#:~:text=Chitral%20is%20also%20the%20most,lived%20together%20peacefully%20for%20centuries.