Khwarazmian dynasty

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Khwarazmian Empire

خوارزمشاهیان
Khwārazmshāhiyān
1077–1231
Khwarezmian Empire 1190 - 1220 (AD).PNG
Khwarezmid Empire's Area
Capital Gurganj
(1077–1212)
Samarkand
(1212–1220)
Ghazna
(1220–1221)
Tabriz
(1225–1231)
Common languages Persian [1]
Kipchak Turkic [2]
Religion
Sunni Islam
GovernmentOligarchy
Khwarazm-Shah or Sultan  
 1077–1096/7
Anushtigin Gharchai
 1220–1231
Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu
Historical era Medieval
 Established
1077
1218-1221
1230
 Disestablished
1231
Area
1210 est. [3] or2,300,000 km2 (890,000 sq mi)
1218 est. [4] 3,600,000 km2 (1,400,000 sq mi)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Blank.png Great Seljuq Empire
Blank.png Ghurid Dynasty
Mongol Empire Blank.png

The Khwarazmian dynasty ( /kwəˈræzmiən/ ; [5] also known as the Khwarezmid dynasty, the Anushtegin dynasty, the dynasty of Khwarazm Shahs, and other spelling variants; from (Persian : خوارزمشاهیان, translit.  Khwārazmshāhiyān "Kings of Khwarazm") was a Persianate [6] [7] [8] Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin. [9] [10] The dynasty ruled large parts of Central Asia and Iran during the High Middle Ages, in the approximate period of 1077 to 1231, first as vassals of the Seljuqs [11] and Qara-Khitan, [12] and later as independent rulers, up until the Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia in the 13th century. The dynasty spanned 2.3 [13] (or 3.6 [14] ) million square kilometers.

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is a pluricentric language primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

Romanization of Persian or Latinization of Persian is the representation of the Persian language with the Latin script. Several different romanization schemes exist, each with its own set of rules driven by its own set of ideological goals.

Khwarazm oasis region

Khwarazm, or Chorasmia is a large oasis region on the Amu Darya river delta in western Central Asia, bordered on the north by the (former) Aral Sea, on the east by the Kyzylkum desert, on the south by the Karakum desert, and on the west by the Ustyurt Plateau. It was the center of the Iranian Khwarazmian civilization, and a series of kingdoms such as the Persian Empire, whose capitals were Kath, Gurganj and – from the 16th century on – Khiva. Today Khwarazm belongs partly to Uzbekistan, partly to Kazakhstan and partly to Turkmenistan.

Contents

The dynasty was founded by commander Anush Tigin Gharchai, a former Turkic slave of the Seljuq sultans, who was appointed as governor of Khwarezm. His son, Qutb ad-Din Muhammad I, became the first hereditary Shah of Khwarezm. [15]

Qutb ad-Din Muhammad was the first Shah of Khwarezm from 1097 to 1127. He was the son of Anushtegin Gharchai.

Shah Persian title

Shah is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran. It was also adopted by the kings of Shirvan namely the Shirvanshahs. It was also used by Persianate societies such as the rulers and offspring of the Ottoman Empire, Mughal emperors of the Indian Subcontinent, the Bengal Sultanate, as well as in Afghanistan. In Iran the title was continuously used; rather than King in the European sense, each Persian ruler regarded himself as the Shahanshah or Padishah of the Persian Empire.

History of the Turkic peoples Hunting Party with the Sultan Jean Baptiste Vanmour 18th century.JPG
History of the Turkic peoples
History of the Turkic peoples
Pre-14th century
Turkic Khaganate 552–744
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Turk Shahi 665–850
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Uyghur Khaganate 744–840
Karluk Yabgu State 756–940
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Oghuz Yabgu State
750–1055
Ghaznavid Empire 963–1186
Seljuk Empire 1037–1194
  Sultanate of Rum
Kerait khanate 11th century–13th century
Khwarazmian Empire 1077–1231
Naiman Khanate –1204
Qarlughid Kingdom 1224–1266
Delhi Sultanate 1206–1526
  Mamluk dynasty
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Golden Horde | [16] [17] [18] 1240s–1502
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History

The date of the founding of the Khwarazmian dynasty remains debatable. During a revolt in 1017, Khwarezmian rebels murdered Abu'l-Abbas Ma'mun and his wife, Hurra-ji, sister of the Ghaznavid sultan Mahmud. [19] In response, Mahmud invaded and occupied the region of Khwarezm, which included Nasa and the ribat of Farawa. [20] As a result, Khwarezm became a province of the Ghaznavid Empire from 1017 to 1034. In 1077 the governorship of the province, which since 1042/1043 belonged to the Seljuqs, fell into the hands of Anush Tigin Gharchai, a former Turkic slave of the Seljuq sultan. In 1141, the Seljuq Sultan Ahmed Sanjar was defeated by the Qara Khitai at the battle of Qatwan, and Anush Tigin's grandson Ala ad-Din Atsiz became a vassal to Yelü Dashi of the Qara Khitan. [21]

Ghaznavids former country

The Ghaznavid dynasty was a Persianate Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin, at their greatest extent ruling large parts of Iran, Afghanistan, much of Transoxiana and the northwest Indian subcontinent from 977 to 1186. The dynasty was founded by Sabuktigin upon his succession to rule of the region of Ghazna after the death of his father-in-law, Alp Tigin, who was a breakaway ex-general of the Samanid Empire from Balkh, north of the Hindu Kush in Greater Khorasan.

Turkic peoples collection of ethnic groups

The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa. They speak related languages belonging to the Turkic language family. They share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits, common ancestry and historical backgrounds. In time, different Turkic groups came in contact with other ethnicities, absorbing them, leaving some Turkic groups more diverse than the others. Many vastly differing ethnic groups have throughout history become part of the Turkic peoples through language shift, acculturation, intermixing, adoption and religious conversion. In their genetic compositions, therefore, most Turkic groups differ significantly in origins from one group to the next. Despite this, many do share, to varying degrees, non-linguistic characteristics, including certain cultural traits, some ancestry from a common gene pool, and historical experiences. The most notable modern Turkic-speaking ethnic groups include Turkish people, Azerbaijanis, Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Turkmen and Kyrgyz people.

Qara Khitai former country

The Qara Khitai, or Western Liao, officially the Great Liao, was a sinicized Khitan empire in Central Asia. The dynasty was founded by Yelü Dashi, who led the remnants of the Liao dynasty to Central Asia after fleeing from the Jurchen conquest of their homeland in the north and northeast of modern-day China. The empire was usurped by the Naimans under Kuchlug in 1211; traditional Chinese, Persian, and Arab sources considered the usurpation to be the end of the Qara Khitai rule. The empire was later conquered by the Mongol Empire in 1218.

Sultan Ahmed Sanjar died in 1156. As the Seljuk state fell into chaos, the Khwarezm-Shahs expanded their territories southward. In 1194, the last Sultan of the Great Seljuq Empire, Toghrul III, was defeated and killed by the Khwarezm ruler Ala ad-Din Tekish, who conquered parts of Khorasan and western Iran. In 1200, Tekish died and was succeeded by his son, Ala ad-Din Muhammad, who initiated a conflict with the Ghurids and was defeated by them at Amu Darya (1204). [22] Following the sack of Khwarizm, Muhammad appealed for aid from his suzerain, the Qara Khitai who sent him an army. [23] With this reinforcement, Muhammad won a victory over the Ghorids at Hezarasp (1204) and forced them out of Khwarizm.

Toghrul III was the last sultan of the Great Seljuq Empire.

Ala ad-Din Tekish

Ala ad-Din Tekish or Tekesh or Takesh was the Shah of Khwarezmian Empire from 1172 to 1200. He was the son of Il-Arslan. His rule was contested by his brother, Sultan Shah, who held a principality in Khorasan. Tekish inherited Sultan Shah's state after he died in 1193. In Turkic the name Tekish means he who strikes in battle.

Greater Khorasan historical region of Persia

Khorasan, sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia and Afghanistan. The name simply means "East, Orient" and loosely includes the territory of the Sasanian Empire north-east of Persia proper. Early Islamic usage often regarded everywhere east of so-called Jibal or what was subsequently termed 'Iraq Ajami', as being included in a vast and loosely-defined region of Khorasan, which might even extend to the Indus Valley and Sindh. During the Islamic period, Khorasan along with Persian Iraq were two important territories. The boundary between these two was the region surrounding the cities of Gurgan and Qumis. In particular, the Ghaznavids, Seljuqs and Timurids divided their empires into Iraqi and Khorasani regions.

Ala ad-Din Muhammad's alliance with his suzerain was short-lived. He again initiated a conflict, this time with the aid of the Kara-Khanids, and defeated a Qara-Khitai army at Talas (1210), [24] but allowed Samarkand (1210) to be occupied by the Qara-Khitai. [25] He overthrew the Karakhanids (1212) [26] and Ghurids (1215). In 1212, he shifted his capital from Gurganj to Samarkand. Thus incorporating nearly the whole of Transoxania [ citation needed ] and present-day Afghanistan into his empire, which after further conquests in western Persia (by 1217) stretched from the Syr Darya to the Zagros Mountains, and from the northern parts of the Hindu Kush to the Caspian Sea. By 1218, the empire had a population of 5 million people. [27]

Talas River river

The Talas River rises in the Talas Region of Kyrgyzstan and flows west into Kazakhstan. It is formed from the confluence of the Karakol and Uch-Koshoy. It runs through the city of Taraz in Zhambyl Province of Kazakhstan and vanishes before reaching Lake Aydyn.

Samarkand City in Samarkand Vilayat, Uzbekistan

Samarkand, alternatively Samarqand, is a city in modern-day Uzbekistan, and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Central Asia. There is evidence of human activity in the area of the city from the late Paleolithic era, though there is no direct evidence of when Samarkand was founded; some theories propose that it was founded between the 8th and 7th centuries BC. Prospering from its location on the Silk Road between China and the Mediterranean, at times Samarkand was one of the greatest cities of Central Asia.

Konye-Urgench city

Konye-UrgenchOld Gurgānj also known as Kunya-Urgench, Old Urgench or Urganj, is a municipality of about 30,000 inhabitants in north Turkmenistan, just south from its border with Uzbekistan. It is the site of the ancient town of Ürgenç (Urgench), which contains the ruins of the capital of Khwarazm, a part of the Achaemenid Empire. Its inhabitants deserted the town in the 1700s in order to develop a new settlement, and Kunya-Urgench has remained undisturbed ever since. In 2005, the ruins of Old Urgench were inscribed on the UNESCO List of World Heritage Sites.

Mongol invasion and collapse

In 1218, Genghis Khan sent a trade mission to the state, but at the town of Otrar the governor, suspecting the Khan's ambassadors to be spies, confiscated their goods and executed them. Genghis Khan demanded reparations, which the Shah refused to pay. Genghis retaliated with a force of 200,000 men, launching a multi-pronged invasion. In February 1220 the Mongolian army crossed the Syr Darya. The Mongols stormed Bukhara, Gurganj and the Khwarezmid capital Samarkand. The Shah fled and died some weeks later on an island in the Caspian Sea.

The son of Ala ad-Din Muhammad, Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu became the new Sultan (he rejected the title Shah). He attempted to flee to India, but the Mongols caught up with him before he got there, and he was defeated at the Battle of Indus. He escaped and sought asylum in the Sultanate of Delhi. Iltumish however denied this to him in deference to the relationship with the Abbasid caliphs. Returning to Persia, he gathered an army and re-established a kingdom. He never consolidated his power, however, spending the rest of his days struggling against the Mongols, the Seljuks of Rum, and pretenders to his own throne. He lost his power over Persia in a battle against the Mongols in the Alborz Mountains. Escaping to the Caucasus, he captured Azerbaijan in 1225, setting up his capital at Tabriz. In 1226 he attacked Georgia and sacked Tbilisi. Following on through the Armenian highlands he clashed with the Ayyubids, capturing the town Ahlat along the western shores of the Lake Van, who sought the aid of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm. Sultan Kayqubad I defeated him at Arzinjan on the Upper Euphrates at the Battle of Yassıçemen in 1230. He escaped to Diyarbakir, while the Mongols conquered Azerbaijan in the ensuing confusion. He was murdered in 1231 by Kurdish highwaymen. [28]

Mercenaries

Eurasia c. 1200, on the eve of the Mongol invasions. Premongol.png
Eurasia c. 1200, on the eve of the Mongol invasions.

Though the Mongols had destroyed the Khwarezmian Empire in 1220, many Khwarezmians survived by working as mercenaries in northern Iraq. Sultan Jalal ad-Din's followers remained loyal to him even after his death in 1231, and raided the Seljuk lands of Jazira and Syria for the next several years, calling themselves the Khwarezmiyya. Ayyubid Sultan as-Salih Ayyub, in Egypt, later hired their services against his uncle as-Salih Ismail. The Khwarezmiyya, heading south from Iraq towards Egypt, invaded Crusader-held Jerusalem along the way, on July 11, 1244. The city's citadel, the Tower of David, surrendered on August 23, and the Christian population of the city was expelled. This triggered a call from Europe for the Seventh Crusade, but the Crusaders would never again be successful in retaking Jerusalem. After being conquered by the Khwarezmian forces, the city stayed under Muslim control until 1917, when it was taken from the Ottomans by the British.[ citation needed ]

After taking Jerusalem, the Khwarezmian forces continued south, and on October 17 fought on the side of the Ayyubids at the Battle of La Forbie, as the Crusaders used to call Harbiyah, a village northeast of Gaza, destroying the remains of the Crusader army there, with some 1,200 knights killed. It was the largest battle involving the Crusaders since the Battle of the Horns of Hattin in 1187. [29]

The remains of the Muslim Khwarezmians served in Egypt as Mamluk mercenaries until they were finally beaten by al-Mansur Ibrahim some years later.[ citation needed ]

Khwarizmi war captives assimilated into the Mongols, forming the modern Mongolian clan Sartuul.[ citation needed ]

Rulers of Khwarezm

Mamunid Governors of Khwarezm

Titular NamePersonal NameReign
Amir
امیر
Abu'l-Ali Ma'mun ibn Muhammad
ابو علی المأمون ابن محمد
995–997 C.E.
Amir
امیر
Abu'l-Hasan Ali ibn Ma'mun
ابو الحسن علی ابن المأمون
997–1008/9 C.E.
Amir
امیر
Abu'l-Abbas Ma'mun ibn Ma'mun
ابو العباس مأمون ابن المأمون
1008/9–1017 C.E.
Amir
امیر
Abu'l-Harith Muhammad ibn Ali
ابو الحارث محمد ابن علی
1017 C.E.
Absorbed into the Ghaznavid Empire by Mahmud ibn Sebuktigin;he made Altun Tash its governor.

Altun-Tashid Governors of Khwarezm

Titular NamePersonal NameReign
Amir
امیر
Abu Sa'id Altun-Tash
ابو سعید التون طاش
1017–1032 C.E.
Amir
امیر
Harun ibn Altun-Tash
ہارون ابن التون طاش
1032–1034 C.E.
Amir
امیر
Ismail Khandan ibn Altun-Tash
اسماعیل خاندان ابن التون طاش
1034–1041 C.E.
Re-conquest by Ghaznavid Empire under Mas'ud ibn Mahmud ibn Sebuktigin who sent his general Shah Malik, the Oghuz Turk

Non-dynastic Governor

Titular NamePersonal NameReign
Amir
امیر
Abul-Fawaris
أبو الفوارس
Shah-Malik ibn Ali
شاہ ملک ابن علی
1041–1042 C.E.
Conquest of Khwarezm by Tughril Beg and Chaghri Beg of the Seljuq Empire.

Governor Anushtigin

TitlePersonal NameReign
Shihna
؟
Anush Tigin Gharchai
أنوش طگین غارچائی
1077–1097 C.E.

Non-dynastic Governor

TitlePersonal NameReign
Shihna
؟
Ekinchi ibn Qochqar
ایکینچی بن قوچار
1097 C.E.

Anushtiginid Shahs

Titular NamePersonal NameReign
Shah
شاہ
Qutb ad-Din Abul-Fath
قطب الدین ابو الفتح
Arslan Tigin Muhammad ibn Anush Tigin
ارسلان طگین محمد ابن أنوش طگین
1097–1127/28 C.E.
Shah
شاہ
Ala al-Dunya wa al-Din Abul-Muzaffar
علاء الدنیا و الدین، ابو المظفر
Qizil Arslan Atsiz ibn Muhammad
قزل ارسلان أتسز بن محمد
1127 - 1156 C.E.
Shah
شاہ
Taj al-Dunya wa al-Din Abul-Fath
تاج الدنیا و الدین، ابو الفتح
Il-Arslan ibn Qizil Arslan Atsiz

ایل ارسلان بن قزل ارسلان أتسز

1156–1172 C.E.
Shah
شاہ
Ala al-Dunya wa al-Din Abul-Muzaffar
علاء الدنیا و الدین، ابو المظفر
Tekish ibn Il-Arslan

تکش بن ایل ارسلان

1172–1200 C.E.
Shah
شاہ
Jalal al-Dunya wa al-Din Abul-Qasim
جلال الدنیا و الدین، ابو القاسم
Mahmud Sultan Shah ibn Il-Arslan
محمود سلطان شاہ ابن ایل ارسلان
Initially under regency of Turkan Khatun, his mother. He was a younger half-brother and rival of Tekish in Upper Khurasan
1172–1193 C.E.
Shah
شاہ
Ala al-Dunya wa al-Din Abul-Fath
علاء الدنیا و الدین، ابو الفتح
Muhammad ibn Tekish
محمد بن تکش
1200–1220 C.E.
Genghis Khan
چنگیز خان
Genghis Khan invades Khwarezmia forcing Muhammad ibn Tekish to flee along with his son to an island in the Caspian Sea where he would die of pleurisy.
Jalal al-Dunya wa al-Din Abul-Muzaffar
جلال الدنیا و الدین، ابو المظفر
Mingburnu ibn Muhammad
مِنکُبِرنی ابن محمد
1220–1231 C.E.
Establishment of Mongol Ilkhanate

Family tree of Anushtiginid Dynasty

See also

Notes and references

  1. Kathryn Babayan, Mystics, monarchs, and messiahs: cultural landscapes of early modern Iran, (Harvard Center for Middle Eastern Studies, 2003), 14.
  2. Bobodzhan Gafurovich Gafurov, Central Asia:Pre-Historic to Pre-Modern Times, Vol.2, (Shipra Publications, 1989), 359.
  3. Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D (December 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires". Journal of World-systems Research. 12 (2): 222. ISSN   1076-156X . Retrieved 12 September 2016.
  4. Rein Taagepera (September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". International Studies Quarterly . 41 (3): 497. doi:10.1111/0020-8833.00053. JSTOR   2600793.
  5. "Khwarazmian: definition". Merriam Webster. n.d. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
  6. C. E. Bosworth: Khwarazmshahs i. Descendants of the line of Anuštigin. In Encyclopaedia Iranica, online ed., 2009: "Little specific is known about the internal functioning of the Khwarazmian state, but its bureaucracy, directed as it was by Persian officials, must have followed the Saljuq model. This is the impression gained from the various Khwarazmian chancery and financial documents preserved in the collections of enšāʾdocuments and epistles from this period. The authors of at least three of these collections—Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ (d. 1182-83 or 1187-88), with his two collections of rasāʾel, and Bahāʾ-al-Din Baḡdādi, compiler of the important Ketāb al-tawaṣṣol elā al-tarassol—were heads of the Khwarazmian chancery. The Khwarazmshahs had viziers as their chief executives, on the traditional pattern, and only as the dynasty approached its end did ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad in ca. 615/1218 divide up the office amongst six commissioners (wakildārs; see Kafesoğlu, pp. 5-8, 17; Horst, pp. 10-12, 25, and passim). Nor is much specifically known of court life in Gorgānj under the Khwarazmshahs, but they had, like other rulers of their age, their court eulogists, and as well as being a noted stylist, Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ also had a considerable reputation as a poet in Persian."
  7. Homa Katouzian, "Iranian history and politics", Published by Routledge, 2003. pg 128: "Indeed, since the formation of the Ghaznavids state in the tenth century until the fall of Qajars at the beginning of the twentieth century, most parts of the Iranian cultural regions were ruled by Turkic-speaking dynasties most of the time. At the same time, the official language was Persian, the court literature was in Persian, and most of the chancellors, ministers, and mandarins were Persian speakers of the highest learning and ability"
  8. "Persian Prose Literature." World Eras. 2002. HighBeam Research. (September 3, 2012);"Princes, although they were often tutored in Arabic and religious subjects, frequently did not feel as comfortable with the Arabic language and preferred literature in Persian, which was either their mother tongue—as in the case of dynasties such as the Saffarids (861–1003), Samanids (873–1005), and Buyids (945–1055)—or was a preferred lingua franca for them—as with the later Turkish dynasties such as the Ghaznawids (977–1187) and Saljuks (1037–1194)".
  9. Bosworth in Camb. Hist. of Iran, Vol. V, pp. 66 & 93; B.G. Gafurov & D. Kaushik, "Central Asia: Pre-Historic to Pre-Modern Times"; Delhi, 2005; ISBN   81-7541-246-1
  10. C. E. Bosworth, "Chorasmia ii. In Islamic times" in: Encyclopaedia Iranica (reference to Turkish scholar Kafesoğlu), v, p. 140, Online Edition: "The governors were often Turkish slave commanders of the Saljuqs; one of them was Anūštigin Ḡaṛčaʾī, whose son Qoṭb-al-Dīn Moḥammad began in 490/1097 what became in effect a hereditary and largely independent line of ḵǰᵛārazmšāhs." (LINK)
  11. Rene Grousset, The Empire of the Steppes:A History of Central Asia, Transl. Naomi Walford, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 159.
  12. Biran, Michel, The Empire of the Qara Khitai in Eurasian history, (Cambridge University Press, 2005), 44.
  13. Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D (December 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires". Journal of World-systems Research. 12 (2): 222. ISSN   1076-156X . Retrieved 12 September 2016.
  14. Rein Taagepera (September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". International Studies Quarterly . 41 (3): 497. doi:10.1111/0020-8833.00053. JSTOR   2600793.
  15. Encyclopædia Britannica, "Khwarezm-Shah-Dynasty", (LINK)
  16. Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2006). Peoples of Western Asia. p. 364.
  17. Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2007). Historic Cities of the Islamic World. p. 280.
  18. Borrero, Mauricio (2009). Russia: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present. p. 162.
  19. C.E. Bosworth, The Ghaznavids:994-1040, (Edinburgh University Press, 1963), 237.
  20. C.E. Bosworth, The Ghaznavids:994-1040, 237.
  21. Biran, Michel, The Empire of the Qara Khitai in Eurasian History, (Cambridge University Press, 2005), 44.
  22. Rene, Grousset, The Empire of the Steppes:A History of Central Asia, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 168.
  23. Rene, Grousset, 168.
  24. Rene, Grousset, 169.
  25. Rene, Grousset, 234.
  26. Rene, Grousset, 237.
  27. John Man, "Genghis Khan: Life, Death, and Resurrection", Feb. 6 2007. Page 180.
  28. http://persian.packhum.org/persian/pf?file=90001012&ct=107&rqs=68&rqs=491&rqs=893
  29. Riley-Smith The Crusades, p. 191

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The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs, was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia. The Seljuqs established both the Seljuk Empire and the Sultanate of Rum, which at their heights stretched from Iran to Anatolia, and were targets of the First Crusade.

Kuchlug was a member of the Naiman tribe of western Mongolia who became the last ruler of Qara Khitai empire. The Naimans were defeated by Genghis Khan and he fled westward to the Qara Khitai, where he became an advisor. He later rebelled, usurped the throne and took control of Qara Khitai. He was killed in 1218 by the Mongols and the domain of the Qara Khitai absorbed into the rising Mongol Empire.

Seljuk Empire Medieval empire

The Seljuk Empire or the Great Seljuq Empire was a high medieval Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks. At its greatest extant, the Seljuk Empire controlled a vast area stretching from western Anatolia and the Levant to the Hindu Kush in the east, and from Central Asia to the Persian Gulf in the south.

Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad Sultan of Ghurid Empire

Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad, was sultan of the Ghurid dynasty from 1163 to 1202. During his reign, the Ghurid dynasty became a world power, which stretched from Gorgan to Bengal.

Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu Ruler of the Khwarezmian empire

Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu or Manguberdi, also known as Jalâl ad-Dîn Khwârazmshâh, was the last ruler of the Khwarezmian Empire.

Bahram-Shah was Sultan of the Ghaznavid empire from 25 February 1117 to 1157. Son of Mas'ud III and Gawhar Khatun, sister of Sanjar, sultan of the Great Seljuq empire. During his entire reign, his empire was a tributary of the Great Seljuq empire.

Ala al-Din Husayn was king of the Ghurid dynasty from 1149 to 1161. He was one of the greatest Ghurid kings, and it was during his reign that the Ghurid dynasty rose to prominence.

Ghiyath al-Din Mahmud, was Sultan of the Ghurid Empire from 1206 to 1212. He was the nephew and successor of Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad.

Izz al-Din Husain ibn Kharmil al-Ghuri, commonly known after his father as Ibn Kharmil, was an Iranian military leader of the Ghurid dynasty, and later the semi-independent ruler of Herat and its surrounding regions.

Baha al-Din Sam II

Baha al-Din Sam II was the fourth ruler of the Ghurid branch of Bamiyan, ruling from 1192 to 1206.

Terken Khatun (wife of Ala ad-Din Tekish) EMpress of Khwarazmia

' Terken Khatun also known as Turkan Khatun was the Empress of the Khwarazmian Empire by marriage to Shah Ala ad-Din Tekish, and the mother and de facto co-regent of Muhammad II of the Khwarazmian Empire.