Kielce

Last updated
Kielce
Kielecki Rynek.jpg
Kielce-Kirche-4.jpg
20110612 Kielce Palac Biskupow 0801.jpg
20130421 Kielce Galeria Korona 3164.jpg
WMP UJK (5).jpg
POL Kielce flag.svg
POL Kielce COA.svg
Swietokrzyskie Voivodeship Relief location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Kielce
Relief Map of Poland.svg
Red pog.svg
Kielce
Coordinates: 50°52′27″N20°38′00″E / 50.87417°N 20.63333°E / 50.87417; 20.63333 Coordinates: 50°52′27″N20°38′00″E / 50.87417°N 20.63333°E / 50.87417; 20.63333
Country Flag of Poland.svg  Poland
Voivodeship POL wojewodztwo swietokrzyskie flag.svg  Świętokrzyskie
County city county
Established11th century
Town rights1364
Government
   Mayor Bogdan Wenta
Area
  Total109.65 km2 (42.34 sq mi)
Highest elevation
408 m (1,339 ft)
Lowest elevation
260 m (850 ft)
Population
 (31 December 2020)
  Total193,415 Decrease2.svg (18th) [1]
  Density1,780/km2 (4,600/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
25-001 to 25-900
Area code(s) +48 41
ISO 3166 code PL-KI
Car plates TK
Website http://www.um.kielce.pl
Historical population
YearPop.±%
195061,332    
196089,500+45.9%
1970126,950+41.8%
1980185,307+46.0%
1990214,202+15.6%
2000213,469−0.3%
2010203,804−4.5%
2020193,415−5.1%
source [2]

Kielce (Polish pronunciation:  [ˈkʲɛltsɛ] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a city in southern Poland with 193,415 inhabitants. [1] It has been the capital of the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship (Holy Cross Province) since 1999 and used to be the capital of its predecessor, Kielce Voivodeship (19191939, 19451998). The city is in the middle of the Świętokrzyskie Mountains (Holy Cross Mountains), on the banks of the Silnica River, in the northern part of the historical Polish province of Lesser Poland.

Contents

Kielce has a history back over 900 years, and the exact date that it was founded remains unknown. [3] Kielce was once an important centre of limestone mining and the vicinity is famous for its natural resources like copper, lead and iron, which, over the centuries, were exploited on a large scale. There are several fairs and exhibitions held in Kielce throughout the year. The city and its surroundings are also known for their historic architecture, green spaces and recreational areas like the Świętokrzyski National Park. [4]

Etymology

According to a local legend Mieszko II Lambert, son of Boleslaus I of Poland, dreamt he was attacked by a band of brigands in a forest. In the dream he saw a vision of Saint Adalbert who drew a winding line which turned into a stream. When Mieszko woke up, he found the Silnica River whose waters helped him regain strength. He also discovered huge white tusks of an unknown animal. Mieszko announced he would build a town and a church to St. Adalbert at that site. According to this legend, the town's name Kielce commemorates the mysterious tusks (kieł in Polish). Various other legends exist to explain the name's origin. One states that the town was named after its founder who belonged to the noble family of Kiełcz, while another claims that it stems from the Celts who may have lived in the area in previous centuries. Other theories connect the town's name to occupational names relating to mud huts, iron tips for arrows and spears, or the production of tar (pkielce, a settlement of tar makers). [5]

The most probable etymology traces the origins of the name to an Old Polish noun kielce (plural form of kielec, "sprout") and refers to plants sprouting in the wetlands where the settlement was located. [6] The earliest extant document referring to the settlement by the name of Kielce dates to 1213. [7]

History

A typical Polish manor house called dworek, dating back to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The pictured house is one of the city's most precious buildings Dworek Laszczykow Kielce.JPG
A typical Polish manor house called dworek, dating back to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The pictured house is one of the city's most precious buildings

The area of Kielce has been inhabited since at least the 5th century BC. Until the 6th or 7th century the banks of the Silnica were inhabited by Celts. They were driven out by a Lechitic tribe of Vistulans who started hunting in the nearby huge forests and had settled most of the area now known as Lesser Poland and present-day Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship. The lands of Wiślanie were at first subdued by Bohemia, however they soon came under the control of the Piast dynasty and became a part of the emerging Polish state.

Kielce-Kirche-5.jpg
Kielce-Kirche-3.jpg
Kielce Cathedral is the city's landmark. A carillon was installed within the cathedral's bell tower

The area of the Holy Cross Mountains was almost unpopulated until the 11th century when the first hunters established permanent settlements at the outskirts of the mountains. They needed a place to trade furs and meat for grain and other necessary products, and so the market of Kielce was formed. In the early 12th century the new settlement became a property of the Bishops of Kraków, who built a wooden church and a manor. In 1171 a stone church was erected by bishop Gedeon Gryf. During the times of Wincenty Kadłubek a parochial school in Kielce was opened in 1229. By 1295 the town was granted city rights. In the mid-13th century the town was destroyed by the Mongol invasion of Ögedei Khan, but it quickly recovered.

Within the Polish Kingdom, Kielce was administratively located in the Sandomierz Voivodeship in the Lesser Poland Province of the Polish Crown. The area around Kielce was rich in minerals such as copper ore, lead ore, and iron, as well as limestone. In the 15th century Kielce became a significant centre of metallurgy. There were also several glass factories and armourer shops in the town. In 1527 bishop Piotr Tomicki founded a bell for the church and between 1637 and 1642 Manierist palace was erected near the market place by Bishop Jakub Zadzik. It is one of the very few examples of French Renaissance architecture in Poland and the only example of a magnate's manor from the times of Vasa dynasty to survive World War II.

During The Deluge the town was pillaged and burnt by the Swedes. Only the palace and the church survived, but the town managed to recover under the rule of bishop Andrzej Załuski. During the Great Northern War it was the site of a battle between Swedish forces under Charles XII and Polish and Saxon forces under the Polish-Lithuanian king Augustus II. By 1761 Kielce had more than 4,000 inhabitants. In 1789 Kielce were nationalized and the burgers were granted the right to elect their own representatives in Sejm. Until the end of the century the city's economy entered a period of fast growth. A brewery was founded as well as several brick factories, a horse breeder, hospital.

Foreign partitions of Poland

Camp of the Russian Imperial Army near Kielce during the January Uprising, 1863 Camp of the Russian Imperial Army near Kielce 1863.png
Camp of the Russian Imperial Army near Kielce during the January Uprising, 1863

As a result of the Third Partition of Poland the city was annexed by Austria. During the Austro-Polish War of 1809 it was captured by prince Józef Poniatowski and joined with the Napoleon controlled Duchy of Warsaw, but after the fall of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1815 it was joined with the Russian controlled Kingdom of Poland. For a brief period when Kraków was an independent city-state (Republic of Kraków), Kielce became the capital of the Kraków Voivodeship. Thanks to the efforts by Stanisław Staszic Kielce became the centre of the newly established Old-Polish Industrial Zone (Staropolski Okręg Przemysłowy). The town grew quickly as new mines, quarries and factories were constructed. In 1816 the first Polish technical university was founded in Kielce. However, after Staszic's death the Industrial Zone declined and in 1826 the school was moved to Warsaw and became the Warsaw University of Technology.

In 1830 many of the inhabitants of Kielce took part in the November Uprising against Russia. In 1844, priest Piotr Ściegienny  [ pl ] began organising a local revolt to liberate Kielce from the Russian yoke, for which he was sent to Siberia. In 1863 Kielce took part in the January Uprising. As a reprisal for insubordination the tsarist authorities closed all Polish schools and turned Kielce into a military garrison city. The Polish language was banned. Because of these actions many gymnasium students took part in the 1905 Revolution and were joined by factory

workers. [8]

Sovereign Poland

Jozef Pilsudski with the Polish Legions in Kielce, in front of the Governor's Palace, 1914 Kielce pilsudski.jpg
Józef Piłsudski with the Polish Legions in Kielce, in front of the Governor's Palace, 1914

After the outbreak of World War I, Kielce was the first Polish city to be liberated from Russian rule by the Polish Legions under Józef Piłsudski. After the war when Poland regained its independence after 123 years of Partitions, Kielce became the capital of Kielce Voivodeship. The plans to strengthen Polish heavy and war industries resulted in Kielce becoming one of the main nodes of the Central Industrial Area (Centralny Okręg Przemysłowy). The town housed several big factories, among them the munitions factory "Granat" and the food processing plant "Społem".

Second World War

During the Polish Defensive War of 1939, the main portion of the defenders of Westerplatte as well as the armoured brigade of General Stanisław Maczek were either from Kielce or from its close suburbs. During the German occupation that lasted for most of the Second World War, the city was an important centre of resistance. There were several resistance groups active in the town, including Armia Krajowa (AK) and Gwardia Ludowa (GL).

Following the invasion, the German Einsatzgruppe II entered the city to commit various atrocities against the population, [9] and the occupiers established a special court in Kielce. [10] In January and March 1940, the Germans carried out mass arrests of local Poles as part of the AB-Aktion . [11] Among the victims were teachers, priests, and local political and social activists, including women. Arrested Poles were either imprisoned in the local prison, deported to concentration camps or massacred, with a notable massacre of 63 people committed by the Germans on June 12, 1940, at a local stadium. [12] Many Poles from the prison in Kielce were also murdered in the Brzask forest near Skarżysko-Kamienna on June 29, 1940. [13] At least five local Polish boy scouts were killed by the Germans during the war. [14]

Notable acts of resistance included theft of 2 tons of TNT from the "Społem" factory run by the Nazis, which were then used by the partisans to make hand grenades. Also, the daring escape from jail in Kielce of a dozen or so AK members, organized in November 1942 by Stanisław Depczyński. Not to mention, a grenade attack by a unit of the GL on the Smoleński coffee shop, killing 6 Germans including a major in the SS (February 1943), as well as the assassination of the noted Gestapo informant Franz Wittek on 15 June 1944, by a unit under Second Lt. Kazimierz Smolak on the corner of Solna and Paderewski Streets. One of the attackers died during the attack and a further four lost their lives not long afterwards. This was not the first assassination attempt against Wittek. In 1942, Henryk Pawelec fired at him in the market square, but his pistol misfired. In February 1943, a unit under the command of Stanisław Fąfar shot at Wittek by the Seminarium building. Wittek, though wounded by 14 bullets, survived. Successful assassinations of local collaborators, including the shooting of Jan Bocian took place in broad daylight at a shop in Bodzentyńska Street. Similar was the attack on the factory of C. Wawrzyniak in March 1943, terrorizing and disarming the volksdeutscher workers and destroying the machinery, as well as the attack on the HASAG factory in May 1943 and the takeover of the Kielce Herbskie railway station. [15]

In 1944, during and following the Warsaw Uprising, the Germans deported thousands of Varsovians from the Dulag 121 camp in Pruszków, where they were initially imprisoned, to Kielce. [16] Those Poles were mainly old people, ill people and women with children. [16] 9,000 Poles expelled from Warsaw stayed in Kielce, as of November 1, 1944. [16]

Moreover, the hills and forests of Holy Cross Mountains became a scene of heavy partisan activity. A small town of Pińczów located some 30 kilometres (19 miles) from Kielce became the capital of the so-called Pinczów Republic, a piece of Polish land controlled by the partisans. The "Jodla" Świętokrzyskie Mountains Home Army fought against the Germans long before Operation Tempest inflicted heavy casualties on the occupying forces and later took part in the final liberation of their towns and cities in January 1945. During the war, many of inhabitants of Kielce lost their lives. Today, Kielce is a rapidly developing city of growing regional importance.

Jewish history

Kielce Synagogue, built 1903-1909 Synagoga- Asirek 033.jpg
Kielce Synagogue, built 1903-1909

Prior to the 1939 Invasion of Poland, like many other cities across the Second Polish Republic, Kielce had a significant Jewish population. According to the Russian census of 1897, among the total population of 23,200 inhabitants, there were 6,400 Jews in Kielce (around 27 percent). [17] On the eve of the Second World War there were about 18,000 Jews in the city. Between the onset of war and March 1940, the Jewish population of Kielce expanded to 25,400 (35% of all residents), [18] with trains of dispossessed Jews arriving under the escort of German Order Police battalions from the Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany. [19]

Immediately after the German occupation of Poland in September 1939, all Jews were ordered to wear a Star of David on their outer garments. Jewish–owned factories in Kielce were confiscated by the Gestapo, stores and shops along the main thoroughfares liquidated, and ransom fines introduced. The forced labour and deportations to concentration camps culminated in mass extermination of Jews of Kielce during the Holocaust in occupied Poland. [20]

Kielce Ghetto

In April 1941, the Kielce Ghetto was formed, surrounded by high fences, barbed wire, and guards. [21] The gentile Poles were ordered to vacate the area and the Jews were given one week to relocate. The ghetto was split in two, along Warszawska Street (Nowowarszawska) with the Silnica River  (pl) running through it. [18] The so-called large ghetto was set up between the streets of Orla, Piotrkowska, Pocieszka, and Warszawska to the east, and the smaller ghetto between Warszawska on the west, and the streets of Bodzentyńska, St. Wojciech, and the St. Wojciech square. The ghetto gates were closed on 5 April 1941; the Jewish Ghetto Police was formed with 85 members and ordered to guard it. [22] Meanwhile, expulsions elsewhere and deportations to Kielce continued until August 1942 at which time there were 27,000 prisoners crammed in the ghetto. Trains with Jewish families arrived from the entire Kielce Voivodeship, and also from Vienna, Poznań, and Łódź. [18]

The severe overcrowding, rampant hunger, and outbreaks of epidemic typhus took the lives of 4,000 people before mid-1942. [18] During this time, many of them were forced to work at a nearby German munition plant run by Hasag. In August 1942, the Kielce Ghetto was liquidated in the course of only five days. During roundups, all Jews unable to move were shot on the spot including the sick, the elderly, and the disabled; 20,000–21,000 Jews were led into waiting Holocaust trains, and murdered in the gas chambers of Treblinka. After the extermination action only 2,000 Jews were left in Kielce, lodged in the labour camp at Stolarska and Jasna Streets (pl) within the small ghetto. Those who survived were sent to other forced labour camps. On May 23, 1943, the Kielce cemetery massacre was perpetrated by the German police; 45 Jewish children who had survived the Kielce Ghetto liquidation, were murdered by Order Police battalions. [18]

Kielce pogrom

Building of the Kielce Jewish Committee and refugee centre on Planty Street Kielce planty 7.jpg
Building of the Kielce Jewish Committee and refugee centre on Planty Street

On July 4, 1946, the local Jewish gathering of some 200 Holocaust survivors from the Planty 7 Street refugee centre of the Zionist Union became the target of the Kielce pogrom in which 37 (40) Jews (17–21 of whom remain unidentified) and 2 ethnic Poles were killed, including 11 fatally shot with military rifles and 11 more stabbed with bayonets, indicating direct involvement of Polish troops. [23]

During the Cold War, many Jewish historians theorized that the pogrom became the cause of outward Jewish emigration from Poland immediately following the opening of the borders in 1947. [24] [25] Nevertheless, the true reasons behind the dramatic increase of Jewish emigration from Poland were far more complex. [26] The new government of the Communist Poland signed a repatriation agreement with the Soviet Union helping over 150,000 Holocaust survivors leave the Gulag camps legally. [27] Poland was the only Eastern Bloc country to allow free and unrestricted Jewish Aliyah to the nascent State of Israel, upon the conclusion of World War II. [28] After the Kielce pogrom Gen. Spychalski of PWP signed a legislative decree allowing the remaining survivors to leave Poland without visas or exit permits. [29] Poland was the only Eastern Bloc country to do so, at war's end. [28] Britain demanded from Poland (among others) to halt the Jewish exodus, but their pressure was largely unsuccessful. [30]

Geography

Climate

Kielce
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
34
 
 
0
−5
 
 
29
 
 
1
−5
 
 
35
 
 
6
−2
 
 
39
 
 
14
3
 
 
53
 
 
19
8
 
 
71
 
 
21
11
 
 
81
 
 
24
13
 
 
77
 
 
23
12
 
 
56
 
 
19
8
 
 
42
 
 
13
4
 
 
40
 
 
6
0
 
 
44
 
 
1
−3
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm

Kielce is one of the relatively cooler cities in Poland. It experiences four distinct seasons and has a warm summer subtype humid continental climate (Dfb), typical of this part of Europe. It has cool, cloudy winters with almost daily light snowfall and generally moderate temperatures within a few degrees of the freezing point, and moderately warm and sunny summers, with frequent but brief hot spells and abundant rainfall falling mostly during numerous and occasionally severe thunderstorms. Surrounded by the Holy Cross Mountains, however, the summer night time temperatures are somewhat cooler and the thunderstorms somewhat more frequent and severe than in surrounding areas of Poland. [31]

Both continental and maritime air masses can enter the area undergoing little modification, resulting in striking differences in the seasons from year to year, particularly in winter when the contrast between maritime and continental air is at its greatest. Maritime influences from the Atlantic typically bring cool, cloudy, damp and often foggy weather both in summer and in winter, whereas continental air masses often result in long periods of sunny and dry weather, hot in summer and on occasion, extremely cold in winter.

The highest temperature recorded in Kielce since 1971 is 36.4 °C (98 °F) [32] and the lowest is −33.9 °C (−29 °F), [33] giving the city a temperature range of 70.3 °C (126.5 °F), the second highest in Poland. The city receives 1720 to 1829 hours of sunshine annually, depending on the source, [34] [35] with a notably sunny spring and summer, and a cloudy late autumn and winter. Winds are generally very light throughout the year, [36] with an abundance of calm days, and as a result, cool temperatures often feel much milder than expected due to a relative lack of windchill, especially during sunny spells in early spring, as well as during severe winter cold snaps, which are typically dominated by calm, anticyclonic weather. Föhn winds from the Carpathian mountains do occasionally reach the city, resulting in unusually mild temperatures for a semi-continental location at this latitude, on rare occasions reaching approximately 15 °C (59 °F) in the winter months.

Sienkiewicza Street, summer 2011 Sienkiewicz Kielce.jpg
Sienkiewicza Street, summer 2011

Winter conditions are highly dependent on the source region of the air mass that dominates during a particular month, resulting in tremendous variability from one year to the next. For example, in January 2006, the city experienced typically continental winter weather, resulting in an average daytime high of −3.7 °C (25 °F), recording a nighttime low of −30 °C (−22 °F) [37] on the 24th. The very next year, in January 2007, the weather was predominantly of the Atlantic type, resulting in an average high of 5.7 °C (42 °F) and occasional days above 10 °C (50 °F), [38] more typical of coastal locations in Western Europe. As a result of this variability, severe cold with temperatures below −20 °C (−4 °F) can be completely absent during some winters, and in others, it can occur with regularity, even as late as March. Heavy snowfall is rare, and significant snow accumulations typically occur gradually, a few centimeters at a time over a protracted cold spell.

Summer is warm and lasts from June to early September, and is characterized by abundant sunshine, but also severe weather, particularly early in the season. Though temperatures average in the low-to-mid 20s (70s Fahrenheit), they are rather variable with frequent hot spells reaching approximately 30 °C (86 °F) interrupted by cold fronts, which frequently bring violent thunderstorms and several days of cool and sometimes chilly weather. Although hot weather is frequent and many summers experience a few oppressively hot days of around 35 °C (95 °F), summer temperatures in the city are never extreme and have not exceeded 36.4 °C (98 °F) in recent decades.

The transitional seasons of spring and autumn are highly unpredictable and experience large temperature swings with periods of fine weather and temperatures around 20 °C (68 °F) as early as March and late into October, alternating with much colder periods. Sharp nighttime frosts can occur as early as September and as late as May, though on calm, clear days, it often warms up rapidly to approximately 20 °C (68 °F), especially in April. Occasionally, significant, accumulating snow can occur in October and April, though mild weather rapidly returns.

Climate data for Kielce (Suków) 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1951–present
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)13.4
(56.1)
18.4
(65.1)
23.7
(74.7)
29.7
(85.5)
33.4
(92.1)
34.6
(94.3)
36.6
(97.9)
36.4
(97.5)
35.0
(95.0)
26.3
(79.3)
20.0
(68.0)
16.5
(61.7)
36.6
(97.9)
Average high °C (°F)0.8
(33.4)
2.6
(36.7)
7.4
(45.3)
14.4
(57.9)
19.4
(66.9)
22.7
(72.9)
24.9
(76.8)
24.6
(76.3)
19.0
(66.2)
13.1
(55.6)
6.6
(43.9)
1.9
(35.4)
13.1
(55.6)
Daily mean °C (°F)−2.2
(28.0)
−1.1
(30.0)
2.5
(36.5)
8.4
(47.1)
13.4
(56.1)
16.9
(62.4)
18.7
(65.7)
18.2
(64.8)
13.2
(55.8)
8.1
(46.6)
3.3
(37.9)
−0.9
(30.4)
8.2
(46.8)
Average low °C (°F)−5.1
(22.8)
−4.4
(24.1)
−1.7
(28.9)
2.7
(36.9)
7.5
(45.5)
11.0
(51.8)
12.9
(55.2)
12.3
(54.1)
8.2
(46.8)
4.0
(39.2)
0.3
(32.5)
−3.6
(25.5)
3.7
(38.7)
Record low °C (°F)−33.9
(−29.0)
−31.0
(−23.8)
−27.5
(−17.5)
−9.4
(15.1)
−4.6
(23.7)
−1.3
(29.7)
2.9
(37.2)
0.3
(32.5)
−4.5
(23.9)
−8.7
(16.3)
−18.0
(−0.4)
−26.9
(−16.4)
−33.9
(−29.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches)37.3
(1.47)
34.0
(1.34)
40.2
(1.58)
39.5
(1.56)
70.1
(2.76)
70.2
(2.76)
94.3
(3.71)
67.6
(2.66)
55.1
(2.17)
45.2
(1.78)
40.2
(1.58)
37.4
(1.47)
631.0
(24.84)
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches)8.1
(3.2)
8.2
(3.2)
5.2
(2.0)
1.4
(0.6)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.7
(0.3)
2.6
(1.0)
4.3
(1.7)
8.2
(3.2)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)17.1315.4314.7312.1314.0313.8314.7311.7712.2314.3015.0316.17171.53
Average snowy days (≥ 0 cm)17.816.27.01.10.00.00.00.00.00.44.611.358.4
Average relative humidity (%)87.484.478.471.673.273.774.274.880.784.989.289.480.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 55.871.3126.2181.4228.2232.4241.3238.9162.2112.856.145.21,751.8
Source 1: Institute of Meteorology and Water Management [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45] [46]
Source 2: Meteomodel.pl (records, relative humidity 1991–2020) [47] [48] [49]

Sources: http://www.kzgw.gov.pl/ [50] ClimateBase.ru, [51] Tutiempo [32] [52] [53] [54]

Tourist attractions

Palace of the Krakow Bishops in Kielce 20130421 Kielce Palac Biskupow Krakowskich 3127.jpg
Palace of the Kraków Bishops in Kielce

Education

Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce WMP UJK (5).jpg
Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce
Map of the centre of Kielce Map of the center of Kielce.svg
Map of the centre of Kielce

Culture

Stefan Zeromski Theatre PL Kielce Sienkiewicza 32 teatr3.jpg
Stefan Żeromski Theatre

The arts

Museums

Kielce History Museum Muzeum Historii Kielc.jpg
Kielce History Museum

Cinemas

Theatres

  • Stefan Żeromski Theatre www
  • Kieleckie Centrum Kultury - KCK www
  • Teatr Lalki i Aktora "Kubuś" - Puppet and Actor Theatre "Kubuś" www
  • Kielecki Teatr Tańca - Kielce Dance Theatre

Sports

Sports hall in Kielce Hala sportowa w Kielcach 02 ssj 20060906.jpg
Sports hall in Kielce
Football stadium in Kielce Korona Kielce Super Stadion 1.jpg
Football stadium in Kielce

Transport

Kielce is an important transport hub, and is on international and domestic routes:

Provincial roads:

In addition, Kielce has a network of district roads, covering 109 streets with a total length of 114.9 km (71.4 mi) and a network of roads covering 446 streets with a total length of 220.9 km (137.3 mi). 57.5% of roads in the city has an improved hard surface, 8.4% of hard surface is not improved, while 34.1% are dirt.

Railways

Rail transport came to Kielce in 1885, when the construction of the line linking Iwanogród (Dęblin) and Dąbrowa Górnicza was completed. Currently, Kielce is an important intersection of railway lines, running to Częstochowa and Lubliniec, Warsaw, Kraków and Sandomierz. Within the administrative boundaries of the city there are the following railway stations: Kielce, Kielce Piaski, Kielce Białogon, Kielce Herbskie, Kielce Ślichowice.

Air travel

At present, air services are only available to the residents of Kielce at Kielce-Masłów Airport, a civilian airport located in nearby Masłów. It is not able to accommodate large passenger planes, because its runway is only 1,200 m. Its reconstruction is seen as not viable and in June 2006 the decision was made about the location of a new airport near the village of the Obice Morawica, able to handle regular airlines. At present, land has been purchased for the investment. The nearest international airports are located in Kraków-Balice, Warsaw-Okecie and Rzeszów-Jasionka.

Local transport

Official transport services were first established on 22 July 1951, when the local transport department was created.

After many changes today, the city operates 49 regular bus lines (1-53 without 34, 46, 50, 51), 13 new low-decked bus lines with text&audio passenger-information system (102-114), 5 hybrid bus lines with text&audio passenger-information system (34, 46, 50, 51, 54) four lines of special constants (C, F, Z, 100) and two night lines (N1, N2). The lines are operated by the Municipal Transport Company (MPK Kielce) and Kielce Bus Company Workers (KASP) under an agreement signed with the Management of Urban Transport (ZTM Kielce). In Kielce, there are two depots. The rolling stock is composed of about 165 buses.

In 2009/10 the Transport Authority in Kielce released the Polish Operational Programme Development of Eastern 2007 - 2013 project "Development of public transport system in Kielce Metropolitan Area." They bought 20 new buses -Solaris Urbino 12s, and another 20 were bought in 2010. These buses will support new lines. Part of the project, envisages installation of 24 electronic boards for bus departure times and 20 stationary ticket vending machines.

Long-distance travel

The history of communication dates back to coaches from Kielce in 1945, when the District was set up. Already in 1946, there were regular routes to Kraków, Warsaw, Jelenia Góra, Teplice and neighbouring towns.

After 1990, the Kielce Bus Station was renamed the PKS Station in Kielce, and has maintained regular passenger long-distance routes.

Kielce constituency

Kielce Business Center - the headquarters of Exbud-Skanska, a symbol of modern Kielce Kielce exbud.jpg
Kielce Business Center - the headquarters of Exbud-Skanska, a symbol of modern Kielce

The current Members of Parliament (Sejm) elected from Kielce constituency in 2019 Polish parliamentary election are: [65]

The current senator elected from Kielce constituency is Krzysztof Słoń (Law and Justice). [66]

Notable people

Stanislaw Staszic monument Pomnik Stanislaw Staszic.jpg
Stanisław Staszic monument

Sportsmen

Twin Towns - Sister Cities

Kielce is twinned with:

Citations

Notes

    Related Research Articles

    Lublin Place in Lublin Voivodeship, Poland

    Lublin is the ninth-largest city in Poland and the second-largest city of historical Lesser Poland. It is the capital and the center of Lublin Voivodeship with a population of 338,586. Lublin is the largest Polish city east of the Vistula River and is about 170 km (106 mi) to the southeast of Warsaw by road.

    Częstochowa City in southern Poland

    Częstochowa is a city in southern Poland on the Warta River with 217,530 inhabitants, making it the thirteenth-largest city in Poland. It is situated in the Silesian Voivodeship since 1999, and was previously the capital of the Częstochowa Voivodeship (1975–1998). However, Częstochowa is historically part of the Lesser Poland region, not of Silesia, and before 1795, it belonged to the Kraków Voivodeship. Częstochowa is located in the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland. It is the largest economic, cultural and administrative hub in the northern part of the Silesian Voivodeship.

    Bielsko-Biała City in Silesian Voivodeship, Poland

    Bielsko-Biała(listen) is a city in southern Poland, with a population of approximately 168,835 and an area of 124.5 km2 (48.1 sq mi). It is a centre of the Bielsko Urban Agglomeration with 325,000 inhabitants and is an automotive, transport, and tourism hub of the Bielsko Industrial Region. Situated north of the Beskid Mountains, Bielsko-Biała is composed of two former towns which merged in 1951 – Bielsko in the west and Biała in the east – on opposite banks of the Biała River that once divided Silesia and Lesser Poland. Between 1975 and 1998, the city was the seat of Bielsko Voivodeship and currently lies within the Silesian Voivodeship.

    Rzeszów City in Podkarpackie Voivodeship, Poland

    Rzeszów is the largest city in southeastern Poland. It is located on both sides of the Wisłok River in the heartland of the Sandomierz Basin. Rzeszów has been the capital of the Subcarpathian Voivodeship (province) since 1 January 1999, and is also the seat of Rzeszów County.

    Płock Place in Masovian Voivodeship, Poland

    Płock is a city in central Poland, on the Vistula river. It is in the Masovian Voivodeship, having previously been the capital of the Płock Voivodeship (1975–1998). According to the data provided by GUS on 31 December 2020 there were 118,268 inhabitants in the city. Its full ceremonial name, according to the preamble to the City Statute, is Stołeczne Książęce Miasto Płock. It is used in ceremonial documents as well as for preserving an old tradition.

    Tarnów Place in Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland

    Tarnów is a city in southeastern Poland with 107,498 inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of 269,000 inhabitants. The city is situated in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship since 1999. From 1975 to 1998, it was the capital of the Tarnów Voivodeship. It is a major rail junction, located on the strategic east–west connection from Lviv to Kraków, and two additional lines, one of which links the city with the Slovak border. Tarnów is known for its traditional Polish architecture, which was influenced by foreign cultures and foreigners that once lived in the area, notably Jews, Germans and Austrians. The Old Town, featuring 16th century tenements, houses and defensive walls, has been preserved. Tarnów is also the warmest city of Poland, with the highest long-term mean annual temperature in the whole country.

    Koszalin Place in West Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland

    Koszalin is a city in northwestern Poland, in Western Pomerania. It is located 12 kilometres south of the Baltic Sea coast, and intersected by the river Dzierżęcinka. Koszalin is also a county-status city and capital of Koszalin County of West Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999. Previously, it was a capital of Koszalin Voivodeship (1950–1998). The current mayor of Koszalin is Piotr Jedliński.

    Gorzów Wielkopolski Place in Lubusz Voivodeship, Poland

    Gorzów Wielkopolski often abbreviated to Gorzów Wlkp. or simply Gorzów, is a city in western Poland, on the Warta river. It is the second largest city in the Lubusz Voivodeship with 122,589 inhabitants and one of its two capitals with a seat of a voivode, with the other being Zielona Góra. Between 1975 and 1998, it was the capital of the Gorzów Voivodeship. Together with 24 gminas and 5 powiats of the Lubusz Voivodeship and 4 gminas and 1 powiat of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship, the city forms the Gorzów Agglomeration inhabited by 400,000 people.

    Wieluń Place in Łódź Voivodeship, Poland

    Wieluń is a city in south-central Poland with 21,892 inhabitants (2020). Situated in the Łódź Voivodeship, it was previously in Sieradz Voivodeship (1975–1998).

    Siedlce Place in Masovian Voivodeship, Poland

    Siedlce [Polish pronunciation: ['ɕɛdlt͡sɛ](listen)] is a city in eastern Poland with 77,872 inhabitants. Situated in the Masovian Voivodeship, previously the city was the capital of a separate Siedlce Voivodeship (1975–1998). The city is situated between two small rivers, the Muchawka and the Helenka, and lies along the European route E30, around 90 kilometres (56 mi) east of Warsaw. It is the fourth largest city of the Voivodeship, and the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Siedlce. Siedlce is a local educational, cultural and business center.

    Kozienice Place in Masovian Voivodeship, Poland

    Kozienice is a town in eastern Poland with 21,500 inhabitants (1995). Located four miles from the Vistula, it is the capital of Kozienice County.

    Nowy Sącz Place in Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland

    Nowy Sącz is a city in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship of southern Poland. It is the district capital of Nowy Sącz County as a separate administrative unit. It has a population of around 83,896 as of 2018.

    Sandomierz Town in Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, Poland

    Sandomierz is a historic town in south-eastern Poland with 23,863 inhabitants (2017), situated in the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship since 1999. It is the capital of Sandomierz County. Sandomierz is known for its preserved Old Town, a major cultural and tourist attraction which was declared a National Monument of Poland in 2017. In the past, Sandomierz used to be one of the most important urban centers not only of Lesser Poland, but also of the whole country. It was a royal city of the Polish Crown and a regional administrative centre from the High Middle Ages to the 19th century.

    Terespol Place in Lublin Voivodeship, Poland

    Terespol is a town in eastern Poland on the border with Belarus. It lies on the border river Bug, directly opposite the city of Brest, Belarus making it a Border town. It has 5,794 inhabitants (2014).

    Mława Place in Masovian Voivodeship, Poland

    Mława is a town in north-eastern Poland with 30,403 inhabitants in 2020. It is the capital of Mława County. The town is situated in the Masovian Voivodeship, previously it was part of the Ciechanów Voivodeship.

    Koło Place in Greater Poland Voivodeship, Poland

    Koło is a town on the Warta River in central Poland with 23,101 inhabitants (2006). It is situated in the Greater Poland Voivodship, having previously been in Konin Voivodship (1975–1998), and it is the capital of Koło County.

    Krosno Place in Subcarpathian Voivodeship, Poland

    Krosno is a historical town and county in the Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in southeastern Poland. The estimated population of the town is 47,140 inhabitants as of 2014.

    Leszno Place in Greater Poland Voivodeship, Poland

    Leszno(listen) is a historic city in western Poland, within the Greater Poland Voivodeship. It is the seventh-largest city in the province with an estimated population of 62,429, as of 2021. Previously, it was the capital of the Leszno Voivodeship (1975–1998) and is now the seat of Leszno County.

    Lesko Place in Subcarpathian Voivodeship, Poland

    Lesko is a town in south-eastern Poland with a population of 5,755 (02.06.2009). situated in the Bieszczady mountains. It is located in the heartland of the Doły (Pits), and its average altitude is 390 metres above sea level, although there are some hills located within the confines of the city. Since 2002 it has been the capital of Lesko County.

    Włodawa Place in Lublin Voivodeship, Poland

    Włodawapronounced [vwɔˈdava] is a town in eastern Poland on the Bug River, close to the borders with Belarus and Ukraine. It is the seat of Włodawa County, situated in the Lublin Voivodeship since 1999. As of 2016 it has a population of 13,500.

    References

    1. 1 2 "Local Data Bank". Statistics Poland. Retrieved 16 October 2021. Data for territorial unit 2661000.
    2. "Kielce (świętokrzyskie) » mapy, nieruchomości, GUS, noclegi, szkoły, regon, atrakcje, kody pocztowe, wypadki drogowe, bezrobocie, wynagrodzenie, zarobki, tabele, edukacja, demografia".
    3. Przygodzki, Andrzej. "Historia Kielc - History of Kielce - Geschichte von Kielce" . Retrieved 20 November 2016.
    4. o.o., StayPoland Sp. z. "Kielce - Tourism - Tourist Information - Kielce, Poland -" . Retrieved 20 November 2016.
    5. www.ideo.pl, ideo -. "Legends / About the city / Kielce City Hall" . Retrieved 20 November 2016.
    6. Michow, Elżbieta (2009). "Folk and common etymologies of the toponym of Kielce with ethnic semantics" (PDF). Biblioteka Cyfrowa UMCS.
    7. "Kielce - The Capital". Archived from the original on 2013-06-24. Retrieved 2009-10-30.
    8. Mirosław Caban; Wojciech Kalwat. "Piotr Ściegienny – rewolucjonista w sutannie". MowiaWieki.pl. Archived from the original on 2008-02-08.
    9. Wardzyńska, Maria (2009). Był rok 1939. Operacja niemieckiej policji bezpieczeństwa w Polsce. Intelligenzaktion (in Polish). Warszawa: IPN. p. 58.
    10. Grabowski, Waldemar (2009). "Polacy na ziemiach II RP włączonych do III Rzeszy". Biuletyn Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej (in Polish). No. 8–9 (103–104). IPN. p. 62. ISSN   1641-9561.
    11. Wardzyńska, p. 251–252
    12. Wardzyńska, p. 252
    13. Wardzyńska, p. 268
    14. Massalski, Adam (2020). "Eksterminacja młodocianych harcerek i harcerzy na ziemiach polskich w okresie okupacji niemieckiej 1939 – 1945". In Kostkiewicz, Janina (ed.). Zbrodnia bez kary... Eksterminacja i cierpienie polskich dzieci pod okupacją niemiecką (1939–1945) (in Polish). Kraków: Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Biblioteka Jagiellońska. p. 246.
    15. Historia Kielc (History of Kielce), in Polish Wikipedia.
    16. 1 2 3 "Transporty z obozu Dulag 121". Muzeum Dulag 121 (in Polish). Retrieved 26 June 2021.
    17. Joshua D. Zimmerman, Poles, Jews, and the politics of nationality, Univ of Wisconsin Press, 2004, ISBN   0-299-19464-7, Google Print, p.16
    18. 1 2 3 4 5 Marta Kubiszyn; Adam Dylewski; Justyna Filochowska (2009–2016). "Kielce". Virtual Shtetl (in Polish). POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews. pp. 1–3.
    19. Wacław Wierzbieniec (2010). "Kielce". Jews in Eastern Europe. Translated by Anna Grojec. YIVO Institute for Jewish Research.
    20. Prof. Krzysztof Urbański (2005). "III: Ghetto". Zagada ludnosci zydowskiej Kielc: 1939–1945. Translation from Polish. Translated by Yaacov Kotlicki. pp. 76–116 via JewishGen, Yizkor Book Project.
    21. Wolfgang Curilla (2011). Der Judenmord in Polen und die deutsche Ordnungspolizei 1939–1945. Verlag Ferdinand Schöningh. p. 526. ISBN   978-3506770431.
    22. Chris Webb (2014). "Kielce". Holocaust Historical Society. Sources: The Yad Vashem Encylopiedia of the Ghettos During the Holocaust Volume 1, Yad Vashem, 2009; Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka – The Aktion Reinhard Death Camps By Y. Arad, Indiana University Press, 1987.
    23. Judge Andrzej Jankowski; Leszek Bukowski (4 July 2008). "Pogrom kielecki – oczami świadka" (PDF). Niezalezna Gazeta Polska (special issue). Warsaw. 1–8 in PDF. Leszek Bukowski & Andrzej Jankowski (ed.), Wokół pogromu kieleckiego, vol. II, with Foreword by Jan Żaryn, IPN: Warsaw 2008, pp. 166–171; ISBN   8360464871.{{cite journal}}: External link in |quote= (help)
    24. Königseder, Angelika, and Juliane Wetzel, Waiting for Hope: Jewish Displaced Persons in Post-World War II Germany, Northwestern University Press, 2001, ISBN   0-8101-1477-1 pp. 46-47
    25. Wyman, Mark, DPs: Europe's Displaced Persons, Cornell University Press, 1998, ISBN   0-8014-8542-8 p. 144
    26. Marrus, Michael Robert; Aristide R. Zolberg (2002). The Unwanted: European Refugees from the First World War Through the Cold War. Temple University Press. p. 336. ISBN   1-56639-955-6. This gigantic effort, known by the Hebrew code word Brichah(flight), accelerated powerfully after the Kielce pogrom in July 1946
    27. Philipp Ther; Ana Siljak (2001). Redrawing Nations: Ethnic Cleansing in East-Central Europe, 1944-1948. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 138. ISBN   0-7425-1094-8 . Retrieved May 11, 2011.
    28. 1 2 Devorah Hakohen, Immigrants in turmoil: mass immigration to Israel and its repercussions... Syracuse University Press, 2003 - 325 pages. Page 70. ISBN   0-8156-2969-9
    29. Aleksiun, Natalia. "Beriḥah". YIVO. Suggested reading: Arieh J. Kochavi, "Britain and the Jewish Exodus...," Polin 7 (1992): pp. 161–175
    30. Kochavi, Arieh J. (2001). Post-Holocaust Politics: Britain, the United States & Jewish Refugees, 1945–1948 . The University of North Carolina Press. pp. xi. ISBN   0-8078-2620-0. Britain exerted pressure on the governments of Poland.
    31. "Występowanie :: Spotkanie z piorunem" . Retrieved 20 November 2016.
    32. 1 2 S.L., Tutiempo Network. "Climate KIELCE (August 2013) - Climate data (125700)" . Retrieved 20 November 2016.
    33. S.L., Tutiempo Network. "Climate KIELCE (January 1987) - Climate data (125700)" . Retrieved 20 November 2016.
    34. sk.weatheronline.co.uk. "climate - Graph - Kielce Poľsko - WeatherOnline" . Retrieved 20 November 2016.
    35. "City Check - Sprawdź swoje miasto" . Retrieved 20 November 2016.
    36. weatheronline.co.uk. "Wind speed - Kielce - Climate Robot Poland" . Retrieved 20 November 2016.
    37. S.L., Tutiempo Network. "Climate KIELCE (January 2006) - Climate data (125700)" . Retrieved 20 November 2016.
    38. S.L., Tutiempo Network. "Climate KIELCE (January 2007) - Climate data (125700)" . Retrieved 20 November 2016.
    39. "Średnia dobowa temperatura powietrza". Normy klimatyczne 1991-2020 (in Polish). Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. Archived from the original on 3 December 2021. Retrieved 22 January 2022.
    40. "Średnia minimalna temperatura powietrza". Normy klimatyczne 1991-2020 (in Polish). Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. Archived from the original on 15 January 2022. Retrieved 22 January 2022.
    41. "Średnia maksymalna temperatura powietrza". Normy klimatyczne 1991-2020 (in Polish). Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. Archived from the original on 15 January 2022. Retrieved 22 January 2022.
    42. "Miesięczna suma opadu". Normy klimatyczne 1991-2020 (in Polish). Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. Archived from the original on 9 January 2022. Retrieved 22 January 2022.
    43. "Liczba dni z opadem >= 0,1 mm". Normy klimatyczne 1991-2020 (in Polish). Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. Archived from the original on 15 January 2022. Retrieved 22 January 2022.
    44. "Średnia grubość pokrywy śnieżnej". Normy klimatyczne 1991-2020 (in Polish). Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. Archived from the original on 15 January 2022. Retrieved 22 January 2022.
    45. "Liczba dni z pokrywą śnieżna > 0 cm". Normy klimatyczne 1991-2020 (in Polish). Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. Archived from the original on 15 January 2022. Retrieved 22 January 2022.
    46. "Średnia suma usłonecznienia (h)". Normy klimatyczne 1991-2020 (in Polish). Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. Archived from the original on 15 January 2022. Retrieved 22 January 2022.
    47. "Kielce–Suków Absolutna temperatura maksymalna" (in Polish). Meteomodel.pl. Retrieved 22 January 2022.
    48. "Kielce–Suków Absolutna temperatura minimalna" (in Polish). Meteomodel.pl. Retrieved 22 January 2022.
    49. "Kielce–Suków Średnia wilgotność" (in Polish). Meteomodel.pl. Retrieved 22 January 2022.
    50. Program wodno Srodowiskowy / Zalacznik 3 Projekt PWS.pdf
    51. "Climatebase.ru - Kielce, Poland" . Retrieved 20 November 2016.
    52. S.L., Tutiempo Network. "Climate KIELCE (April 2012) - Climate data (125700)" . Retrieved 20 November 2016.
    53. S.L., Tutiempo Network. "Climate KIELCE (July 2013) - Climate data (125700)" . Retrieved 20 November 2016.
    54. Ogimet September record, 2015: Kielce
    55. Świętokrzyska, Politechnika. "Politechnika Świętokrzyska" . Retrieved 20 November 2016.
    56. "Uniwersytet Jana Kochanowskiego w Kielcach" . Retrieved 20 November 2016.
    57. "Wyższa Szkoła Administracji Publicznej w Kielcach" . Retrieved 20 November 2016.
    58. Administrator. "Wyższa Szkoła Ekonomii, Prawa i Nauk Medycznych im. prof. Edwarda Lipińskiego w Kielcach - Uczelnia" . Retrieved 20 November 2016.
    59. "Wyzsza Szkola Telekomunikacji i Informatyki, WSTI. Homepage". Archived from the original on 2 February 2006. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
    60. "6 LO w Kielcach" . Retrieved 20 November 2016.
    61. "Jacek Żeromski - Poradniki ze szczyptą dziennikarstwa" . Retrieved 20 November 2016.
    62. sniadek. "sniadek online". Archived from the original on 16 May 2014. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
    63. "National Museum in Kielce".
    64. 1 2 "English".
    65. "PKW | Wybory do Sejmu RP i Senatu RP". sejmsenat2019.pkw.gov.pl. Retrieved 2020-01-10.
    66. "Wybory do Sejmu i Senatu Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej 2019 r." sejmsenat2019.pkw.gov.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 2020-01-10.