Kikinda

Last updated

Kikinda

Кикинда (Serbian)
Nagykikinda  (Hungarian)
City of Kikinda
Kikinda - panoramio.jpg
Zgrada Velikokikindskog Distrikta 02.jpg
Vila Rizenfelder u Kikindi.jpg
Pravoslavna crkva u centru Kikinde.jpg
Suvaca, Kikinda, Srbija. Pogled iz Nemanjine ulice.JPG
Panorama of Kikinda's pond.JPG
From top: Rotonda building, National Museum of Kikinda, Mammoth Kika sculpture, Villa Rizenfelder, Saint Nichola's Church, Suvača- horse mill, Kikinda's pond
Flag of Kikinda.svg
Flag
Veliki grb Grada Kikinde.svg
Coat of arms
Municipalities of Serbia Kikinda.png
Location of the city of Kikinda (red) within Serbia
Coordinates: 45°50′N20°27′E / 45.833°N 20.450°E / 45.833; 20.450 Coordinates: 45°50′N20°27′E / 45.833°N 20.450°E / 45.833; 20.450
Country Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia
Province Flag of Vojvodina.svg  Vojvodina
Region Banat
District North Banat
Municipality Kikinda
City statusMarch 2016 (2016-03)
Government
  MayorNikola Lukač (SNS)
Area
Area rank 20th in Serbia
  Urban189.68 km2 (73.24 sq mi)
  Administrative782.46 km2 (302.11 sq mi)
Elevation
78 m (256 ft)
Population
 (2011 census) [1]
  Rank 25th in Serbia
  Urban
38,065
  Urban density200/km2 (520/sq mi)
  Administrative
59,453
  Administrative density76/km2 (200/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Kikinđani, (sr)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
23300
Area code(s) +381(0)230
Car plates KI
Websitekikinda.org.rs

Kikinda (Serbian Cyrillic : Кикинда, pronounced  [kǐkiːnda] ) is a city and the administrative center of the North Banat District in the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia. The city urban area has 38,069 inhabitants, while the city administrative area has 59,453 inhabitants.

Contents

The city was founded in the 18th century. From 1774 to 1874 Kikinda was the seat of the District of Velika Kikinda, an autonomous administrative unit of Habsburg Monarchy. In 1893 Kikinda was granted the status of a city. The city became part of the Kingdom of Serbia (and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes) in 1918, and it lost the city status. The status was re-granted in 2016.

In 1996, the well preserved archaeological remnants of a half a million-year-old mammoth were excavated on the outer edge of the town area. [2] The mammoth called "Kika" has become one of the symbols of the town. Today it is exhibited in the National Museum of Kikinda. Other attractions of the city are the Suvača – a unique horse-powered dry mill, the annual Pumpkin Days [3] and the International Symposium of Sculpture "Terra". [4] The winter roosts of long-eared owl, with a large number of individuals, are easily accessible as they are situated in town parks and therefore they attract birdwatchers both from this country and abroad.

Name

In Serbian, the city is known as Kikinda (Кикинда), while in other languages it is called Great Kikinda: in Hungarian as Nagykikinda, in German as Gross Kikinda or Großkikinda, in Latin as Magna Kikinda, in Romanian as Chichinda Mare, in Slovak as Kikinda, in Rusyn as Кикинда, and in Croatian as Kikinda. Until 1947 it was also known in Serbian as Great KikindaVelika Kikinda (Велика Кикинда).

The name of Kikinda is first found recorded at the beginning of the 15th century as Kokenyd, and most probably denoted, together with the name Ecehida, a number of small settlements, i.e. estates, firstly belonging to Hungarian and later to Serb local rulers. The name of the town first appears on a map of 1718 as Gross Kikinda, indicating an uninhabited area or a wasteland and not a settlement. The adjective Gross, Nagy or Velika (Great) in German, Hungarian and Serbian versions respectively, was in official use as the name of the town until the end of 1947. [5]

Coat of arms

Coat of arms on the City Hall Kikinda City Hall Coat of arms.jpg
Coat of arms on the City Hall

The official coat of arms of the city dates back to the Austrian rule and the 18th century. It is derived from the coat of arms of the District of Velika Kikinda [6] which was issued by Maria Theresa of Austria on 12 November 1774. The Coat of Arms represents a hand holding a sabre on which an Ottoman Turkish head is impaled. It symbolizes the fight of Serbs and the majority ethnic Hungarians at that time, against the Turks during the Military Frontier period [6] and the military contributions of the population of Kikinda during the Austro-Ottoman Wars.

In 2007, Branislav Blažić, then president of the municipality of Kikinda, asked for the change of the coat of arms, criticizing it for being "morbid". [6] The idea proved very controversial, and ultimately the coat was not changed. Most critics of Blažić stated that the coat of arms is a part of the history and tradition of Kikinda and so an important factor of the city identity. [6]

The severed head of a Turk is also one of the common symbols in Austrian and Hungarian heraldry. It symbolizes the struggle of Serb soldiers of the Habsburg Empire (Austrian Empire) against the Ottoman Empire during the Austro-Ottoman Wars. [7]

History

The city of Kikinda is located on a territory rich in remains of old and bygone cultures. Numerous archeological findings are the testimony of people who lived here more than seven thousand years ago. However, the continuity of that duration was often broken. People arrived and departed, lived and disappeared, depending on various historical circumstances.

Medieval history

Two important medieval settlements existed near the location of modern Kikinda. The names of these settlements were Galad and Hološ. [8] Galad was one of the oldest Slavic settlements in northern Banat and was built by Slavic duke Glad in the 9th century. [9] In 1337, Galad was recorded as settlement populated almost exclusively by Serbs. [10] This settlement was destroyed during the Austro-Ottoman wars at the end of 17th and beginning of the 18th century. [11]

Another settlement, Hološ (also known as Velika Holuša), was a local administrative centre in the 17th century, during the Ottoman administration. [11] This settlement was also destroyed at the end of the 17th century. [12]

According to some sources, an older settlement named Kekenj (Kekend, Keken) existed at this location. [13] The name of Kokenyd is first found recorded in 1423 as a property of the Hungarian king Sigismund.[ citation needed ] In 1558, this settlement was populated by Serbs. [13] It was deserted after the Banat Uprising in 1594.[ citation needed ]

Modern history

Seal of the District of Velika Kikinda Velika kikinda district seal.jpg
Seal of the District of Velika Kikinda
Cross at the main square in Kikinda, at the beginning of the 20th century. Cross in the town square (Kikinda, Vojvodina - circa 1900).jpg
Cross at the main square in Kikinda, at the beginning of the 20th century.
Orthodox Church Kikinda Orthodox Church.jpg
Orthodox Church
The City Square and the Catholic Church Kikinda, Main Street and Catholic Church.jpg
The City Square and the Catholic Church

The history of modern Kikinda can be traced back for 250 years; by 1751–1752, when the area where the city is presently located began to be repopulated. [14] [15] The first settlers were Serbs who served in the Habsburg military in border patrols. They were tasked with protecting the borders against the Ottomans along the rivers of Moriš and Tisa. [14] After the Požarevac peace treaty, where an agreement between the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire was reached, the Ottomans lost the territory of Banat which led to huge job losses among the Serb population.[ citation needed ] As a result, they founded a new settlement in an effort to make a living from agriculture. Some decades later, along with the Serbs, Germans (Banat Swabians), Hungarians, and Jews also settled the area.

About twenty years after the establishment of the settlement, on 12 November 1774, the Austrian Empress Maria Theresa, by way of a special charter, formed the Velikokikindski privileged district – Regio-privilegiatus Districtus Magnokikindiensis, as a distinct feudal governmental administrative unit with headquarters in Kikinda. [16] Besides Kikinda, the district included another nine settlements of the Serb border military establishments in North and Central Banat: Srpski Krstur, Jozefovo (today part of Novi Kneževac), Mokrin, Karlovo (today part of Novo Miloševo), Bašaid, Vranjevo (today part of Novi Bečej), Melenci, Kumane and Taraš. During that period, the inhabitants of these places had substantial economic, and even political privileges within the Habsburg Monarchy. The District functioned, with some interruptions, until 1876 when it was abolished, and Kikinda was allocated both organizationally and administratively to the direct authority of the Torontal County with its headquarters in Veliki Bečkerek (today Zrenjanin), which covered most of the territory of present-day Serbian Banat.

In 1848/1849, the famous uprising of the Serbs in Vojvodina took place. Initially, Kikinda's citizens expressed, almost unanimously, social revolt, while later the uprising turned into a national one, and Kikinda became part of the Serbian Voivodship, a Serb autonomous region within the Austrian Empire. During the war, control over the city changed hands between the Serbian and Hungarian governments at the expense of great conflicts, which resulted in suffering and destruction.[ citation needed ] It was one of the most difficult and most complex periods in the history of Kikinda. Between 1849 and 1860 Kikinda was part of the Voivodeship of Serbia and Temes Banat, a separate Austrian crown land. In 1860, this crown land was abolished, and Kikinda was incorporated into Torontal county, in the Kingdom of Hungary after the compromise of 1867.

A railway connecting Szeged, Kikinda and Timișoara was built in 1857 and is the oldest railway on the territory of present-day Serbia and the entire southeast Europe, predating Belgrade by 27 years. Kikinda had 15,000 inhabitants at the time. The first train arrived on 15 November at 15:00 at the, still unfinished, railway station. The railway itself was part of a 700 km (430 mi) long railway Vienna-Bratislava-Budapest-Timișoara-Baziaș, a spa and port on the Danube. Days before the first train arrived, public drummers were announcing the event and huge crowds gathered at the arrival ceremony. But, some complained. Farmers whose land was appropriated by the state for the route of the railway were not satisfied with the compensation they received. Others spread stories that the fumes from the locomotive are toxic, that sparks from the wheels will set grain fields on fire or that the sound of locomotive will scare the cattle. However, the railway brought an economic boom to Kikinda, as in the next five years industry began to develop, including steam mills and brickyards. When at the end of 19th century Veliki Bečkerek was linked directly to Szeged, bypassing Kikinda, the economy slowed down. In 1953 the connection with Szeged was cut as the bridge over the river Tisza was demolished. The connection to Timișoara was operational via railbuses until 2015. The Austrian emperor Franz Joseph I visited Kikinda in 1872 arriving by this railway and it was also used for the original Orient Express route. As of 2017, trains operate only as far as Subotica and Zrenjanin. [17]

At the end of the 19th century Kikinda was the most densely inhabited place in Torontál County, with 22,000 inhabitants. [18] The period from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the First World War was a peaceful and fruitful one in the history of Kikinda and was marked by a strong economic and urban development of the city.[ citation needed ] Moreover, the core of the city was formed, and the city received a defined local government in 1895 (statute, senate, town representative, mayor (Karlo Radovan), etc.).[ citation needed ] According to the 1910 census, the population of Kikinda numbered 26,795 inhabitants, of whom 14,214 (53.00%) spoke Serbian, 5,968 (22.27%) Hungarian, and 5,855 (21.85%) German. [19]

A date around the end of the First World War (20 November 1918) denotes one of the most crucial moments in the modern history of Kikinda.[ citation needed ] The entry of the Serbian army into the city represented the achievement of the Serbs of Kikinda in striving to unite with Serbia. From 1 December 1918, the city was part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (renamed Yugoslavia in 1929). However, the city suffered greatly in the economic realm, as it was located in the hinterland, between two borders, with lines of communication disconnected. The period between the two world wars was not a period of economic prosperity. In 1921, the population of Kikinda numbered 25,774 people and included 15,000 (58%) Serbs and Croats, 5,500 (21%) Germans (Banat Swabians), 4,000 (16%) Hungarians, and 5% Romanians. [18] [20] Between 1918 and 1922, Kikinda was part of Banat county, Between 1922 and 1929 it was part of Belgrade oblast, and between 1929 and 1941 it was part of Danube Banovina.

Synagogue in Kikinda razed in 1953 Sinagoga u Kikindi.JPG
Synagogue in Kikinda razed in 1953

After only twenty years of peace, in 1941 Kikinda entered the stormy period of World War II, during which it was occupied by German troops. The Banat region, which Kikinda belonged to, was made an autonomous region within Serbia and was placed under the control of the region's German minority. The city was liberated on 6 October 1944,[ citation needed ] and since 1945, it has been part of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina within the new Socialist Yugoslavia.

During and after the war, the city's economic and political organizational structure significantly changed. In addition there were major changes in the ethnic structure of the city. The German (about 22%) and Jewish (about 2%) populations vanished. In 1940, there were about 500 Jews in the town.[ citation needed ] In August, 1941, they were deported to the Sajmište death camp near Belgrade and murdered. In 1944, one part of the German population fled the region, together with the defeated German army. Between 1944 and 1948, those who remained were detained in work camps. After the abolition of the camps, most of the remaining German population left for Austria and Germany in search of better living conditions. [22] In 1948, shortly after the end of World War II, Kikinda had a population of 28,070. [23] From the mid-1960s to the mid-1980s, the city saw continuous economic and cultural development: new factories and production plants, new blocks of flats and residential settlements, various objects of general social interest, and paved streets definitely stressed and formed the urban dimension of Kikinda. In 1971 the city had a population of 37,487. [24]

In March 2016, Kikinda was again granted city status. [25]

The Greater Kikinda area

Panorama of Kikinda Kikinda2.JPG
Panorama of Kikinda
Map of the City of Kikinda Kikinda mun.png
Map of the City of Kikinda

The City of Kikinda comprises the town of Kikinda, nine villages and two hamlets. The nine villages are:

The two hamlets are:

Note: for settlements with a Hungarian majority, the name is also given in Hungarian.

The city belongs to the group of so-called planned organized settlements. [26] Plans of streets and crossroads were completed in the second half of the 18th century according to the standard city plans of the time used for the construction of new settlements in Banat.[ citation needed ] Those plans defined settlements with regularly lined and wide streets intersecting at right angles, with a central town square, market place, church, city hall, school, inn, etc.

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
194864,251    
195364,685+0.13%
196168,562+0.73%
197168,915+0.05%
198169,864+0.14%
199169,743−0.02%
200267,002−0.36%
201159,453−1.32%
Source: [27]

According to the last official census done in 2011, the city of Kikinda has 59,453 inhabitants.

Ethnic groups

Most of the settlements in the city have an ethnic Serb majority, while one settlement has a Hungarian ethnic majority: Sajan (Hungarian: Szaján). Two others have over 20% of ethnic Hungarian population: Banatska Topola and Rusko Selo.

The ethnic composition of city administrative area: [28]

Ethnic groupPopulation
Serbs 44,846
Hungarians 7,270
Roma 1,981
Yugoslavs 331
Croats 204
Macedonians 126
Montenegrins 99
Romanians 95
Germans 87
Albanians 75
Muslims 74
Others4,265
Total59,453

Economy

The principal branch of the city's economy is agriculture, with its 598.17 square kilometres (230.95 sq mi) of arable land. The annual production of wheat is about 60,000 tons, 114,670 tons of sunflower seeds. Soy, sugar beet and other fruits and vegetables are also produced.

Industrial production includes the production of oil derivatives by the "Naftagas" branch in Kikinda, metal processing, machine tools, special tools, car parts and flexible technologies by the former "Livnica Kikinda" (metal foundry) and IDA-Opel (now owned by Slovenian Cimos Koper), roof tile and brick production by "Toza Marković", the production of chemicals by "MSK" and "Hemik" and the processing of agricultural products by a number of factories.

The following table gives a preview of total number of registered people employed in legal entities per their core activity (as of 2018): [29]

ActivityTotal
Agriculture, forestry and fishing565
Mining and quarrying102
Manufacturing4,669
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply139
Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities221
Construction532
Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles1,880
Transportation and storage603
Accommodation and food services428
Information and communication149
Financial and insurance activities175
Real estate activities34
Professional, scientific and technical activities329
Administrative and support service activities428
Public administration and defense; compulsory social security714
Education908
Human health and social work activities1,367
Arts, entertainment and recreation212
Other service activities257
Individual agricultural workers487
Total14,200

Transport

Rail line Banatsko Aranđelovo – Kikinda – Romanian border at Jimbolia, part of the former SzegedTimișoara railway is the second oldest railway in present-day Serbia. [30] [31] The city is also connected by railway to Subotica and to Belgrade via Zrenjanin.

Regional roads connect Kikinda with all the neighbouring cities and villages. Buses operate regularly to the surrounding villages and major domestic and some European cities.

The only transport waterway in the city is the Danube-Tisa-Danube Canal. There is a dock which is used for industrial transport.

There is also the Kikinda Airport, a sports plane airstrip close to the city. [32] The local flying club organizes lessons in parachuting, aviation and space-modeling. Planes are also flown from this airstrip to dust agricultural fields.

Tourism

Before the break-up of former Yugoslavia, hunting tourism was widespread in Kikinda. There are a number of hunting grounds in the city covering an area of 300 square kilometres (116 sq mi), mostly around the banks of the Danube-Tisa-Danube Canal, where rabbits, pheasants and deer are hunted.

On the location of the former clay pit of the "Toza Marković" company, an artificial lake was created. Located at the southern entrance into the town, it was named Plava banja ("Blue Spa"). Though it is not officially classified as a spa, the water is highly mineralized, microbiologically suitable for swimming and chemically has an elevated levels of sulfates and chlorides, so as higher electroconductivity and pH values. That means the water may be beneficial for the skin and some skin diseases, like the eczema. Until the early 2000s, the lake was arranged with numerous recreational activities and was visited by several thousand people daily. It was busy in the evenings as the lake was place for many concerts and other artistic and entertaining happenings. As the lake is on the lot of "Toza Marković", new owners stopped all that and by 2017 the lake was neglected and without even the basic infrastructure (showers, toilets, etc.). However, the locals still visit the lake, though on a much smaller scale. In the summer of 2017, the lake shores were cleaned from garbage and vegetation. [33] There is another lake, Staro jezero ("Old Lake"), in the town itself.

In the vicinity of Kikinda is the Copper Age kurgan of Kinđa, which possibly gave name to the city.

Education

Primary schools

There are eight primary schools in the city:

Secondary schools

All secondary schools in Kikinda use Serbian as the language of instruction:

Free schools

Main sights

Kika the mammoth, faithful replica reconstruction of the mammoth skeleton excavated in 1996, National Museum of Kikinda. Original bones can be seen in the museum. Mamut Kiki.jpg
Kika the mammoth, faithful replica reconstruction of the mammoth skeleton excavated in 1996, National Museum of Kikinda. Original bones can be seen in the museum.

The Suvača is a horse-powered dry mill. Kikinda has one of the three remaining such mills in Europe (the other two being in Szarvas, Hungary and Otok). There were many mills like this in the city, the largest recorded number being 51 in 1847. The only remaining mill was built in 1899 and was operational until 1945. [34]

Located in the center of the square, the Serbian Orthodox church was built in 1769. The icons of the iconostasis were done by Jakov Orfelin (nephew of Zacharius Orfelin) in 1773. Teodor Ilić Češljar is the author of the two large wall paintings "The Last Supper" and "Ascension of Jesus Christ" (1790). Both, the late baroque iconostasis and the wall paintings show significant influence of western European art of the period. New church bells were installed in 1899.

Serbian Orthodox Holy Trinity monastery is located in the south outskirts of the city. It was built between 1885 and 1887 as a foundation of Melanija Nikolić-Gajčić. The construction of the Roman Catholic Church in Kikinda was started in 1808 and completed in 1811.

According to a popular belief, the treasure of Attila the Hun is buried somewhere on the territory of the city of Kikinda.

Fossil remains of a mammoth, named Kika, were discovered in 1996. Kika was a female, 4 m (13 ft) tall, 7 m (23 ft) long with an estimated weight of 15 tons. That makes Kika one of the largest mammoth specimen ever discovered. It is still not determined to which mammoth species it belongs. [35]

Among the birdwatchers Kikinda is known as the prime hotspot for observing winter roosts of long-eared owl with large number of individuals. The roosts are situated in city parks so they are easily accessible. In November 2017, 238 owls were numbered while the record was set in 2009 when 743 birds were counted in the town. The BBC crews visited Kikinda in 2015 and 2018, filming documentaries about the wild animals in urban areas and focusing on the owls. [36]

Culture

Cultural institutions

Situated in the city square, the building of the National Museum of Kikinda [37] was built in 1839. In the beginning, the building served as the city curia and the seat of the District of Velika Kikinda until its abolishment in 1876. In 1946, the National Museum of Kikinda and the City Archive were founded and housed in the building. The Museum boasts numerous artifacts which are displayed in its four sections: archeological, historical, ethnological and naturalist. As of recently, it also possesses a mammoth skeleton [2] which was excavated on the grounds of the "Toza Marković" brick factory in 1996.

The Jovan Popović National Library was founded in 1845 as Čitaonica Srbska (Serbian Reading Room). It was renamed in 1952 to Jovan Popović in honor of a prominent poet from Kikinda. Besides serving its primary function of loaning books, the library also organizes literary meetings, book promotions, seminars, lectures, exhibitions, and has published several works. [38]

Although the National Theater in Kikinda was founded only 50 years ago, Kikinda has a long theatrical tradition. Kikinda witnessed its first theatrical play in 1796 in German. The first play in Serbian was performed in 1834. The theater has a continuous program all year round, including the summer when the stage is set up outside, in the yard of the theater. [39]

Manifestations

The Pumpkin Days (Дани лудаје/Dani ludaje in Serbian) are an annual manifestation that takes place in mid-October. [3] Every year people from all over the region gather in Kikinda to take part in a competition of who has the largest pumpkin and longest gourd. The term ludaja is specific to the Kikinda region, while the common Serbian word for pumpkin is bundeva. Kikinda has a special relationship with this plant because throughout its history, the locals used to say that one had to stand on a pumpkin while working in the fields in order to get a clear view of the whole city. This exaggeration is supposed to depict the flatness of the city's territory and symbolize the joy of finding way back home. A local man standing on a pumpkin, dressed in a traditional attire, and with his hand blocking the sun so that he can see into the distance, thus became the symbol of the region. A group of local enthusiasts started the Pumpkin Days celebration in 1986 and it quickly started attracting pumpkin and gourd lovers from all over the country. The three-day event also includes lectures and seminars on the advancement of pumpkin and gourd cultivation, a culinary competition in preparing meals from pumpkins and gourds, children's competitions in creating masks and sculptures, and various concerts and exhibitions. Over the past few years this event has gained prominence and has drawn visitors from Hungary, Romania and the former Yugoslav republics. The largest pumpkin measured at the event to date weighed 247 kg (545 lb), while the longest gourd was 213 centimeters in length. In 2006 the event celebrated its 20th anniversary and had the largest number of visitors so far, as well as a richer program. A tamburitza festival was included in the event, contributing to the authentic Banat experience.

Every year, since 1982, 6 to 8 world-renowned sculptors are invited to Kikinda, to the premises of an old production plant of the Toza Marković brick factory, to take part at the international symposium of sculpture "Terra". [4] The symposium takes place throughout the month of July. Over the years, "Terra" has hosted sculptors from all corners of the world who are drawn by the unique and peaceful ambience of the studio. All sculptures are done in terracotta and some have appeared at the Venice Biennale. Over 300 sculptors have so far participated at the symposium and together have produced more than 500 sculptures. The "Terra" museum was opened on 5 December 2017. A building of the old riding hall (manjež), built in 1871, was converted into a museum by sculptor Slobodan Kojić. When built, manjež served for the horse training of the Austro-Hungarian army and was the second largest such facility in the empire, after the one in Vienna. The exhibits, works of over 300 artists from all over the world since 1982, belong both to large and gallery format sculptures. The "Terra" exhibition is the largest collection of large size terracotta sculptures in the world and the first new museum of the contemporary art in Serbia since 1967. [40] Previously proposed locations were within the brickyard complex, old brickyard II and old drier, but the adaptation of manjež began in 2012. There are over 1,000 sculptures in the exhibition space of 2,100 m2 (23,000 sq ft). Previously, the collection was shown in Venice, Paris, Ljubljana and Belgrade. Several sculptures are permanently exhibited in the parks of Kikinda and Belgrade, while 5 monumental ones were donated to Venice after the 1999 Venice Biennale. [41]

Media

Newspapers
TV stations
Radio stations

Prominent citizens

Twin towns – sister cities

Kikinda is twinned with: [45]

Awards

In 2003, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Mission to Serbia awarded the Municipality of Kikinda the Municipal Award for Tolerance. [47]

Climate

Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year-round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfa" (Humid subtropical climate). [48]

Climate data for Kikinda (1981–2010, extremes 1961–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)17.1
(62.8)
21.4
(70.5)
28.3
(82.9)
30.4
(86.7)
33.7
(92.7)
37.5
(99.5)
40.0
(104.0)
38.9
(102.0)
37.4
(99.3)
29.5
(85.1)
25.3
(77.5)
19.7
(67.5)
40.0
(104.0)
Average high °C (°F)3.0
(37.4)
5.6
(42.1)
11.7
(53.1)
17.7
(63.9)
23.1
(73.6)
26.0
(78.8)
28.5
(83.3)
28.4
(83.1)
23.5
(74.3)
17.7
(63.9)
10.0
(50.0)
4.1
(39.4)
16.6
(61.9)
Daily mean °C (°F)−0.2
(31.6)
1.4
(34.5)
6.3
(43.3)
11.9
(53.4)
17.3
(63.1)
20.3
(68.5)
22.3
(72.1)
21.7
(71.1)
16.9
(62.4)
11.6
(52.9)
5.6
(42.1)
1.1
(34.0)
11.3
(52.3)
Average low °C (°F)−3.1
(26.4)
−2.3
(27.9)
1.6
(34.9)
6.4
(43.5)
11.3
(52.3)
14.3
(57.7)
15.8
(60.4)
15.5
(59.9)
11.5
(52.7)
6.8
(44.2)
2.1
(35.8)
−1.6
(29.1)
6.5
(43.7)
Record low °C (°F)−29.8
(−21.6)
−24.5
(−12.1)
−15.6
(3.9)
−5.9
(21.4)
−0.5
(31.1)
4.0
(39.2)
7.1
(44.8)
6.0
(42.8)
−1.4
(29.5)
−7.7
(18.1)
−13.8
(7.2)
−22.4
(−8.3)
−29.8
(−21.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches)34.3
(1.35)
26.8
(1.06)
33.1
(1.30)
43.8
(1.72)
53.9
(2.12)
75.5
(2.97)
56.1
(2.21)
49.6
(1.95)
50.4
(1.98)
41.1
(1.62)
45.2
(1.78)
46.5
(1.83)
556.3
(21.90)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)121111111212991091114130
Average snowy days66300000002623
Average relative humidity (%)86807166646664657175828773
Mean monthly sunshine hours 67.8103.2154.2198.3256.9275.6309.3285.9207.6165.794.558.52,177.6
Source: Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia [49]

See also

Related Research Articles

Banat Historical region of eastern-central Europe now part of Romania, Serbia, and Hungary

Banat is a geographical and historical region straddling between Central and Eastern Europe that is currently divided among three countries: the eastern part lies in western Romania ; the western part in northeastern Serbia ; and a small northern part lies within southeastern Hungary.

Bečej Town and municipality in Vojvodina, Serbia

Bečej is a town and municipality located in the South Bačka District of the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia. The town has a population of 23,895, while the municipality has 37,351 inhabitants. It is a multiethnic town, predominantly inhabited by Serbs and Hungarians.

Vršac City in Vojvodina, Serbia

Vršac is a city and the administrative center of the South Banat District in the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia. As of 2011, the city urban area has a population of 35,701, while the city administrative area has 52,026 inhabitants. It is located in the geographical region of Banat.

Zrenjanin City in Vojvodina, Serbia

Zrenjanin is a city and the administrative center of the Central Banat District in the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia. The city urban area has a population of 76,511 inhabitants, while the city administrative area has 123,362 inhabitants.

North Banat District District of Serbia

The North Banat District is one of seven administrative districts of the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia. It lies in the geographical regions of Banat and Bačka. According to the 2011 census, the district has a population of 146,690 inhabitants. The administrative center of the district is the city of Kikinda.

Danube Banovina

Danube Banovina or Danube Banate, was a banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1929 and 1941. This province consisted of the geographical regions of Syrmia, Bačka, Banat, Baranya, Šumadija, and Braničevo. The capital city of the Danube Banovina was Novi Sad. The province was named after the Danube River.

Jovan Nenad, known as the Black was a Serb military commander in the service of the Kingdom of Hungary who took advantage of a Hungarian military defeat at Mohács and subsequent struggle over the Hungarian throne to carve out his own state in the southern Pannonian Plain. He styled himself emperor (tsar).

Vojvodina's demographic history reflects its rich history and its former location at the border of the Ottoman and Habsburg empires and at the confluence of various peoples, making it a hotbed of invasion, colonization, and assimilation processes. Currently there are more than 25 ethnic groups living in Vojvodina and six official languages.

Serbs in Vojvodina Ethnic group in Vojvodina

The Serbs of Vojvodina are the largest ethnic group in this northern province of Serbia. For centuries, Vojvodina was ruled by several European powers, but Vojvodina Serbs never assimilated into cultures of those countries. Thus, they have consistently been a recognized indigenous ethnic minority with its own culture, language and religion. According to the 2011 census, there were 1,311,776 Serbs in Vojvodina or 67.90% of the population of the province.

Srpski Krstur Village in Vojvodina, Serbia

Srpski Krstur is a village located in Serbia, in the Novi Kneževac municipality of the North Banat District, in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. The village has a Serb ethnic majority (69.81%) with a present Romani (13.58%) and Hungarian minority (9.38%). It has a population of 1,620 people.

Sajan (Kikinda) Village in Vojvodina, Serbia

Sajan is a village in the Kikinda municipality, in the North Banat District of Serbia. It is situated in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. The village has a Hungarian ethnic majority (88.64%) and a population of 1,164.

Banat, Bačka and Baranja

Banat, Bačka and Baranya was a de facto province of the Kingdom of Serbia and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes between November 1918 and 1922. It included the geographical regions of Banat, Bačka, and Baranya and its administrative center was Novi Sad.

District of Velika Kikinda

The Privileged District of Velika Kikinda was an administrative territorial entity of the Habsburg Monarchy between 1774 and 1876. It was an autonomous area centered around the town of Velika Kikinda, and mainly inhabited by ethnic Serbs.

Eparchy of Banat

The Eparchy of Banat is an ecclesiastical territory or eparchy of the Serbian Orthodox Church in the Banat region, Serbia. It is mostly situated in the autonomous province of Vojvodina, while the eparchy also include a small south-western part of Banat that belongs to the City of Belgrade as well as village of Ostrovo that belongs to the city of Požarevac. The seat of the eparchy is in Vršac.

Pomorišje

Pomorišje is a historical geographical region on the banks of the river Mureş that in the past has had a sizable ethnic Serb population. The region is mostly divided between Romania and Hungary, with small part of it in northern Serbia. Today, a Serb minority is present in parts of the region that are part of Romania and Hungary.

OFK Kikinda Football club

Omladinski Fudbalski klub Kikinda is a football club from Kikinda, Serbia. It is one of the oldest clubs in the country. The club currently competes in Serbia's fourth division the Vojvodina League East.

Dušan Vasiljev

Dušan Vasiljev was a Serbian poet, novelist and playwright. He was one of the most significant Serbian expressionists.

Obilićev Venac, a pedestrian and shopping zone, is located in the city center of Belgrade, Serbia, within the Knez Mihailova Street spatial unit protected by law, and contains a number of residential and office buildings dating from 1900 to 2000.

Great Peoples Assembly of Serbs, Bunjevci and other Slavs in Banat, Bačka and Baranja

The Great National Assembly of Serbs, Bunjevci and other Slavs in Banat, Bačka and Baranja or Novi Sad Assembly was an assembly held in Novi Sad on 25 November 1918, which proclaimed the unification of Banat, Bačka and Baranya with the Kingdom of Serbia.

References

General references

Notes

  1. "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia: Comparative Overview of the Number of Population in 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2002 and 2011, Data by settlements" (PDF). Statistical Office of Republic Of Serbia, Belgrade. 2014. ISBN   978-86-6161-109-4 . Retrieved 27 June 2014.
  2. 1 2 (Duk), Dusko Milicev. "KIKA – OnLine". Kika-mamut.com. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
  3. 1 2 KIKA Online: Dani ludaje u Kikindi... (in Serbian)
  4. 1 2 The "TERRA" Centre for fine and applied arts Archived 17 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  5. Kikinda Online: Istorija>NAZIV Archived 9 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine (in Serbian)
  6. 1 2 3 4 http://www.kikinda.co.rs Archived 26 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine : Blažić se stidi kikindskog grba (trans: Blažić Ashamed of the Kikinda Coat of Arms) Archived 19 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine , 30 June 2007 (in Serbian)
  7. A Note on Hungarian Heraldry by François Velde, August 1998
  8. Milivoj Rajkov, Istorija grada Kikinde do 1918. godine, Kikinda, 2003, pages 14–16.
  9. Milivoj Rajkov, Istorija grada Kikinde do 1918. godine, Kikinda, 2003, pages 14–15.
  10. Milivoj Rajkov, Istorija grada Kikinde do 1918. godine, Kikinda, 2003, page 15.
  11. 1 2 Milivoj Rajkov, Istorija grada Kikinde do 1918. godine, Kikinda, 2003, page 16.
  12. Milivoj Rajkov, Istorija grada Kikinde do 1918. godine, Kikinda, 2003, page 17.
  13. 1 2 Milivoj Rajkov, Istorija grada Kikinde do 1918. godine, Kikinda, 2003, page 27.
  14. 1 2 Milivoj Rajkov, Istorija grada Kikinde do 1918. godine, Kikinda, 2003, page 28.
  15. Dr Slobodan Ćurčić, Naselja Banata – geografske karakteristike, Novi Sad, 2004, page 187.
  16. Jovan M. Pejin, Iz prošlosti Kikinde, Kikinda, 2000, page 34.
  17. J.T. Crnogorac (18 November 2017), "Pre 160 godina zazviždao prvi banatski voz" [The first train to Banat whistled 160 years ago], Politika (in Serbian), p. 20
  18. 1 2 [ permanent dead link ]
  19. Milivoj Rajkov, Istorija grada Kikinde do 1918. godine, Kikinda, 2003, page 200.
  20. "Free Website Hosting with FreeWebsiteHosting.com". Lsvki.freewebsitehosting.com. Archived from the original on 23 March 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  21. Place where Kikinda Synagogue once was Archived 3 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  22. Nenad Stefanović, Jedan svet na Dunavu, Beograd, 2003, pages 175–176.
  23. Columbia-Lippincott Gazetteer (1951) p. 944
  24. Britannica, 15th Ed. (1984) Vol. 5, p. 805.
  25. "Pirot, Kikinda i Vršac dobili status grada" [Pirot, Kikinda and Vršac Awarded City Status]. B92. 29 February 2016. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
  26. Ilijasev, Biserka. "AN ORGANIZED VILLAGE". Biserka.in.rs. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
  27. "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia" (PDF). Stat.gov.rs. Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  28. "Попис становништва, домаћинстава и станова 2011. у Републици Србији" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Republički zavod za statistiku. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  29. "MUNICIPALITIES AND REGIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA, 2019" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. 25 December 2019. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  30. "Construction of Railway Lines in Slovenia". Archived from the original on 27 October 2009. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  31. "ŽELEZNICE SRBIJE – Istorijat železnice". Zeleznicesrbije.com. 31 May 1970. Archived from the original on 8 April 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  32. [ dead link ]
  33. J.T. Crnogorac (26 July 2017), "Kupači ne odustaju od Plave banje", Politika (in Serbian), p. 22
  34. "Kikindski mlin AD – Kikindska suvača". Kikindskimlin.co.rs. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
  35. Ana Vuković (25 November 2017), "Divovi geološke prošlosti na Kalemegdanu" [Giants from the geology history (exhibited) on Kalemegdan], Politika (in Serbian), p. 14
  36. J.T. Crnogorac (4 February 2018). "Sove ponovo dovele Bi-Bi-Si u Kikindu" [Owl brought BBC back to Kikinda]. Politika (in Serbian). p. 14.
  37. "National Museum of Kikinda". Muzejkikinda.com. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
  38. Kikinda Online: Narodna biblioteka "Jovan Popović" [ permanent dead link ](in Serbian)
  39. Kikinda Online: Narodno pozorište Archived 8 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  40. J.T.C. (7 December 2017), ""Tera" – jedinstveni muzej u svetu" ["Tera" – unique museum in the world], Politika (in Serbian), p. 6
  41. Ljiljana Ćinkul (9 December 2017), "Energija gline u novom muzeju" [Energy of clay in new museum], Politika-Kulturni dodatak, year LXI, No. 35 (in Serbian), p. 05
  42. "Kikindska televizija VK prestala da radi". Radio-televizija Vojvodine. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
  43. "Glumica Vesna Čipčić dobila plaketu Kikinde". Blic. 20 March 2017. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
  44. "Bratski gradovi" (in Serbian). Grad Kikinda. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  45. "Žilina – oficiálne stránky mesta: Partnerské mestá Žiliny [Žilina: Official Partner Cities]". MaM Multimedia, s.r.o.. 2008.
  46. "Daily Bulletin". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 12 November 2006.
  47. "Kikinda, Serbia Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
  48. "Monthly and annual means, maximum and minimum values of meteorological elements for the period 1981–2010" (in Serbian). Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia. Retrieved 25 February 2017.