Killiniq, Nunavut

Last updated

{{Infobox settlement | official_name = Killiniq | native_name = ᑭᓪᓕᓂᖅ
Kikkertaujak; Killipaartalik | image_skyline = | image_caption = | pushpin_map = Canada Nunavut#Canada | coordinates = 60°25′16″N064°49′54″W / 60.42111°N 64.83167°W / 60.42111; -64.83167 [1] Coordinates: 60°25′16″N064°49′54″W / 60.42111°N 64.83167°W / 60.42111; -64.83167 [2] | subdivision_type = Country | subdivision_name = Canada | subdivision_type1 = Territory | subdivision_name1 = Nunavut | subdivision_type2 = [[List of regions of Nunavut|Region | subdivision_name2 = Qikiqtaaluk | subdivision_type4 = | subdivision_name4 = | government_footnotes = | government_type = | leader_title = | leader_name = | area_footnotes = | area_total_km2 = | elevation_footnotes = | elevation_m = | population_footnotes = | population_total = Uninhabited | population_as_of = after 8 February 1978 | population_density_km2 = | timezone = | utc_offset = | timezone_DST = | utc_offset_DST = | postal_code_type = | postal_code = | area_code = | website = | footnotes = }} Killiniq (meaning: ice floes, [3] Inuktitut : ᑭᓪᓕᓂᖅ) (previous spelling: Killinek; local variants: Killipaartalik or Kikkertaujak (peninsula); previously: Bishop Jones' Village; sometimes referred to as: Port Burwell ) [4] [5] is a former Inuit settlement, weather station, trading post, missionary post, fishing station, and Royal Canadian Mounted Police post on Killiniq Island. Previously within Labrador, [6] and then the Northwest Territories, [7] it is now situated within the borders of Nunavut. [8] The community closed in 1978.

Contents

Geography

Killiniq, the settlement, is located on Killiniq Island, situated in Ungava Bay at the extreme northern tip of Labrador. The island contains the only land border between the territory of Nunavut, to the west, and the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, to the east. [9]

The settlement developed around Port Burwell harbour, located at the mouth of Hudson Strait. [8] [10] It is surrounded by coastal cliffs of an otherwise barren and rocky island, and a sea, frozen almost year-round. [11]

Though there is an abundance of seal, walrus, and Arctic char that promoted habitation, the settlement area is bereft of trees and wood. Some brushwood is scattered amongst stones. Wildflowers and moss are found nearby, but berries are located miles further afield. [12]

History

The Killiniq locality appears as early as 1569 on a Mercator map. It was visited in 1587 by John Davis, and in 1602 by George Weymouth.

Approximately 9.7 km (6 mi) south of Killiniq, Alpheus Spring Packard, the American entomologist and palaeontologist, discovered the remains of an Inuit settlement.

A Dominion Government Meteorological Station was established at Port Burwell in 1884. [13]

From 1898 through 1904, Job Brothers & Co., Limited, a Newfoundland-based mercantile and trading company operated a fishing station. [14]

The Anglican missionary, Rev. Sam M. Stewart of the Colonial and Continental Church Society arrived in 1899 to establish a mission. Having been appointed by Llewellyn Jones, Bishop of Newfoundland to the post, Stewart called the settlement "Bishop Jones' Village". [5] in 1899.

In 1904, the Moravian missionaries, the Brethren's Society for the Furtherance of the Gospel among the Heathen, bought the Job Brothers station. At the northwest corner of the Fort Burwell harbour, [15] they established their own mission and trading post, including a bakery, smithy, and carpentry shop. [16] Church services included a harmonium. [17] The next year, the Moravians announced in their periodical account that the local name "Kikkertaujak" would be changed to "Killinek". [18] Some of the missionaries included Rev. P. Hettasch, Rev. Walter W. Perrett, and Rev. S. Waldmann. During the period of August–October 1906, Dresden ornithologist Bernhard Hantzsch stayed at the Killiniq mission studying the Inuit culture, and creating bird and mammal inventories of the surrounding lakes and mountains. [19] The Moravians closed their mission in 1924. [20]

In 1916, the Hudson's Bay Company moved their George River trading post to the northeast part of the Fort Burwell harbour. [15] The Moravians sold their post to the HBC in 1923, and the HBC closed the consolidated trading post in 1939. [14]

The Royal Canadian Mounted Police posted a detachment in 1920, and expanded it in 1926. It was moved in 1936 to Port Harrison, Quebec. [20]

In 1942, the Hudson's Bay Company moved a dozen residents from Port Burwell to Southampton Island. [21] Though Killinek lacked a permanent landing strip because of its terrain, the United States Army, Air Force, Navy and Coast Guard wanted to use the location as a stop over while constructing Arctic airfields in Baffin Island, Northern Quebec, and Greenland during the Second World War. [20]

The Kikitayok Co-op was established in 1952 with animal materials, sculptures, biscuits, sardines, and ammunition. It was the second Co-op in the eastern Arctic. In 1964, a classroom was built and there was a full-time teacher in Killinq. [14] The airport code for the landing strip was XBW.

Although the Inuit of Killiniq were recognized as a signatory to the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement in November 1975, this did not prevent a gradual deterioration in government services and programs at Killiniq. This decline created an insecure environment and gave rise to a slow outmigration of families in search of settlements with assured access to essential services, especially medical and air transport. Between November 1975 and February 1978, a total of 50 Inuit left Killiniq in search of a more secure environment.

On 8 February 1978, the 47 people that remained were notified by radio that the government of the Northwest Territories was sending planes to move them from the community and that the settlement would be closed. The majority were moved to Kangiqsualujjuaq, Quebec on the southern end of Ungava Bay. [22] All of the former residents were scattered in the host communities of Nunavik, the homeland of the Inuit of Quebec. They arrived without housing, without income, and without many of their personal effects. Family groups were broken up and the Inuit were separated from their seasonal hunting territory. The host communities were neither advised nor prepared for this influx of people and there were no follow up programs or special funds to help with the resettlement. [23]

In subsequent years, there were sporadic visits by Inuit to Killiniq, including a fisheries project from 1983 through 1985 sponsored by the Makivik Corporation. [24] Feasibility studies were conducted in the mid-1980s to relocate the displaced Killiniq Inuit to Taqpangajuk, Quebec on the mainland, 40 km (25 mi) to the south of Killiniq. In the winter of 1987, several displaced Killiniq families established a new community at Taqpangajuk without government assistance.[ citation needed ]

Killiniq served as a summertime Canadian Coast Guard weather station (VAW) [25] until the early 1990s.

Sixteen years after the 1978 evacuation, an environmental survey was conducted in Killiniq to assess the remaining buildings, facilities and materials. The town was demolished during the 1980s or 1990s. The power lines and poles were cut down and some of the abandoned residences were bulldozed or burned; however, several are still standing today. A broken down bulldozer still exists at the site however the fuel supplies that had been left have been reported to have been depleted by visitors to the site.[ citation needed ]

Demographics

During 200 years of recorded history between 1773 and 1978, the Inuit population estimates fluctuated from as small as two to three families, to as many as 200 residents. [14] [20] In addition to the Inuit, Killiniq's posts, missions, and weather stations were also populated with traders, missionaries, and weather observers.

Inuit population estimates
YearResidentsFamiliesNotes
1773100Estimate by Jens Haven, Moravian missionary and explorer. [26]
1884–86Plus Dominion weather observer Burwell, with two assistants.
189880
1899Plus Anglican missionary Rev. Stewart, with Henry Ford, interpreter.
190480
1914–1916Plus Moravian missionary Karl Filschke, wife, and three children.
19204–5Plus Sergeant Wight and Constable Butler of the RCMP.
1939–19525
19552–3
196020–30
196495
197092
1971150
1975100
1977<50
February 8, 19780The last 47 residents were evacuated on this day, leaving an abandoned settlement.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nunavik</span> Proposed autonomous area in Quebec, Canada

Nunavik comprises the northern third of the province of Quebec, part of the Nord-du-Québec region and nearly coterminous with Kativik. Covering a land area of 443,684.71 km2 (171,307.62 sq mi) north of the 55th parallel, it is the homeland of the Inuit of Quebec and part of the wider Inuit Nunangat. Almost all of the 14,045 inhabitants of the region, of whom 90% are Inuit, live in fourteen northern villages on the coast of Nunavik and in the Cree reserved land (TC) of Whapmagoostui, near the northern village of Kuujjuarapik.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kangiqsualujjuaq</span> Northern village municipality in Quebec, Canada

Kangiqsualujjuaq is an Inuit village located at the mouth of the George River on the east coast of Ungava Bay in Nunavik, Quebec, Canada. Its population was 956 as of the 2021 census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Inuktitut syllabics</span> Abugida-type writing system used in Canada

Inuktitut syllabics is an abugida-type writing system used in Canada by the Inuktitut-speaking Inuit of the territory of Nunavut and the Nunavik and Nunatsiavut regions of Quebec and Labrador, respectively. In 1976, the Language Commission of the Inuit Cultural Institute made it the co-official script for the Inuit languages, along with the Latin script.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nunatsiavut</span> Autonomous area in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada claimed by the Inuit

Nunatsiavut is an autonomous area claimed by the Inuit in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. The settlement area includes territory in Labrador extending to the Quebec border. In 2002, the Labrador Inuit Association submitted a proposal for limited autonomy to the government of Newfoundland and Labrador. The constitution was ratified on December 1, 2005, at which time the Labrador Inuit Association ceased to exist, and the new Government of Nunatsiavut was established, initially being responsible for health, education and cultural affairs. It is also responsible for setting and conducting elections, the first of which was executed in October 2006. An election for the ordinary members of the Nunatsiavut Assembly was held on May 4, 2010. The Nunatsiavut Assembly was dissolved on April 6 in preparation for the election. Its incumbent president is Johannes Lampe who assumed office in 2016.

Cape Chidley is a headland located on the eastern shore of Killiniq Island, Canada, at the northeastern tip of the Labrador Peninsula.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kuujjuaq</span> Northern village municipality in Quebec, Canada

Kuujjuaq, formerly known as Fort Chimo and by other names, is a former Hudson's Bay Company outpost at the mouth of the Koksoak River on Ungava Bay that has become the largest northern village in the Nunavik region of Quebec, Canada. It is the administrative capital of the Kativik Regional Government. Its population was 2,668 as of the 2021 census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nain, Newfoundland and Labrador</span> Inuit community in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

Nain is the northernmost permanent settlement in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, within the Nunatsiavut region, located about 370 km (230 mi) by air from Happy Valley-Goose Bay. The town was established as a Moravian mission in 1771 by Jens Haven and other missionaries. As of 2021, the population is 847 mostly Inuit and mixed Inuit-European. Nain is the administrative capital of the autonomous region of Nunatsiavut.

Makivik Corporation is the legal representative of Quebec's Inuit, established in 1978 under the terms of the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement, the agreement that established the institutions of Nunavik. As such, it is the heir of the Northern Quebec Inuit Association, which signed the agreement with the governments of Quebec and Canada.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nachvak Fiord</span>

Nachvak Fjord is a deep fiord in northern Labrador nearly 2 km (1.2 mi) wide and 20 km (12 mi) long. The fjord is divided in two arms on the western end called Tallek and Tasiuyak. The Torngat Mountains that surround Nachvak Fjord are the highest in Labrador, where both Mount Razorback to the north and Mount Caubvick to the south are located.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mikak</span> First Inuit to travel to Europe

Mikak, also known as Micock, Mycock, or Mecock, was born in Labrador, Canada and died at Nain, Newfoundland and Labrador. She was one of several Inuit to travel to Europe in the 18th century and return to North America, although many Inuit who had travelled to Europe subsequently died from diseases, especially smallpox, before returning.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Killiniq Island</span> Remote island in northeastern Canada

Killiniq Island is a remote island in southeastern Nunavut and northern Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Located at the extreme northern tip of Labrador between Ungava Bay and the Labrador Sea, it is notable in that it contains the only land border between Nunavut and Newfoundland and Labrador. Most other islands off the northern coast of Quebec and Labrador belong exclusively to Nunavut. Some cartographic sources do not correctly show the island's geopolitical boundaries; for instance, the Commission de toponymie du Québec seems to show it as belonging to Quebec.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Okak, Newfoundland and Labrador</span> Ghost town in Labrador, Canada

Okak is a former community located on Okak Bay in northern Labrador. It was founded in 1776 by Jens Haven, a missionary of the Moravian Church. In 1918, Moravian missionaries brought an outbreak of Spanish influenza that devastated Okak, killing 204 out of a population of 263.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Inuit</span> Group of peoples of Arctic North America

Inuit are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic and subarctic regions of Greenland, Labrador, Quebec, Nunavut, the Northwest Territories, and Alaska. Inuit languages are part of the Eskimo–Aleut languages, also known as Inuit-Yupik-Unangan, and also as Eskaleut. Inuit Sign Language is a critically endangered language isolate used in Nunavut.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cape Chidley Islands</span>

The Cape Chidley Islands are members of the Arctic Archipelago in the territory of Nunavut. They are located in the Labrador Sea at the south end of the entrance to the Hudson Strait, north of Killiniq Island's Cape Chidley, and separated from Killiniq Island by the MacGregor Strait.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">George River (Quebec)</span> River in Quebec, Canada.

George River, formerly the East or George's River, is a river in northeastern Quebec, Canada, that flows from Lake Jannière mainly north to Ungava Bay.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Port Burwell, Nunavut</span> Harbour in Nunavut, Canada

Port Burwell is a harbour on western Killiniq Island, formed as an arm of Ungava Bay, at the mouth of Hudson Strait. Previously within Labrador, and then the Northwest Territories, it is now situated within the borders of Nunavut, Canada. Cape Chidley is 25 miles (40 km) to the northeast. The commnity of Port Burwell lies on the shore at 60°25′30″N64°50′00″W.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Inuit Nunangat</span> Inuit regions of Canada


Inuit Nunangat is the homeland of the Inuit in Canada. This Arctic homeland consists of four northern Canadian regions called the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, the territory Nunavut (ᓄᓇᕗᑦ), Nunavik (ᓄᓇᕕᒃ) in northern Québec, and Nunatsiavut of Newfoundland and Labrador.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Moravian missions in Greenland</span>

The Moravian missions in Greenland were established by the Moravian Church or United Brethren and operated between 1733 and 1900. They were operated under the auspices of the Royal Danish College of Missions until its dissolution in 1859 and were finally surrendered to the Lutheran Church of Denmark in 1900. Missionaries were allocated to the region and sometimes even sent wives who had been chosen for them and approved by the drawing of lots, a form of Cleromancy.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Moravian Church Mission Ships</span>

The Moravian Church Mission Ships were a series of twelve ships that made an annual voyage from London to the Moravian Church mission stations in Labrador every summer for the 156 years between 1770 and 1926. The purpose of the voyages was to supply provisions to the church's mission stations in Labrador and to rotate mission personnel. All but one were pure sailing vessels; the final ship, Harmony #5, had an auxiliary steam engine.

References

  1. "Killiniq". Geographical Names Data Base . Natural Resources Canada.
  2. "Killiniq". Geographical Names Data Base . Natural Resources Canada.
  3. "Killiniq". Commission de toponymie Quebec. Retrieved 28 October 2022.
  4. Müller-Wille, Ludger (1987). Inuttitut Nunait Atingitta Katirsutauningit Nunavimmi (Kupaimmi, Kanatami). Avataq Cultural Institute.
  5. 1 2 Heathen, Brethren's Society for the Furtherance of the Gospel Among the (1902). Periodical Accounts Relating to the Foreign Missions of the Church of the United Brethren. Vol. 5. Brethren's Society for the Furtherance of the Gospel among the Heathen (Jun 18, 2008 ed.). pp. 466–467.
  6. Brethren (1905), pp. 478
  7. Canada. Parliament. House of Commons. Standing Committee on Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Parliament, House of Commons, Canada (1976-01-01). Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence: Procès-verbaux Et Témoignages (Digitized Sep 15, 2008 ed.). Queen's Printer. p. 1.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. 1 2 Robertson, Gordon (2000). Memoirs of a very civil servant: Mackenzie King to Pierre Trudeau . University of Toronto Press. pp.  178. ISBN   0-8020-4445-X. port burwell nunavut.
  9. "Order Respecting the Withdrawal from Disposal of Certain Lands in Nunavut (The Nunavik Marine Region, Nunavut)". gazette.gc.ca. April 19, 2006. Archived from the original on July 6, 2011. Retrieved 2009-07-24.
  10. Shelagh, Shelagh Grant (2005). Arctic Justice: On Trial For Murder, Pond Inlet, 1923. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 224. ISBN   0-7735-2929-2.
  11. Bassler, Gerhard P. (2006). Vikings to U-Boats: the German experience in Newfoundland and Labrador. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 36. ISBN   0-7735-3124-6.
  12. Hutton, Samuel King (1912). Among the Eskimos of Labrador: a record of five years' close intercourse with the Eskimo tribes of Labrador (Digitized Oct 4, 2007 ed.). Seeley, Service & Co., Limited. pp.  38. Killinek.
  13. de Trémaudan, Auguste Henri (1916). The Hudson Bay Road (1498–1915) (Digitized: Jul 10, 2008 ed.). Dutton. pp.  53. port burwell Gordon.
  14. 1 2 3 4 Barret, M. (September 1994). Killiniq (Port Burwell), an Environmental Survey (PDF). Kuujjuaq, Quebec: Makivik Corporation. pp. 43–45.
  15. 1 2 Gray, David H. (January 2005). "Grenfell and the Labrador Coast" (PDF). The Northern Mariner. cnrs-scrn.org. XV (1): 16.
  16. Bassler, p. 39
  17. Bassler, p. 49
  18. Heathen, Brethren's Society for the Furtherance of the Gospel Among the (1905). Periodical Accounts Relating to the Foreign Missions of the Church of the United Brethren. Vol. 6. Brethren's Society for the Furtherance of the Gospel among the Heathen (Digitized Jun 25, 2008 ed.). p. 54.
  19. Bassler, p. 87
  20. 1 2 3 4 "Port Burwell, Labrador". pinetreeline.org. January 27, 2003. Archived from the original on June 22, 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-19.
  21. Damas, David (2004). Arctic Migrants/Arctic Villagers: The Transformation of Inuit Settlement in the Central Arctic. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 36. ISBN   0-7735-2405-3.
  22. Mowat, Farley; Margaret Atwood (2003). High latitudes: an Arctic journey (Digitized Sep 25, 2008 ed.). Steerforth Press. p. 84. ISBN   1-58642-061-5.
  23. Taqpangajuk Relocation: A Feasibility Study, Phase II (PDF). Vol. Final Report, Volume II. Makivik Corporation. 1987. p. 1.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  24. Makivik, 1987, p. 8
  25. "Marine Radio Communications and Traffic Services History in Canada". CAW Local 2182. Retrieved 2009-07-19.
  26. Barret, p. 43