|President of South Korea|
25 February 1993 –24 February 1998
|Prime Minister||Hwang In-sung|
|Preceded by||Roh Tae-woo|
|Succeeded by||Kim Dae-jung|
|President of the New Korea Party|
28 August 1992 –30 September 1997
|Preceded by||Roh Tae-woo|
|Succeeded by||Lee Hoi-chang|
|President of Democratic Reunification|
12 May 1988 –22 January 1990
|Preceded by||Kim Myung-yoon|
|Succeeded by||party merger|
1 May 1987 –8 February 1988
|Preceded by||office created|
|Succeeded by||Kim Myung-yoon|
|President of the New Democratic Party|
7 June 1979 –27 October 1980
|Preceded by||Lee Chul-seung|
|Succeeded by||party dissolution|
21 August 1974 –21 September 1976
|Preceded by||Kim Eui-taek|
|Succeeded by||Lee Chul-seung|
|Member of the National Assembly|
30 May 1992 –13 October 1992
30 May 1988 –29 May 1992
29 July 1960 –4 October 1979 (expelled)
31 May 1954 –30 May 1958
|Constituency||Geoje (South Gyeongsang)|
|Born||20 December 1927|
Geoje Island, Geoje, South Gyeongsang Province, Japanese Korea
|Died||22 November 2015 87) (aged|
Seoul, South Korea
|Resting place||Seoul National Cemetery, Seoul|
| ND (1967-198P0)|
Reunification Democratic (1987-1990)
Democratic Liberal-New Korea (1990-1997)
Son Myung-soon (m. 1951)
|Alma mater||Seoul National University (B.A.)|
|Revised Romanization||Gim Yeongsam|
Kim Young-sam (Korean : 김영삼; Hanja : 金泳三; Korean pronunciation: [ki.mjʌŋ.sam] or [kim] [jʌŋ.sam] ; 20 December 1927 – 22 November 2015) was a South Korean politician and democratic activist, who served as President of South Korea from 1993 to 1998. From 1961, he spent almost 30 years as one of the leaders of the South Korean opposition, and one of the most powerful rivals to the authoritarian regimes of Park Chung-hee and Chun Doo-hwan.
The Korean language is an East Asian language spoken by about 77 million people. It is a member of the Koreanic language family and is the official and national language of both Koreas: North Korea and South Korea, with different standardized official forms used in each country. It is also one of the two official languages in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County of Jilin province, China. It is also spoken in parts of Sakhalin, Ukraine, and Central Asia.
Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. More specifically, it refers to the Chinese characters borrowed from Chinese and incorporated into the Korean language with Korean pronunciation. Hanja-mal or Hanja-eo refers to words that can be written with Hanja, and hanmun refers to Classical Chinese writing, although "Hanja" is sometimes used loosely to encompass these other concepts. Because Hanja never underwent major reform, they are almost entirely identical to traditional Chinese and kyūjitai characters, though the stroke orders for some characters are slightly different. For example, the characters 教 and 研 are written as 敎 and 硏. Only a small number of Hanja characters are modified or unique to Korean. By contrast, many of the Chinese characters currently in use in Japan and Mainland China have been simplified, and contain fewer strokes than the corresponding Hanja characters.
South Korea is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and sharing a land border with North Korea. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo which was one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, Manchuria, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia under Gwanggaeto the Great. Its capital, Seoul, is a major global city and half of South Korea's over 51 million people live in the Seoul Capital Area, the fourth largest metropolitan economy in the world.
Elected president in 1992, Kim became the first civilian to hold the office in over 30 years. He was inaugurated on 25 February 1993, and served a single five-year term, presiding over a massive anti-corruption campaign, the arrest of his two predecessors, and an internationalization policy called Segyehwa.
In economics, internationalization is the process of increasing involvement of enterprises in international markets, although there is no agreed definition of internationalization. There are several internationalization theories which try to explain why there are international activities.
Kim was born in Geoje Island, by the southeastern tip of the Korean peninsula, to a rich fishing family on 20 December 1927, when Korea was under Imperial Japanese rule.He was the eldest of one son and five daughters in his family. During the Korean War, Kim served in the South Korean military as a student soldier (or Officer candidate). In 1952, he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in Philosophy from Seoul National University.
Japanese Korea refers to the period when Korea was under Japanese rule, between 1910 and 1945.
The Korean War was a war between North Korea and South Korea. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border.
The Republic of Korea Armed Forces, also known as the ROK Armed Forces, are the armed forces of South Korea. The ROK Armed Forces is one of the largest standing armed forces in the world with a reported personnel strength of 3,699,000 in 2018. South Korea has one of the highest defense budgets in the world, ranking 10th globally in 2019, with a budget of more than $43 billion U.S. dollars. The South Korean military is ranked as the 7th most powerful military force in the world as of 2019.
In 1954, Kim was elected to the National Assembly of South Korea, as a member of the party led by Syngman Rhee, the first president of South Korea.At the time of his election, Kim was the youngest member of the national assembly. A few months after his electoral victory, Kim left his party and joined the opposition when Rhee attempted to amend the constitution of South Korea. Kim then became a leading critic, along with Kim Dae-jung, of the military governments of Park Chung-hee and Chun Doo-hwan.
Syngman Rhee was a South Korean politician who served as the first President of South Korea from 1948 to 1960.
The Constitution of the Republic of Korea is the supreme law of South Korea. It was promulgated on July 17, 1948, and was last revised on October 29, 1987.
Kim Dae-jung, or Kim Dae Jung, was a South Korean politician who served as President of South Korea from 1998 to 2003. He was a 2000 Nobel Peace Prize recipient, the only Korean Nobel Prize recipient in history. He was sometimes referred to as the "Nelson Mandela of South Korea".
In 1974, he was elected as the president of the New Democratic Party. While he temporarily lost his power within the national assembly in 1976, Kim made a political comeback during the final year of Park Chung-hee's rule. Kim took a hardline policy of never compromising or cooperating with Park's Democratic Republican Party until the Yushin Constitution was repealed and boldly criticized Park's dictatorship, which could be punished with imprisonment under the new constitution.
The New Democratic Party of Korea was a South Korean opposition party that existed from 1963 to 1980, when it was forcibly dissolved by the ninth amendment of the constitution promulgated by Chun Doo-hwan the same year. It was the main opposition party during the Park Chung-hee dictatorial regime, and especially since 1972, when the Yushin constitution was put into effect.
The Democratic Republican Party (DRP) was a conservative and broadly state corporatist or nationalist political party in South Korea, ruling from shortly after its formation on February 2, 1963, to its dissolution under Chun Doo-hwan in 1980.
In August 1979, Kim allowed around 200 female workers at the Y.H. Trading Company to use the headquarters of New Democratic Party as a place for their sit-in demonstration and pledged to protect them. One thousand policemen raided the party headquarters and arrested the workers.One female worker died in the process and many lawmakers trying to protect them were severely beaten, some requiring hospitalization. The YH Incident garnered widespread criticism and led to Kim's condemnation, with an assertion that Park's dictatorship would soon collapse. After this incident, Park was determined to remove Kim from the political scene, like the imprisoned Kim Dae-jung, and instructed the South Korean Central Intelligence Agency (KCIA) to engineer such a move. In September 1979, a court order suspended Kim's presidency of the New Democratic Party.
When Kim called on the United States to stop supporting Park's dictatorship in an interview with the New York Times ,Park wanted to have Kim imprisoned while the Carter Administration, concerned over increasing human right violations, issued a strong warning not to persecute members of the opposition party. When Kim was expelled from the National Assembly in October 1979, the United States recalled its ambassador back to Washington, D.C., and all 66 lawmakers of the New Democratic Party resigned from the National Assembly.
When it became known that the South Korean government was planning to accept the resignations selectively, uprisings broke out in Kim's hometown of Pusan. It was the biggest demonstration since the Syngman Rhee presidency, and spread to nearby Masan and other cities, with students and citizens calling for an end to the dictatorship.The crisis was one of the causes for the assassination of Park Chung-hee on 26 October 1979 by KCIA Director Kim Jae-gyu.
The government's oppressive stance towards the opposition continued under Chun Doo-hwan, who seized power with a military coup on 12 December 1979. Kim Young-Sam was expelled from the National Assembly for his democratic activities and banned from politics from 1980 to 1985. In 1983, he undertook a 21-day hunger strike protesting the dictatorship of Chun Doo-hwan.
When the first democratic presidential election was held in 1987 after Chun's retirement, Kim Young-sam and Kim Dae-jung ran against each other, splitting the opposition vote and enabling ex-general Roh Tae-woo, Chun's hand-picked successor, to win the election. This was also despite support from the first female presidential candidate, Hong Sook-ja, who resigned her candidacy in order to support Kim.In 1990, he unexpectedly merged his Democratic Reunification Party with Roh's ruling Democratic Justice Party to form the Democratic Liberal Party, now the Liberty Korea Party.
As the candidate of the governing party,he defeated Kim Dae-jung in the 1992 presidential election. He was only the third civilian to hold the office, and the first since 1962.
The Kim Young-sam administration attempted to reform the government and the economy. One of the first acts of his government was to start an anti-corruption campaign, which began at the very top, as Kim promised not to use political slush funds.
Kim's government required government and military officials to publish their financial records, precipitating the resignation of several high-ranking officers and cabinet members.He had his two predecessors as president, Chun and Roh, arrested and indicted on charges of corruption and treason for their role in military coups, although they would be pardoned near the end of his term. Kim also granted amnesty to thousands of political prisoners, and removed the criminal convictions of pro-democracy protesters who had been arrested during the Gwangju massacre in the aftermath of the Coup d'état of December Twelfth. The anti-corruption campaign was also part of an attempt to reform the chaebol , the large South Korean conglomerates which dominated the economy. However, Kim's anti-corruption message was damaged after his son was arrested for bribery and tax evasion related to the Hanbo scandal.
In 1994, when American president Bill Clinton mulled over attacking Nyongbyon, the centre of North Korea's nuclear program, Kim advised him to back down to prevent renewal of fighting.
Kim's new ministerial party, the DLP lost its narrow majority in the National Assembly in 1996. Kia Motors collapsed soon thereafter, setting off a chain of events which embroiled South Korea in the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis during the last year of his presidency.
During the financial crisis, the collapse of Kia and other conglomerates led Kim to accept a $58 billion USD bailout from the International Monetary Fund.
After his presidency, Kim traveled the world promoting democracy, and speaking at events such as Towards a Global Forum on New Democracies in Taiwan in January 2007.
He died in Seoul National University Hospital on 22 November 2015, from heart failure, at the age of 87.On 26 November 2015, a televised state funeral was held for Kim at the National Assembly lawn, during which Prime Minister Hwang Kyo-ahn delivered the opening remarks. Later that day, Kim was buried in the Seoul National Cemetery.
Kim was a member of the Chunghyun Presbyterian Church and was fluent in Japanese in addition to his native language, Korean. He was married to Son Myung-soon.He was survived by his children, two sons and three daughters, as well as his five younger sisters.
Minjung is a Korean word that combines the two hanja characters min and jung. Min is from "인민 (Inmin)" may be translated as "people" and jung is from "대중 (Daejung)" which translated as "public". Thus, minjung can be translated to mean "the masses" or "the people."
The Fourth Republic of Korea was the government of South Korea from November 1972 to March 1981.
The Fifth Republic of South Korea was the government of South Korea from March 1981 to December 1987.
The Democratic Justice Party (DJP) (민주정의당) was the ruling party of South Korea from 1980 to 1988. It was formed in 1980 as the Democratic Republican Party and was the political vehicle for Chun Doo-hwan.
Kim Geun-tae was a democracy activist and politician of the Republic of Korea.
Chang Myon was a South Korean statesman, educator, diplomat, journalist and social activist as well as a Roman Catholic youth activist. He was the last Vice President of South Korea and the Prime Minister of the Second Republic. His styled name (ho) was Unseok. His English name was John Chang Myon.
Parliamentary elections were held in South Korea on 26 April 1988. The result was a victory for the ruling Democratic Justice Party (DJP), which won 125 of the 299 seats in the National Assembly. Voter turnout was 75.8%. This was the first time in Korean history the ruling party did not win a majority in the National Assembly since 1950. In January 1990, the DJP merged with other two opposition parties, leaving Kim Dae-jung-led Peace Democratic Party to be the sole opposition party.
Parliamentary elections were held in South Korea on 12 February 1985. The result was a victory for the Democratic Justice Party, which won 148 of the 276 seats in the National Assembly. Voter turnout was 84.6%.
The June Struggle, also known as the June Democracy Movement and June Democratic Uprising was a nationwide democracy movement in South Korea that generated mass protests from June 10 to June 29, 1987. The demonstrations forced the ruling government to hold elections and institute other democratic reforms which led to the establishment of the Sixth Republic, the present day government of South Korea.
Two-stage presidential elections were held in South Korea in February 1981. An electoral college was elected on 11 February, which in turn elected the president on 25 February. They were the last indirect presidential elections controlled by the government of Chun Doo-hwan under the new 1980 Constitution. Chun was re-elected with 90% of the electoral college vote.
The Coup d'état of May Seventeenth was a military coup d'état carried out in South Korea by general Chun Doo-hwan and Hanahoe that followed the Coup d'état of December Twelfth.
5th Republic is a 2005 South Korean television series that aired on MBC from April 23 to September 1, 2005 on Saturdays and Sundays at 21:40 for 41 episodes. It depicted the Fifth Republic of South Korea, during which Chun Doo-hwan was president from 1981 to 1988, from his rise to power through a military coup to his downfall after a series of democratic movements, such as the Gwangju uprising and the June Democratic Uprising. It was a politically and socially turbulent era in the country's history, which generated controversy for the drama series.
Eyes of Dawn is a South Korean television series starring Choi Jae-sung, Chae Shi-ra and Park Sang-won. Directed by Kim Jong-hak and written by Song Ji-na based on the 10-volume novel of the same name by Kim Seong-jong, the story spans the years from the Japanese colonial period to World War II, Korea's liberation and the Korean War.
Chun Doo-hwan is a South Korean politician and former South Korean army general who served as the President of South Korea from 1980 to 1988, ruling as an unelected coup leader from December 1979 to September 1980 and as elected president from 1980 to 1988. Chun was sentenced to death in 1996 for his role in the Gwangju Massacre but was later pardoned by President Kim Young-sam, with the advice of then President-elect Kim Dae-jung, whom Chun's administration had sentenced to death some 20 years earlier.
The Peace Democratic Party was a political party of South Korea from 1987 to 1991. The party was established in October 1987 by Kim Dae-jung and his followers to contest the presidential election that year. The party later merged with Democratic Party to form the Democratic Party.
The Reunification Democratic Party was a political party of South Korea from 1987 to 1990. The party was established in April 1987 by Kim Dae-jung and Kim Young-sam, splitting from the New Korea Democratic Party. The party faced another split later that year with Kim Dae-jung and his followers organizing Peace Democratic Party. The party later merged with conservative Democratic Justice Party and New Democratic Republican Party in January 1990. The party members who opposed the split formed the Democratic Party. The party had strong support in the Southeastern region of the country, including the South Gyeongsang Province and the city of Busan.
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| President of South Korea |
25 February 1993 – 25 February 1998