Kim Young-sam

Last updated


Kim Young-sam
김영삼
Kim Young Sam (Cropped).jpg
President of South Korea
In office
25 February 1993 24 February 1998
Prime MinisterHwang In-sung
Lee Hoi-chang
Lee Yung-dug
Lee Hong-koo
Lee Soo-sung
Goh Kun
Preceded by Roh Tae-woo
Succeeded by Kim Dae-jung
President of the New Korea Party
In office
28 August 1992 30 September 1997
Preceded by Roh Tae-woo
Succeeded by Lee Hoi-chang
President of Democratic Reunification
In office
12 May 1988 22 January 1990
Preceded byKim Myung-yoon
Succeeded byparty merger
In office
1 May 1987 8 February 1988
Preceded byoffice created
Succeeded byKim Myung-yoon
President of the New Democratic Party
In office
7 June 1979 27 October 1980
Preceded byLee Chul-seung
Succeeded byparty dissolution
In office
21 August 1974 21 September 1976
Preceded byKim Eui-taek
Succeeded byLee Chul-seung
Member of the National Assembly
In office
30 May 1992 13 October 1992
ConstituencyProportional Representation
In office
30 May 1988 29 May 1992
Constituency Seo (Busan)
In office
29 July 1960 4 October 1979 (expelled)
Constituency Seo (Busan)
In office
31 May 1954 30 May 1958
Constituency Geoje (South Gyeongsang)
Personal details
Born(1927-12-20)20 December 1927
Geoje Island, Geoje, South Gyeongsang Province, Japanese Korea
Died22 November 2015(2015-11-22) (aged 87)
Seoul, South Korea
Resting place Seoul National Cemetery, Seoul
Political party Independent
Other political
affiliations
ND (1967-198P0)
NKDP (1985-1987)
Reunification Democratic (1987-1990)
Democratic Liberal-New Korea (1990-1997)
Spouse(s)
Son Myung-soon (m. 1951)
ChildrenKim Hye-young(daughter,1952)
Kim Hye-jeong(daughter,1954)
Kim Eun-chul(son,1956)
Kim Hyun-chul(son,1959)
Kim Hye-sook(daughter,1961)
Alma mater Seoul National University (B.A.)
Religion Presbyterianism (GAPCK)
Signature Kim Young-Sam signature.svg
Military service
AllegianceFlag of South Korea (1949-1984).svg  South Korea
Branch/serviceFlag of the Army of the Republic of Korea.svg Republic of Korea Army
Rank Student soldier
Korean name
Hangul
Hanja
Revised Romanization Gim Yeongsam
McCune–Reischauer Kim Yŏngsam
Pen name
Hangul
Hanja
Revised Romanization Geosan
McCune–Reischauer Kŏsan

Kim Young-sam (Korean : 김영삼; Hanja : 金泳三; Korean pronunciation:  [ki.mjʌŋ.sam] or [kim] [jʌŋ.sam] ; 20 December 1927 – 22 November 2015) was a South Korean politician and democratic activist, who served as President of South Korea from 1993 to 1998. From 1961, he spent almost 30 years as one of the leaders of the South Korean opposition, and one of the most powerful rivals to the authoritarian regimes of Park Chung-hee and Chun Doo-hwan.

Korean language Language spoken in Korea

The Korean language is an East Asian language spoken by about 77 million people. It is a member of the Koreanic language family and is the official and national language of both Koreas: North Korea and South Korea, with different standardized official forms used in each country. It is also one of the two official languages in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County of Jilin province, China. It is also spoken in parts of Sakhalin, Ukraine, and Central Asia.

Hanja Korean language characters of Chinese origin

Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. More specifically, it refers to the Chinese characters borrowed from Chinese and incorporated into the Korean language with Korean pronunciation. Hanja-mal or Hanja-eo refers to words that can be written with Hanja, and hanmun refers to Classical Chinese writing, although "Hanja" is sometimes used loosely to encompass these other concepts. Because Hanja never underwent major reform, they are almost entirely identical to traditional Chinese and kyūjitai characters, though the stroke orders for some characters are slightly different. For example, the characters and are written as 敎 and 硏. Only a small number of Hanja characters are modified or unique to Korean. By contrast, many of the Chinese characters currently in use in Japan and Mainland China have been simplified, and contain fewer strokes than the corresponding Hanja characters.

South Korea Republic in East Asia

South Korea is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and sharing a land border with North Korea. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo which was one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, Manchuria, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia under Gwanggaeto the Great. Its capital, Seoul, is a major global city and half of South Korea's over 51 million people live in the Seoul Capital Area, the fourth largest metropolitan economy in the world.

Contents

Elected president in 1992, Kim became the first civilian to hold the office in over 30 years. He was inaugurated on 25 February 1993, and served a single five-year term, presiding over a massive anti-corruption campaign, the arrest of his two predecessors, and an internationalization policy called Segyehwa.

In economics, internationalization is the process of increasing involvement of enterprises in international markets, although there is no agreed definition of internationalization. There are several internationalization theories which try to explain why there are international activities.

Early life and education

Kim was born in Geoje Island, by the southeastern tip of the Korean peninsula, to a rich fishing family on 20 December 1927, when Korea was under Imperial Japanese rule. [1] He was the eldest of one son and five daughters in his family. [2] During the Korean War, Kim served in the South Korean military as a student soldier (or Officer candidate). In 1952, he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in Philosophy from Seoul National University. [3]

Korea under Japanese rule Japanese occupation of Korea from 1910–1945

Japanese Korea refers to the period when Korea was under Japanese rule, between 1910 and 1945.

Korean War 1950s war between North and South Korea

The Korean War was a war between North Korea and South Korea. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border.

Republic of Korea Armed Forces Combined military forces of South Korea

The Republic of Korea Armed Forces, also known as the ROK Armed Forces, are the armed forces of South Korea. The ROK Armed Forces is one of the largest standing armed forces in the world with a reported personnel strength of 3,699,000 in 2018. South Korea has one of the highest defense budgets in the world, ranking 10th globally in 2019, with a budget of more than $43 billion U.S. dollars. The South Korean military is ranked as the 7th most powerful military force in the world as of 2019.

Career

In 1954, Kim was elected to the National Assembly of South Korea, as a member of the party led by Syngman Rhee, the first president of South Korea. [1] At the time of his election, Kim was the youngest member of the national assembly. [4] A few months after his electoral victory, Kim left his party and joined the opposition when Rhee attempted to amend the constitution of South Korea. [1] Kim then became a leading critic, along with Kim Dae-jung, of the military governments of Park Chung-hee and Chun Doo-hwan.

Syngman Rhee First president of South Korea

Syngman Rhee was a South Korean politician who served as the first President of South Korea from 1948 to 1960.

Constitution of South Korea Constitution

The Constitution of the Republic of Korea is the supreme law of South Korea. It was promulgated on July 17, 1948, and was last revised on October 29, 1987.

Kim Dae-jung South Korean politician

Kim Dae-jung, or Kim Dae Jung, was a South Korean politician who served as President of South Korea from 1998 to 2003. He was a 2000 Nobel Peace Prize recipient, the only Korean Nobel Prize recipient in history. He was sometimes referred to as the "Nelson Mandela of South Korea".

New Democratic Party leader

In 1974, he was elected as the president of the New Democratic Party. While he temporarily lost his power within the national assembly in 1976, Kim made a political comeback during the final year of Park Chung-hee's rule. Kim took a hardline policy of never compromising or cooperating with Park's Democratic Republican Party until the Yushin Constitution was repealed and boldly criticized Park's dictatorship, which could be punished with imprisonment under the new constitution. [5]

The New Democratic Party of Korea was a South Korean opposition party that existed from 1963 to 1980, when it was forcibly dissolved by the ninth amendment of the constitution promulgated by Chun Doo-hwan the same year. It was the main opposition party during the Park Chung-hee dictatorial regime, and especially since 1972, when the Yushin constitution was put into effect.

The Democratic Republican Party (DRP) was a conservative and broadly state corporatist or nationalist political party in South Korea, ruling from shortly after its formation on February 2, 1963, to its dissolution under Chun Doo-hwan in 1980.

In August 1979, Kim allowed around 200 female workers at the Y.H. Trading Company to use the headquarters of New Democratic Party as a place for their sit-in demonstration and pledged to protect them. One thousand policemen raided the party headquarters and arrested the workers. [6] One female worker died in the process and many lawmakers trying to protect them were severely beaten, some requiring hospitalization. The YH Incident garnered widespread criticism and led to Kim's condemnation, with an assertion that Park's dictatorship would soon collapse. [7] After this incident, Park was determined to remove Kim from the political scene, like the imprisoned Kim Dae-jung, and instructed the South Korean Central Intelligence Agency (KCIA) to engineer such a move. In September 1979, a court order suspended Kim's presidency of the New Democratic Party. [8] [9]

When Kim called on the United States to stop supporting Park's dictatorship in an interview with the New York Times , [8] [10] Park wanted to have Kim imprisoned while the Carter Administration, concerned over increasing human right violations, issued a strong warning not to persecute members of the opposition party. When Kim was expelled from the National Assembly in October 1979, the United States recalled its ambassador back to Washington, D.C., [7] and all 66 lawmakers of the New Democratic Party resigned from the National Assembly. [10]

When it became known that the South Korean government was planning to accept the resignations selectively, uprisings broke out in Kim's hometown of Pusan. It was the biggest demonstration since the Syngman Rhee presidency, and spread to nearby Masan and other cities, with students and citizens calling for an end to the dictatorship. [7] The crisis was one of the causes for the assassination of Park Chung-hee on 26 October 1979 by KCIA Director Kim Jae-gyu. [8]

House arrest

The government's oppressive stance towards the opposition continued under Chun Doo-hwan, who seized power with a military coup on 12 December 1979. Kim Young-Sam was expelled from the National Assembly for his democratic activities and banned from politics from 1980 to 1985. In 1983, he undertook a 21-day hunger strike protesting the dictatorship of Chun Doo-hwan. [11]

Failed presidential run, 1987

When the first democratic presidential election was held in 1987 after Chun's retirement, Kim Young-sam and Kim Dae-jung ran against each other, splitting the opposition vote and enabling ex-general Roh Tae-woo, Chun's hand-picked successor, to win the election. This was also despite support from the first female presidential candidate, Hong Sook-ja, who resigned her candidacy in order to support Kim. [12] In 1990, he unexpectedly merged his Democratic Reunification Party with Roh's ruling Democratic Justice Party to form the Democratic Liberal Party, now the Liberty Korea Party. [5]

Presidency (1993–98)

As the candidate of the governing party, [1] he defeated Kim Dae-jung in the 1992 presidential election. He was only the third civilian to hold the office, and the first since 1962.

The Kim Young-sam administration attempted to reform the government and the economy. One of the first acts of his government was to start an anti-corruption campaign, which began at the very top, as Kim promised not to use political slush funds. [1]

Kim's government required government and military officials to publish their financial records, precipitating the resignation of several high-ranking officers and cabinet members. [13] He had his two predecessors as president, Chun and Roh, arrested and indicted on charges of corruption and treason for their role in military coups, although they would be pardoned near the end of his term. [1] Kim also granted amnesty to thousands of political prisoners, and removed the criminal convictions of pro-democracy protesters who had been arrested during the Gwangju massacre in the aftermath of the Coup d'état of December Twelfth. [13] The anti-corruption campaign was also part of an attempt to reform the chaebol , the large South Korean conglomerates which dominated the economy. However, Kim's anti-corruption message was damaged after his son was arrested for bribery and tax evasion related to the Hanbo scandal. [1]

In 1994, when American president Bill Clinton mulled over attacking Nyongbyon, the centre of North Korea's nuclear program, Kim advised him to back down to prevent renewal of fighting. [1]

Kim's new ministerial party, the DLP lost its narrow majority in the National Assembly in 1996. Kia Motors collapsed soon thereafter, setting off a chain of events which embroiled South Korea in the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis during the last year of his presidency. [13]

During the financial crisis, the collapse of Kia and other conglomerates led Kim to accept a $58 billion USD bailout from the International Monetary Fund. [1]

Later life and death

After his presidency, Kim traveled the world promoting democracy, and speaking at events such as Towards a Global Forum on New Democracies in Taiwan in January 2007. [14]

He died in Seoul National University Hospital on 22 November 2015, from heart failure, at the age of 87. [1] [3] [15] On 26 November 2015, a televised state funeral was held for Kim at the National Assembly lawn, during which Prime Minister Hwang Kyo-ahn delivered the opening remarks. [15] Later that day, Kim was buried in the Seoul National Cemetery. [15]

Personal life

Kim was a member of the Chunghyun Presbyterian Church and was fluent in Japanese in addition to his native language, Korean. He was married to Son Myung-soon. [16] He was survived by his children, two sons and three daughters, as well as his five younger sisters. [14]

Related Research Articles

Minjung is a Korean word that combines the two hanja characters min and jung. Min is from "인민 (Inmin)" may be translated as "people" and jung is from "대중 (Daejung)" which translated as "public". Thus, minjung can be translated to mean "the masses" or "the people."

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Kim, Hyung-Jin. "Kim Young Sam: South Korean president ended years of military rule". The Globe and Mail . Bloomberg News . Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  2. "Kim Young Sam Facts". Encyclopedia of World Biography. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
  3. 1 2 "Hospital Official: Ex-SKorean President Kim Young-Sam Dies". New York Times . Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  4. "Former South Korean President Kim Young-Sam Dies at 87". ABC News . Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  5. 1 2 Breen, Michael (19 October 2011). "Kim Young-sam: the man who would be president". The Korea Times . Archived from the original on 22 November 2015. Retrieved 22 November 2015.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  6. Lee, Kenneth B. (1997). Korea and East Asia: The Story of a Phoenix. Westport, Conn.: Praeger. p. 196. ISBN   027595823X.
  7. 1 2 3 Fowler, James (June 1999). "The United States and South Korean Democratization" (PDF). Political Science Quarterly . 114 (2): 265–288. doi:10.2307/2657739.
  8. 1 2 3 Breen, Michael (15 February 2012). "Inner circle collapses: Kim Jae-gyu and Cha Ji-cheol". The Korea Times . Archived from the original on 22 November 2015. Retrieved 22 November 2015.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  9. Vogel, Ezra F.; Kim, Byung-Kook (2011). The Park Chung Hee Era: The Transformation of South Korea. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. pp. 166–167. ISBN   0674058208.
  10. 1 2 Seth, Michael J. (2010). A Concise History of Modern Korea: From the Late Nineteenth Century to the Present. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 187. ISBN   0742567133.
  11. "Former President Kim Young-sam dies at age 87". The Korea Herald . 21 November 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  12. Holley, David (6 December 1987). "Kim Young Sam Gets Backing of Only Woman in Korea Race" . Retrieved 24 November 2016.
  13. 1 2 3 Kihl, Young Whan (2005). Transforming Korean Politics: Democracy, Reform, and Culture. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe. pp. 102–142. ISBN   0765614286.
  14. 1 2 "Hospital official: Former South Korean President Kim Young-sam". Chicago Sun-Times . Retrieved 22 November 2015.
  15. 1 2 3 Kim Tong-hyung (26 November 2015). "S. Koreans mourn ex-President Kim in state funeral". Associated Press . Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  16. Yonhap news agency. 10 March 1997.
Political offices
Preceded by
Roh Tae-woo
President of South Korea
25 February 1993 – 25 February 1998
Succeeded by
Kim Dae-jung