King of Hanover

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King of Hanover
Royal Arms of the Kingdom of Hanover.svg
Coat of arms
Georgv.jpg
George V
Details
Style His Majesty
First monarch George III
Last monarch George V
Formation12 October 1814
Abolition20 September 1866
Appointer Hereditary
Pretender(s) Prince Ernst August

The King of Hanover (German: König von Hannover) was the official title of the head of state and hereditary ruler of the Kingdom of Hanover, beginning with the proclamation of the King of the United Kingdom George III, as "King of Hanover" during the Congress of Vienna, on 12 October 1814 at Vienna, and ending with the kingdom's annexation by Prussia on 20 September 1866.

Contents

History

In 1813, George III of the United Kingdom was restored to his Hanoverian territories, and in October 1814 they were constituted as the independent Kingdom of Hanover at the Congress of Vienna. The personal union with the United Kingdom ended in 1837 on the accession of Queen Victoria because the succession laws in Hanover, based on Salic law, prevented a female inheriting the title if there was any surviving male heir (in the United Kingdom, a male took precedence only over his sisters).

List of Electors of Hanover

Electors of Hanover
ImageNameDateSuccessionNotes
King George I by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt (3).jpg George I Louis 1708–1727Son of Ernest Augustus.Became King of Great Britain in 1714. Acquired Bremen-Verden in 1719.
George II.jpg George II Augustus 1727–1760Son of George I.Acquired Land Hadeln in 1731.
George, Prince of Wales, later George III, 1754 by Liotard.jpg George III William Frederick 1760–1806Grandson of George II.Became King of the United Kingdom (by way of the act of union with Ireland) in 1801. Acquired the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück in 1803. He lost (early 1801), regained (April 1801), lost again (May 1803), regained again (Autumn 1805), lost for a third time (early 1806), and regained for a third time (October 1813) de facto power in Hanover by various occupations and annexations during the Great French War (1801–1813). After the electoral title became defunct, with the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, nonetheless between 1806 and 1814, the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire was not recognised and George III retained the electoral title until early 1814 when George was proclaimed King of Hanover, a title which was universally recognised during the Congress of Vienna (1814–15).

List of Kings of Hanover

MonarchConsortReignRoyal House
#PortraitNamePortraitNameReign startReign end
1 George, Prince of Wales, later George III, 1754 by Liotard.jpg King George III
(1738–1820)
German : König Georg III
Queen Charlotte
(1744–1818)
German : Königin Charlotte
12 October 1814
29 January 1820 Hanover
2 George IV van het Verenigd Koninkrijk.jpg King George IV
(1762–1830)
German : König Georg IV
QueenCaroline1820.jpg Queen Caroline
(1768–1821)
German : Königin Caroline
29 January 182026 June 1830 Hanover
3 William IV.jpg King William IV
(1765–1837)
German : König Wilhelm IV
Beechey, William - Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen - NPG 1533.jpg Queen Adelaide
(1792–1845)
German : Königin Adelaide
26 June 183020 June 1837 Hanover
4 ERNESTAUGUSTIKINGOFHANOVER1771-1851.jpg King Ernest Augustus
(17711851)
German : König Ernst August
Friederike von Preussen - 1796.jpg Queen Frederica
(17781841)
20 June 183718 November 1851 Hanover
5 GeorgeVHannover.jpg King George V
(18191878)
German : König Georg V
Princess Marie of Saxe-Altenburg.jpg Queen Marie
(18181907)
18 November 185120 September 1866 Hanover

List of Pretenders of Hanover

Standard and coat of arms

After the personal union with Great Britain ended in 1837, the monarchs of Hanover kept the British royal arms and standard, only introducing a new Crown (after the British model).

See also

Notes

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