Kingdom of Dagbon

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Kingdom of Dagbon
Royaume de Dagbon

Dagbang
Ghana - Northern.svg
Northern Region of Ghana, the region of the Kingdom of Dagbon
Kingdom of Dagbon (Northern Territories) locator map.png
Region of the Kingdom of Dagbon (black rectangle)
Capital Yendi
09°26.5′N00°0.5′W / 9.4417°N 0.0083°W / 9.4417; -0.0083
Largest city Tamale
Official languages Dagbani (lingua franca), Hausa, French, English
Ethnic groups
Dagomba (Dagbani)
Mossi (Mooré)
Mamprusi (Mampruli)
Religion
Islam
Demonym(s) Dagbon
Government Monarchy
Ndan Yaa Naa Mahama Abukari II
History
 Founded
c. 1250
 Capital relocated to Yendi
c. 1700
Area
 Total
97,702 km2 (37,723 sq mi)
Population
 2019 estimate
5,197,937 [1]
Time zone UTC+0 (GMT0)
 Summer (DST)
UTC+0 (GMT0)
Today part of Ghana

The Kingdom of Dagbon is one of the oldest and most organised traditional kingdoms in Ghana founded by the Dagomba people (Dagbamba) in the 11th century. During its rise, it comprised, at various points, the Northern, Upper West and Upper East regions of present-day Ghana. [2] Since Ghana's independence in 1957, the Kingdom just like all of Ghana's kingdoms and tribal states has assumed a traditional, customary role.

Contents

Oral histories of the Kingdom tell that it was founded by a warrior named Tohazie (c. 1250), who arrived in present-day northern Ghana in the 11th century with his cavalry men from east of Lake Chad, stopping in Zamfara, present-day northern Nigeria, and in the Mali Empire, before settling in northern Ghana. These histories tell of numerous conflicts with neighbouring peoples throughout this early period until the early 18th century, when the capital of the kingdom was moved to the city of Yendi. Around this time, Islam arrived to the kingdom, and a period of peace and increased trade with neighbouring kingdoms began.

In 1888, the Kingdom of Dagbon was partitioned between the German and British empires, and in 1899 this split became organised into the territories of German Togoland and the Gold Coast. Following World War I, eastern Dagbon became part of British Togoland. The Gold Coast achieved independence in 1957 as Ghana. The result of interference of British and German imperialism significantly was a kingdom that was robbed of its once invaluable traditional artifacts, beautiful way of life and a divided Kingdom whose wounds would not completely heal till the second decade of the 21st Century.

The Kingdom of Dagbon since around the 1920s has been characterised by repeated succession disputes and conflict mainly from British and German Imperial interference in Dagbon's succession. Several incidents have occurred, including in 2002 when the King of Dagbon Yakubu Andani II, of the Andani royal family, was murdered by the unknown people. [3] As of January 2014, a regent (installed in 2006) has acted as sovereign of the kingdom until a new ruler is chosen. [4] Today, the king of Dagbon's court remains at the city of Yendi. The kingdom is divided into territorial chiefdoms, categorised from divisional to village chieftaincies. The monarch of Dagbon is known as the Ya Naa (also spelt Ya Na, Ya-Na, Yaa Naa Yaan Naa).

On 18 January 2019, a new Yaa Naa, Abubakari Mahama, was chosen in Yendi by the Dagbon state's kingmakers. This was after a peace initiative by the Committee of Eminent Chiefs, headed by Asantehene Otumfuo Osei Tutu II. He was enskinned on 26 January 2019 in Yendi. [5] The end of the dispute made the celebration of the Damba festival possible again after 17-year break. The festival was celebrated in November 2019. [6]

History

The First Kingdom of Dagbon, from the mid 15th century to the late 17th century, is known to history almost entirely through oral tradition, especially drum chant. The Second Kingdom, from around 1700 to 1900, is better known, because, in addition to drum chant, there are other sources of information, some of them independent of events in Dagbon itself. [7]

Founding and First Kingdom (1400s–1600s)

The Kingdom of Dagbon, in the homeland of the Dagomba people, was founded in the 11th century. Accounts of the kingdom's origins, rulers and wars of conquest are preserved in drum histories. These histories narrate the story of Tohazhie, the "Red Hunter", who left Tunga, east of Lake Chad, with a small band of cavalry men into Zamfara, present-day Nigeria, before moving on to Mali. Tohazhie married the daughter of the king of Mali, Pag Wabiga, and fathered a son, Kpoginumbo(Ʒinani). [8] :25

After serving briefly in Mali, Kpogonumbo and his followers came into conflict with the rising Songhay Empire in western Africa, and reprisal attacks from the Songhay forced Kpogonumbo and his followers southward. Kpogonumbo then seized power and ruled over Biun in Gurma. His son, Naa Gbewaa (or Bawa), left Biun with some of his followers to settle at Pusiga in the northeastern corner of Ghana, where he ruled until he became blind. Naa Gbewaa's son, Zirili, succeeded him, but succession disputes between three of Zirili's younger brothers–Tohagu, Sitogu and Mantabo–led to the kingdom's demise. Naa Gbewaa remains in the histories of the kingdoms of Dagbon and the kingdoms of the Mamprugu and Nanumba, as their first king, founding their ruling dynasties through these sons. [8] :25

Naa Gbewaa's son Sitogu settled briefly at the town of Gambaga before moving south to Namburugu, near Karaga, where he founded the Dagbon state. The king became known as Ya Naa, meaning "king of strength". As Sitobu moved south, he encountered groups of indigenous peoples. such as the Konkomba, Nafeba, Basare and Chamba, who did not have centralised political structures, except for the office of the tengdana or tindana–the earth priest, literally translated as "owner of the land". The tengdana presided over ritual ceremonies and acted as a mediator between the people and the gods of the land. [8] :25

Sitobu's son, Naa Nyagsi (r. 1416-1432) succeeded him and embarked on a war of expansion, killing many of the tengdana and holding sway over the indigenous people. Naa Nyagsi established his capital at Yendi (Yendi Dabari), located in the area of Diyali, near Tamale, and developed a stable political organisation by installing his sons, brothers and uncles as rulers over the conquered people. The surviving tengdamba continued to function as earth priests, while some members of the Konkomba were assigned roles in the military. [8] :25

18th century and Second Kingdom (1700–1888)

In about 1700, the capital was relocated from Yendi Dabari to a new city (also known as Yendi) in the east because of incessant wars with the Gonja people. A major confrontation at Daboya dealt a lot of damage to the Dagomba people. Naa Tutugri retaliated by defeating the Gonja near Yen Dabari, but his successor, Naa Luro, though victorious over the Gonja in a later battle, could not stand the sustained warfare and relocated the capital to Yendi. The Gonja followed eastward, but in 1713, Naa Zangina finally halted the Gonja attacks when he decisively defeated them and killed their chief, Kumpatia, at Sang near Yendi. [8] :25

Naa Zangina not only is reputed to be the first Muslim ruler of the Dagbon, but is also credited with encouraging trade. With the relocation of the capital to Yendi and the return of peace, a Muslim community emerged at the Ya Naa's palace at Yendi. The Dyula, of Mande origin, led by Sabali-Yarla, and the Hausa Muslims, led by the Kamshe Naa, bolstered Islamic influence in the kingdom. Beginning with the Sabali-Yarna, and later the Kamshe Naa, these peoples became responsible for the Ya Naa's protective prayers. At the Ya Naa's palace, Muslim titles, a sign of the integration of Muslim elders into the political structure, included the Walgu Naa, who made sure that the Ya Naa had his portion to "Drink the Qur'an"; the Nayil Liman, the imam of the Ya Naa, and the Yidan Kambala, were also credited with the imamship. [8] :25–26

The extension of trade with the Dyula, and later with the Hausa, linked the Dagbon state with neighbouring kingdoms, like the Fezzan, Egypt, and the Bight of Benin. By 1788, Yendi was said to be bigger than Kumasi and Salaga. [8] :26

It was culturally closer to, and was the result of, other Sahelian kingdoms, especially to the Mossi Kingdoms, Mali Empire, Songhai Empire, and Hausa Bakwai, with which Dagbon were major trading partners for salt, kola nuts, and slaves.

Colonisation (1888–1957)

Dagbon resisted colonisation as it had a well organised and powerful army. In 1888, Dagbon became part of a neutral zone, stretching from Yeji to Yendi, that was established to forestall conflict between the Germans and the British. The area was later parceled between the two powers, and Yendi, where the Yaa Naa resided, came under German control, separating him from his people in the west. In 1896, the Germans clashed with the Dagomba at the Battle of Adibo and destroyed Yendi and made away with valuables. It was a massacre, as the 7,000-man, poorly equipped Dagomba army merely rushed with their bows and arrows at the 100-man well-armed German army. [9] In 1899 the British and the Germans split Dagbon between German Togoland and the Gold Coast. [9]

Following World War I, eastern Dagbon became part of the British-administered mandated territories established by the League of Nations and reunited with the west, allowing the Yaa Naa to resume control of his people.:26 The British implemented indirect rule, in which Dagomba chiefs administered local government. This policy perpetuated Dagomba dominance over the Konkomba. The British largely neglected the economic development of Dagbon. To pay the head tax the British imposed, Dagomba had to migrate to the southern Gold Coast to work in mines and on cocoa plantations. [9]

The Kingdom of Dagbon enjoyed a distinct constitutional position before it became part of the British Togoland. [2] [10]

Recent history

Today, the Yaa Naa's court remains at Yendi. The kingdom is divided into territorial chiefdoms, categorised from divisional to village chieftaincies. Certain chieftaincies, such as Karaga, Savalugu and Mion, are reserved for the sons of the former Yaa Naa, and their occupancy qualifies one to test for the Namship, or head chiefdom, at Yendi. Lesser chieftaincies are reserved for grandsons. Succession to the Nam has always rotated among the three royal houses, now reduced to two–the Andani and the Abudu. [11]

Over the past century, the Dagomba have faced repeated succession disputes and conflict. Following the death of Yaa-Na Mahama II in 1954, a succession dispute erupted into violence. The federal government sent troops to Yendi and intervened to decide the succession. Ethnic tension has also plagued northern Ghana. Violence flared between the Dagomba and their Konkomba subjects over land use and ownership in 1914, 1917, the 1940s and the 1980s. During the 1990s ethnic tension once again racked the region. Twelve people were killed in Tamale in 1994 when police fired at a group of Dagomba who had attacked some Konkomba. [9]

In March 2002, Ya Naa Yakubu Andani II, from the Andani house, was murdered together with forty-two of his elders in a war by supporters of the Abudu house. [3] [12] [13] After eight years, on 10 April 2010, around thirty to forty people were arrested for the murder in Yendi and parts of Accra in preparation for prosecution. [11] [14] As of January 2014 a successor has not been installed, and a regent (installed in 2006) has acted as sovereign of the kingdom until a new ruler is chosen. [4]

On 16 November 2018, a Mediation Committee that was led by Otumfuo Osei Tutu II finalized its plan to resolve the conflict in Dagbon. It was agreed that the Abudu Royal family perform the funeral rites of the late Yaa Naa Mahamadu Abdulai from 14–28 of December 2018. Next was to be the funeral of the late Yaa Naa Yakubu Andani II, from 4–19 January 2019. Both obsequies took place at the old Gbewaa Palace in Yendi. [15]

See also

Related Research Articles

Yaa Naa Yakubu Andani II (1945–2002) was the King of Dagbon, the traditional kingdom of the Dagomba people in northern Ghana, from 31 May 1974 until his assassination on 27 March 2002. He was born in August 1945 in Sagnarigu, a suburb of Tamale in the Northern Region of Ghana. Yakubu II was killed on 27 March 2002 at Yendi, the capital of the Kingdom of Dagbon, by supporters of Abudu royal family when clashes broke out between the two feuding Gates of Dagbon Kingship. For 600 years the Abudu and Andani clans, named after two sons of the ancient Dagbon king Ya Naa Yakubu I, cordially rotated control of the kingdom centred in Yendi, 530 kilometres (330 mi) north of Accra, the capital of Ghana. As of January 2014, a regent has acted as sovereign of the kingdom until a new ruler is chosen to occupy the revered Lion Skins of Yendi.

The Dagombas are a Gur ethnic group of northern Ghana, numbering about 931,000 (2012). They inhabit the Northern Region of Ghana in the sparse savanna region below the sahelian belt, known as the Sudan. They speak the Dagbani language which belongs to the Mole-Dagbani sub-group of the Gur languages. There are around 1to 2 million speakers of Dagbani. The Dagomba are historically related to the Mossi people. The Mohi/Mossi now have their homeland in central present-day Burkina Faso. The homeland of the Dagomba is called Dagbon and covers about 20,000 km2 in area.

Dagbani, also known as Dagbanli and Dagbanle, is a Gur language spoken in Ghana. Its native speakers are estimated around 3,160,000. It is a compulsory subject in primary and junior high school in the Dagbon Kingdom, which covers the eastern part of the region. Dagbani is the most widely spoken language in northern Ghana, especially among acephalous tribes overseen by the King of Dagbon, the Ya-Na.

Yendi Town & District Capital in Northern Region

Yendi is a town and the capital of Yendi Municipal district in the Northern Region of Ghana. As of 2012 the population of Yendi was 52,008 people. It is the seat of the paramount chief of the Dagombas.

Northern Region (Ghana) Region of Ghana

The Northern Region is one of the sixteen regions of Ghana. It is located in the north of the country and was the largest of the sixteen regions, covering an area of 70,384 square kilometres or 31 percent of Ghana's area until December 2018 when the Savannah Region and North East Region were created from it. The Northern Region is divided into 14 districts. The region's capital is Tamale.

Ya Na Darimani (Kulkarijee) was Ya-Na or king of the Kingdom of Dagbon, a kingdom located in the northern part of modern-day Ghana. He was said to have ruled Dagbon for only seven weeks in 1899 but played an important role in the Dagbon chieftaincy conflict.

Bawa Andani Yakubu, MV was a police officer, politician and king. He was an Inspector General of Police in Ghana. He also served in the National Liberation Council (NLC) government. He was the Gushie-Naa or Gushie King until his death.

Damba festival

The Damba festival is celebrated by the chiefs and peoples of the Northern, Savanna, North East and Upper West Regions of Ghana. The name Damba in Dagbani, Damma in Mampruli and Jingbenti in Waali. The festival is celebrated in the Dagomba lunar month of Damba, corresponding to the third month of the Islamic calendar, Rabia al-Awwal. Damba is celebrated to mark the birth and naming of the Holy prophet, Muhammad, but the actual content of the celebration is a glorification of the chieftaincy, not specific Islamic motifs. The festival is categorized into three sessions; the Somo Damba, the Naa Damba and the Belkulsi.

Bimbilla is the capital town of Nanumba North District, a district in the Northern Region of Ghana, located in the East of the region, and is near the Oti River.

Yusuf Soalih also called Afa Ajura (1890-2004), was a Ghanaian Islamic scholar, a preacher, political activist, and the founder and leader of a sect in Ghana. Afa Ajura was a proponent of Sunni Islam shunning pre-Islamic pagan practices, and whom some have referred to as a precursor to Wahhabi reformism in Ghana. He established the Anbariyya Islamic Institute in Tamale in the 1940s. He died in Tamale on December 22, 2004. He was succeeded by Saeed Abubakr Zakaria in 2007 as leader of the Anbariyya Sunni Community.

The Mole-Dagomba are a meta-ethnicity and western Oti-Volta Gur ethno-linguistic group residing in six present-day West Africa countries namely: Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Mali and Togo.

The Nanumba people are an ethnic group whose traditional homeland is in the southeast of the Northern Region of Ghana. They speak Nanugli, a Gur language.

The 1892 Sack of Salaga was a Gonja civil war for the control of the town of Salaga that occurred on December 5, 1892. A rebellion led by Kabachewura Isifa and assisted by his Dagomba and Nanumba allies overthrew Kpembewura Napo who died in exile in the same year.

Ya Naa Yakubu (Yakuba) I was Ya-Na, or king, of the Kingdom of Dagbon in northern Ghana. He ruled between c. 1829 and c. 1849, however other sources put his reign roughly between c. 1799 and c. 1839.

Gariba II Traditional ruler of the Kingdom of Dagbon in Ghana

Bukali II, known as Gariba II, is the current Yaa Naa, traditional ruler of the Kingdom of Dagbon in Ghana.

The Yaa Naa is the absolute monarch of the Kingdom of Dagbon, comprising Dagbon; the cultural region occupied by the Dagbamba, and surrounding ethnicities whereby the Kingdom of Dagbon has traditional administrative responsibilities over; including the Konkomba, Bimoba, Chekosi, Basaari, Chamba, Wala, Gurusi and Zantasi. The Kingship is only for descendants of two main clans of the Dagbon Kingdom: the Abudu clan and the Andani clan. Before a person is eligible to become Yaa Naa, he has to first become a king of either Savelugu or Mion. The Yaa Naa Kingship is solely for men, and not women.

The 2002 Dagbon chieftaincy crisis, also known as the Yendi conflict, was a clash between two feuding factions that occurred at the Gbewaa Palace, Ghana from March 25–27, 2002, and resulted in the killing of Yaa Naa Yakubu II and 40 of his elders.

Gbewaa Palace is the seat of the Yaa Naa of the Kingdom of Dagbon. Located at Nayilifong along the Yendi-Saboba road in Yendi, Gbewaa Palace was named after the patriarch of the Mole-Dagbani people.

Ibrahim Mahama (politician) Ghanaian Civil Servant

Ibrahim Mahama is a Ghanaian lawyer, and civil servant. He is Ghana's Commissioner for Information from 1968 to 1969.

Gundonaa Hajia Samata Abudu

Gundonaa Hajia Samata Abudu is the Paramount woman Chief of the Dagbon traditional area in the Northern Region of Ghana. All women Chiefs in that area are subordinate to her. She heads the Gundogu skin, the female equivalent of the Yendi skin, which is headed by the Yaa-Naa. The Gundonaa is the only Chief, be it male or female, who is able to veto the Yaa-Naa’s word. She is assisted in her duties by the Kpatunaa, a female Chief of the Kpatuya clan.

References

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