Kingdom of Serbia

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Kingdom of Serbia

Краљевина Србија
Kraljevina Srbija
1882–1918
Anthem: 
"Боже правде" / "Bože pravde"
(English: "God of Justice")
Kingdom of Serbia (1914).svg
The Kingdom of Serbia in 1914
Capital Belgrade
Common languages Serbian
Religion
Serbian Orthodoxy
Government Constitutional monarchy
King  
 1882–1889
Milan I
 1889–1903
Alexander I
 1903–1918
Peter I
Prime Minister  
 1882–1883
Milan Piroćanac (first)
 1912–1918
Nikola Pašić (last)
Legislature National Assembly
Historical era New Imperialism, World War I
 Proclamation
6 March 1882
1 December 1918
Currency Serbian dinar
ISO 3166 code RS
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag of Serbia (1835-1882).svg Principality of Serbia
Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes Flag of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.svg
Today part ofFlag of Serbia.svg  Serbia
Flag of North Macedonia.svg  North Macedonia
Flag of Kosovo.svg  Kosovo
Flag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro

The Kingdom of Serbia (Serbian : Краљевина Србија/ Kraljevina Srbija) was created when Milan I, ruler of the Principality of Serbia, was proclaimed king in 1882.

Serbian language South Slavic language

Serbian is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs. It is the official language of Serbia, co-official in the territory of Kosovo, and one of the three official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In addition, it is a recognized minority language in Montenegro, where it is spoken by the relative majority of the population, as well as in Croatia, North Macedonia, Romania, Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic.

Milan I of Serbia king of Serbia

Milan Obrenović was the ruler of Serbia from 1868 to 1889, first as prince (1868-1882), subsequently as king (1882-1889).

Principality of Serbia 1804-1882 principality in Southeastern Europe

The Principality of Serbia was a semi-independent state in the Balkans that came into existence as a result of the Serbian Revolution, which lasted between 1804 and 1817. Its creation was negotiated first through an unwritten agreement between Miloš Obrenović, leader of the Second Serbian Uprising and Ottoman official Marashli Pasha. It was followed by the series of legal documents published by the Porte in 1828, 1829 and finally, 1830 — the Hatt-i Sharif. Its de facto independence ensued in 1867, following the expulsion of all Ottoman troops from the country; its independence was recognized internationally in 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin. In 1882 the country was elevated to the status of kingdom.

Contents

Since 1817, the Principality was ruled by the Obrenović dynasty (replaced by the Karađorđević dynasty for a short time). The Principality, suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire, de facto achieved full independence when the last Ottoman troops left Belgrade in 1867. The Congress of Berlin in 1878 recognized the formal independence of the Principality of Serbia, and in its composition Nišava, Pirot, Toplica and Vranje districts entered the South part of Serbia.

Obrenović dynasty dynasty

The Obrenović was a Serbian dynasty that ruled Serbia from 1815 to 1842, and again from 1858 to 1903. They came to power through the leadership of their progenitor Miloš Obrenović I in the Serbian Uprising of 1815–1817 against the Ottoman Empire, which led to the formation of the Principality of Serbia in 1817. The Obrenović dynasty were traditionally allied with Austria-Hungary and opposed the Russian-supported Karađorđević dynasty.

The Karađorđević, pl. Karađorđevići / Карађорђевићи, pronounced [karad͡ʑǒːrd͡ʑeʋit͡ɕ]) is a Serb dynastic family, founded by Karađorđe Petrović, the Veliki Vožd of Serbia in the early 1800s during the First Serbian Uprising. The relatively short-lived dynasty was supported by the Russian Empire and was opposed to the Austria-Hungary supported Obrenović dynasty. After Karađorđe's assassination in 1817, Miloš Obrenović founded the House of Obrenović. The two houses subsequently traded the throne for several generations. Following the assassination of Alexander in 1903, the Serbian Parliament chose Karađorđe's grandson, Peter I Karađorđević, then living in exile, for the throne of the Kingdom of Serbia. He was duly crowned as King Peter I, and shortly before the end of World War I, representatives of the three peoples proclaimed a Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes with Peter I as sovereign. In 1929, the Kingdom was renamed Yugoslavia, under Alexander I, the son of Peter I. In November 1945, the throne was lost when the League of Communists of Yugoslavia seized power, during the reign of Peter II.

Suzerainty is any relationship in which one region or nation controls the foreign policy and relations of a tributary state, while allowing the tributary nation to have internal autonomy.

In 1882, Serbia was elevated to the status of a kingdom, maintaining a foreign policy friendly to Austria-Hungary. Between 1912 and 1913, Serbia greatly enlarged its territory through engagement in the First and Second Balkan WarsSandžak-Raška, Kosovo Vilayet and Vardar Macedonia were annexed. At the end of World War I in 1918 it united with Vojvodina and the Kingdom of Montenegro, and towards the end of 1918 it joined with the newly created State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs to form the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later known as Kingdom of Yugoslavia) under the continued rule of the Serbian Karađorđević dynasty.

Austria-Hungary Constitutional monarchic union between 1867 and 1918

Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy in Central and Eastern Europe between 1867 and 1918. It was formed when the Austrian Empire adopted a new constitution; as a result Austria (Cisleithania) and Hungary (Transleithania) were placed on equal footing. It dissolved into several new states at the end of the First World War.

First Balkan War 1910s war between the Balkan League and the Ottoman Empire

The First Balkan War, lasted from October 1912 to May 1913 and comprised actions of the Balkan League against the Ottoman Empire. The combined armies of the Balkan states overcame the numerically inferior and strategically disadvantaged Ottoman armies and achieved rapid success.

Second Balkan War war

The Second Balkan War was a conflict which broke out when Bulgaria, dissatisfied with its share of the spoils of the First Balkan War, attacked its former allies, Serbia and Greece, on 16 (O.S.) / 29 (N.S.) June 1913. Serbian and Greek armies repulsed the Bulgarian offensive and counter-attacked, entering Bulgaria. With Bulgaria also having previously engaged in territorial disputes with Romania, this war provoked Romanian intervention against Bulgaria. The Ottoman Empire also took advantage of the situation to regain some lost territories from the previous war. When Romanian troops approached the capital Sofia, Bulgaria asked for an armistice, resulting in the Treaty of Bucharest, in which Bulgaria had to cede portions of its First Balkan War gains to Serbia, Greece and Romania. In the Treaty of Constantinople, it lost Edirne to the Ottomans.

Principality of Serbia

King Milan I of Serbia MilanIDeSerbia--dasknigreichse03kaniuoft.jpg
King Milan I of Serbia

The Principality of Serbia was a state in the Balkans that came into existence as a result of the Serbian revolution which lasted between 1804 and 1817. Despite brutal oppression and retaliation by the Ottoman authorities, the revolutionary leaders, first Karađorđe and then Miloš Obrenović, succeeded in their goal to liberate Serbia after centuries of Turkish rule.

Balkans Geopolitical and cultural region of southeastern Europe

The Balkans, also known as the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various definitions and meanings, including geopolitical and historical. The region takes its name from the Balkan Mountains that stretch throughout the whole of Bulgaria from the Serbian-Bulgarian border to the Black Sea coast. The Balkan Peninsula is bordered by the Adriatic Sea on the northwest, the Ionian Sea on the southwest, the Aegean Sea in the south and southeast, and the Black Sea on the east and northeast. The northern border of the peninsula is variously defined. The highest point of the Balkans is Mount Musala, 2,925 metres (9,596 ft), in the Rila mountain range.

Ottoman Empire Former empire in Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa

The Ottoman Empire, historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.

Miloš Obrenović Prince of Serbia

Miloš Obrenović born Miloš Teodorović was Prince of Serbia from 1815 to 1839, and again from 1858 to 1860. He participated in the First Serbian Uprising, led Serbs in the Second Serbian Uprising, and founded the House of Obrenović. Under his rule, Serbia became an autonomous principality within the Ottoman Empire. Prince Miloš ruled autocratically, permanently refusing to share power. During his rule, he was the richest man in Serbia and one of the richest in the Balkans.

At first, the principality included only the territory of the former Pashaluk of Belgrade, but in 1831–1833 it expanded to the east, south, and west. In 1867 the Ottoman army left the Principality, securing its de facto independence. [1] Serbia expanded further to the south-east in 1878, when it won full international recognition at the Congress of Berlin. In 1882 it was raised to the level of the Kingdom of Serbia.

Treaty of Berlin (1878) a peace treaty signed on 13 July 1878

The Treaty of Berlin was signed on 13 July 1878. In the aftermath of the Russian victory against the Ottoman Empire, the major powers restructured the map of the Balkan region. They reversed some of the extreme gains claimed by Russia in the preliminary Treaty of San Stefano, but the Ottomans lost their major holdings in Europe. It was one of three major peace agreements in the period after the 1815 Congress of Vienna. It was the final act of the Congress of Berlin and included Great Britain and Ireland, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Russia and the Ottoman Empire. Germany's Otto von Bismarck was the chairman and dominant personality.

Serbo-Bulgarian War, 1885

The Kingdom of Serbia in 1913 Serbia 1913.PNG
The Kingdom of Serbia in 1913

The Serbo-Bulgarian War erupted on November 14, 1885, and lasted until November 28 of the same year. The war ended in defeat for Serbia, as it had failed to capture the Slivnitsa region which it had set out to achieve. Bulgarians successfully repelled the Serbs after the decisive victory at the Battle of Slivnitsa and advanced into Serbian territory taking Pirot and clearing the way to Niš.

Serbo-Bulgarian War 1885 war between Serbia and Bulgaria

The Serbo-Bulgarian War or Serbian–Bulgarian War was a war between the Kingdom of Serbia and Principality of Bulgaria that erupted on 14 November [O.S. 2 November] 1885 and lasted until 28 November [O.S. 16 November] 1885. Serbia took the initiative in starting the war but was decisively defeated. Austria demanded Bulgaria stop its invasion, and a truce resulted. Final peace was signed on 3 March [O.S. 19 February] 1886 in Bucharest. The old boundaries were not changed. As a result of the war, European powers acknowledged the act of Unification of Bulgaria which happened on 18 September [O.S. 6 September] 1885.

Slivnitsa Place in Sofia Province, Bulgaria

Slivnitsa is a town in western Bulgaria, 22 km away from Sofia, lying on the main road connecting the capital with the Bulgarian-Serbian border. Slivnitsa is part of Sofia Province and is close to the towns of Kostinbrod and Dragoman.

Battle of Slivnitsa decisive battle in Serbo-Bulgarian War

Called the "Battle of the captains vs the generals" by historians, referring to the young Bulgarian army, whose highest rank went up to a captain, the Battle of Slivnitsa was a decisive factor in the victory of the Bulgarian army over the Serbians on November 17–19, 1885 in the Serbo-Bulgarian War. It solidified the unification between the kingdom of Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia.

When Austria-Hungary declared that it would join the war on the side of Serbia, Bulgaria withdrew from Serbia leaving the Serbo-Bulgarian border precisely where it had been prior to the war. The peace treaty was signed on February 19, 1886, in Bucharest. As a result of the war, European powers acknowledged the act of Unification of Bulgaria which happened on September 6, 1885.

Politics

In 1888 People's Radical Party led by Sava Grujić and Nikola Pašić came to power and a new constitution, based on the liberal Constitution of Belgium was introduced. The lost war and the Radical Party's total electoral victory were some of the reasons why King Milan I abdicated in 1889. His son Alexander I assumed the throne in 1893 and in 1894 dismissed the constitution.

May Coup, 1903

King Alexander I of Serbia and his unpopular wife Queen Draga were assassinated inside the Royal Palace in Belgrade on the night of 28–29 May 1903. Other representatives of the Obrenović family were shot as well. This act resulted in the extinction of the House of Obrenović, which had been ruling Serbia since 1817.

Peter I

Peter I after the coronation on September 21, 1904 King Peter I after coronation, 21 September 1904.jpg
Peter I after the coronation on September 21, 1904

After the May Coup the Serbian Skupština invited Peter Karadjorjević to assume the Serbian crown as Peter I of Serbia. A constitutional monarchy was created with the military Black Hand society operating behind the scenes. The traditionally good relations with Austria-Hungary ended, as the new dynasty relied on the support of the Russian Empire and closer cooperation with Kingdom of Bulgaria.

In April 1904 the Friendship treaty and in June 1905 the customs union with Bulgaria were signed. In response Austria-Hungary imposed a Tariff War (Pig war) of 1906-1909. After the 1906 elections the People's Radical Party came to power. In 1908 Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia, where Serbia had hoped to expand its territory.

Bosnian Crisis

The Bosnian Crisis of 1908–1909 (also referred to as the Annexation crisis) erupted into public view when on October 5, 1908, Kingdom of Bulgaria declared its complete independence from Ottoman Empire and on October 6, 1908, when Austria-Hungary announced the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which was populated mainly by South Slavs.

Russia, the Ottoman Empire, Britain, Kingdom of Italy, Serbia, Principality of Montenegro, German Empire and France took an interest in these events. In April 1909, the 1878 Treaty of Berlin was amended to accept the new status quo and bringing the crisis to an end. The crisis permanently damaged relations between Austria-Hungary on the one hand and Russia and Serbia on the other. The annexation and reactions to the annexation were some of the contributing causes of World War I.

Ten Years War

Between 1912 and 1922 Serbia was involved in a number of wars that brought it to the brink of total destruction and ended with its victory and expansion. Victorious in the First and Second Balkan Wars, it gained significant territorial areas of the Central Balkans and almost doubled its territory.

Balkan Wars and expansion

Territorial expansion of the Kingdom of Serbia in 1913 Serbian greater expansion 1913.png
Territorial expansion of the Kingdom of Serbia in 1913

Negotiations between Russia, Serbia and Bulgaria led to the Serbian-Bulgarian Treaty of Alliance of March 1912, which aimed to conquer and to divide the Ottoman held Macedonia. In May, a Serbian-Greek alliance was reached and in October 1912, a Serbia-Montenegro alliance was signed. [2]

After the war started, Serbia, together with Montenegro, conquered Pristina and Novi Pazar. At the Battle of Kumanovo Serbians defeated the Ottoman army and proceeded to conquer Skopje and the whole of Kosovo vilayet. The region of Metohija (known as the Dukagjini Valley to ethnic-Albanians) was taken by Montenegro. At Bitola and Ohrid Serbian army units established contact with the Greek army.

Populations of ethnic Serbs and Albanians tended to shift following territorial conquests. As a result of the multi-ethnic composition of Kosovo, the new administrations provoked a mixed response from the local population. While Albanians did not welcome Serbian rule, [3] the non-Albanian population (largely Serbs but other Southern Slavs too) considered this a liberation.

On November 29, 1913 the Drač County of the Kingdom of Serbia was established on the part of the territory of Albania captured from the Ottoman Empire during the First Balkan War. Serbian Drač County had four districts (Serbian : срез): Drač (Durrës), Lješ (Lezhë), Elbasan and Tirana. [4] [5]

After the First Balkan War of 1912, Kosovo and north-western Macedonia was internationally recognised as a part of Serbia [6] and northern Metohija as a part of Montenegro at the Treaty of London of May 1913. [7]

The old disagreements regarding the territory of Macedonia among the members of the Balkan League and primarily Serbia and Bulgaria, led to the Second Balkan War. Here, Serbia, Greece, Romania, the Ottoman Empire, and Montenegro fought against Bulgaria in 1913.

The final borders were ratified at the Treaty of Bucharest of 1913. Serbia came to control the land which became known as Vardar Macedonia , and today stands independent as the Republic of North Macedonia but land-locked Serbia was prevented from gaining access to the Adriatic Sea by the newly established Principality of Albania, while many ethnic Albanians remained within the new Serbian borders. As the result of these wars, Serbia's population increased from 2.9 million to 4.5 million and territory increased by 81%.

In a report to Rome, Lazër Mjeda, Archbishop of Skopje, estimated that 25,000 Albanians were killed by Serbian forces during and after the conflict. [8]

Assassination in Sarajevo

The Kingdom of Serbia in Europe, 1914 Europe 1914.jpg
The Kingdom of Serbia in Europe, 1914

The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria on 28 June 1914 in Sarajevo (then part of Austria-Hungary) brought the tensions between Austria-Hungary and Serbia to a head. Behind the assassination in Sarajevo was the secret Serbian officers organization Black Hand. [9] The assassins were supported by an "underground railroad" of Serbian civilians and military officers that provided transportation and hid them; members of the Serbian military that trained them, encouraged them, and provided weapons, maps, and other information. After the assassination, the conspirators were arrested in Bosnia-Herzegovina and tried in Sarajevo in October 1914.

The political objective of the assassination was to break the southern Slav provinces off from the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand triggered a chain of international events that embroiled Russia and the major European powers in the conflict.

World War I

On July 28, 1914 Austria-Hungary declared war against Serbia.

In 1915 Serbia was occupied by foreign troops after a combined invasion by Austro-Hungarian, German, and Bulgarian troops. The 135,000 soldiers of the Serbian Army retreated through Albania and were evacuated to the Greek island of Corfu, and in spring, 1916, they became part of a newly formed Salonika Front. In 1916, the Kingdom of Montenegro was conquered by Austria-Hungary.

At the end of the war and collapse of Austria-Hungary, Serbia went through radical changes within days. On November 28, 1918, it absorbed the Kingdom of Montenegro at the Podgorica Assembly. [10] [11]

On December 1, 1918, Serbia united with the newly created State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs to form a new southern Slav state, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. [12] The new country continued to be ruled by the Serbian monarchy when in August 1921 Prince Alexandar I became king.

Kings

During its existence, the Kingdom was ruled by two dynasties: the House of Obrenović and the House of Karađorđević. King Milan Obrenović ruled from 6 March 1882 to 6 March 1889, when he abdicated the throne. He was succeeded by his son, Aleksandar Obrenović, who ruled from 6 March 1889 to 11 June 1903, when he was killed by a group of officers. The slaughter of the royal couple (the king and Queen Draga) by the Black Hand shocked Europe. This opened the way for the descendants of Karađorđe (Karageorge), regarded by Serbs throughout the Balkans as the man who threw off the Turkish yoke, to return to the throne. Petar Karađorđević was initially reluctant to accept the crown, disgusted as he was by the coup d'état . However, he finally did accept and was the Kingdom's sovereign from 15 June 1903 to 1 December 1918, the day that the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was proclaimed.

Cities

Part of a series on the
History of Serbia
Coat of arms of Serbia.svg
Flag of Serbia.svg Serbiaportal

The largest cities in the Kingdom of Serbia were (with population figures from c. 1910–1912):

Transport

Serbia was geographically located in the path of several trade routes linking Western and Central Europe with Middle East. Morava Valley was in the strategically important terrestrial route that linked Central Europe with Greece and Constantinople. During the 19th century major efforts were made to improve the transport in this connections. At the Congress of Berlin in 1878, Austria-Hungary helped Serbia to gain new territories, conditioning Serbia, however, to sign a new convention. The convention obliged Serbia to construct the railway line from Belgrade to Vranje and Turkish and Bulgarian borders in three years. In addition, the obligation to sign commercial contracts was imposed on Serbia, as well as a claim to carry out regulation works in Đerdap. Serbian Government approved this treaty by adopting the Law on Proclamation of the Convention. Consequently, Serbian Railways were formed in 1881. The regular traffic on the railway line Belgrade–Niš started in 1884. [13]

Maps

See also

Notes

a. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia . The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory . The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement . Kosovo has been recognized as an independent state by 112 out of 193 United Nations member states , while 10 states have recognized Kosovo only to later withdraw their recognition.

Related Research Articles

Balkan Wars Two wars on Balkan Peninsula 1912-1913, leading to the Balkan Crisis of 1914 and start of WWI

The Balkan Wars consisted of two conflicts that took place in the Balkan Peninsula in 1912 and 1913. Four Balkan states defeated the Ottoman Empire in the first war. The main victor of the four, Bulgaria, fought and pushed back all four original combatants of the first war along with halting a surprise attack from Romania from the north in the second war. The conflicts ended catastrophically for the Ottoman Empire, which lost the bulk of its territory in Europe. Austria-Hungary, although not a combatant, became relatively weaker as a much enlarged Serbia pushed for union of the South Slavic peoples. The war set the stage for the Balkan crisis of 1914 and thus served as a "prelude to the First World War".

The history of Serbia covers the historical development of Serbia and of its predecessor states, from the early Stone Age to the present state, as well as that of the Serbian people and of the areas they ruled historically. The scope of Serbian habitation and rule has varied much through the ages, and, as a result, the history of Serbia is similarly elastic in what it includes.

Greater Serbia irredentism

The term Greater Serbia or Great Serbia describes the Serbian nationalist and irredentist ideology of the creation of a Serb state which would incorporate all regions of traditional significance to Serbs, including regions outside Serbia that are populated by Serbs. The initial movement's main ideology (Pan-Serbism) was to unite all Serbs into one state, claiming, depending on the version, different areas of many surrounding countries.

Treaty of London (1913) signed on 30 May during the London Conference of 1913

The Treaty of London (1913) was signed on 30 May during the London Conference of 1912–13. It dealt with the territorial adjustments arising out of the conclusion of the First Balkan War.

Metohija Geographical and historical region of Kosovo

Metohija or Dukagjini ) is a large basin and the name of the region covering the southwestern part of Kosovo. The region covers 35% (3,891 km2) of Kosovo's total area. According to the 2011 census, the population of the region is 700,577.

Central Serbia

Central Serbia, also referred to as Serbia proper, is the region of Serbia lying outside the provinces of Vojvodina to the north and the disputed territory of Kosovo to the south. Central Serbia is a term of convenience, not an administrative division of Serbia as such, and does not have any form of separate administration.

Peter I of Serbia King of Serbia

Peter I reigned as the last King of Serbia (1903–1918) and as the first King of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918–1921). Since he was the king of Serbia during a period of great Serbian military success, he was remembered by Serbian people as King Peter the Liberator, and also known as Old King.

Nikola Pašić Serbian politician

Nikola Pašić was a Serbian and Yugoslav politician and diplomat who was the most important Serbian political figure for almost 40 years, the leader of the People's Radical Party who, among other posts, was twice a mayor of Belgrade several times Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Serbia and Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia

Ottoman Serbia aspect of history

The territory of what is now the Republic of Serbia was part of the Ottoman Empire throughout the Early Modern period, especially Central Serbia, unlike Vojvodina which has passed to Habsburg rule starting from the end of the 17th century . Ottoman culture significantly influenced the region, in architecture, cuisine, language, and dress, especially in arts, and Islam.

Russia–Serbia relations Diplomatic relations between Russia and the Republic of Serbia

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Siege of Scutari (1912–13) Allied forces of Montenegro and Serbia against forces of the Ottoman Empire.

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Austria–Serbia relations Diplomatic relations between the Republic of Austria and the Republic of Serbia

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Independent Albania was proclaimed on 28 November 1912. This chapter of Albanian history was shrouded in controversy and conflict as the larger part of the self-proclaimed region had found itself controlled by the Balkan League states: Serbia, Montenegro and Greece from the time of the declaration until the period of recognition when Albania relinquished many of the lands originally included in the declared state. Since the proclamation of the state in November 1912, the Provisional Government of Albania asserted its control over a small part of central Albania including the important cities of Vlorë and Berat.

Yugoslavism political ideology encouraging nationalism or patriotism associated with South Slavs and Yugoslavia

Yugoslavism or Yugoslavdom refers to the unionism, nationalism or patriotism associated with South Slavs/Yugoslavs and Yugoslavia. Yugoslavism has historically advocated the union of all South Slav populated territories now composing Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia, North Macedonia, and, for some like Ivan Meštrović, Bulgaria. It became a potent political force during World War I with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria by the Yugoslavist militant Gavrilo Princip and the subsequent invasion of Serbia by Austria-Hungary. During the war the Yugoslav Committee composed of South Slav emigres from Austria-Hungary, supported Serbia and vouched for the creation of a Yugoslav state. On 1 December 1918, King Peter of Serbia proclaimed the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, commonly known as "Yugoslavia". During the Yugoslav period, a Yugoslav identity was propagated.

Serbia was one of the main parties in the Balkan Wars, victorious in both phases. It gained significant territorial areas of the Central Balkans and almost doubled its territory. During the First Balkan War, most of the Kosovo Vilayet was taken by Serbia, while the region of Metohija was taken by the Kingdom of Montenegro, its main allies. Over the centuries, populations of ethnic Serbs and Albanians tended to shift following territorial handovers. As a result of the multi-ethnic composition of Kosovo, the new administration provoked a mixed response from the local population. Whilst according to Noel Malcolm the Albanians did not welcome Serbian rule, the non-Albanian population in the Kosovo Vilayet considered this a liberation. Kosovo Vilayet was internationally recognised as a part of Serbia and northern Metohija as a part of Montenegro at the Treaty of London in May 1913. In 1918, Serbia transformed into the newly Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, later named Yugoslavia. Disagreements regarding the territory of Macedonia among the members of the Balkan League led to the Second Balkan War. Here, Serbia and Greece fought against Bulgaria in 1913. Finalisations concerning which country took which parts were ratified at the Treaty of Bucharest the same year. Serbia came to control the land which became known as Vardar Macedonia, which today stands independent as the Republic of Macedonia.

Sanjak of Prizren

The Sanjak of Prizren was one of the sanjaks in the Ottoman Empire with Prizren as its administrative centre. It was founded immediately after Ottoman Empire captured Prizren from Serbian Despotate in 1455. The rest of the territory of Serbian Despotate was conquered after the fall of Smederevo in 1459, and divided into following sanjaks: Sanjak of Vučitrn, Sanjak of Kruševac and Sanjak of Smederevo. At the beginning of the First Balkan War in 1912, the territory of Sanjak of Prizren was occupied by the armies of Kingdom of Serbia and Kingdom of Montenegro. Based on Treaty of London signed on May 30, 1913, the territory of Sanjak of Prizren was divided between Serbia and Montenegro.

Greek–Serbian Alliance of 1913

The Greek–Serbian Alliance of 1913 was signed at Thessaloniki on 1 June 1913, in the aftermath of the First Balkan War, when both countries wanted to preserve their gains in Macedonia from Bulgarian expansionism. The treaty formed the cornerstone of Greek–Serbian relations for a decade, remaining in force through World War I until 1924.

History of modern Serbia or modern history of Serbia covers the history of Serbia since national awakening in the early 19th century from the Ottoman Empire, then Yugoslavia, to the present day Republic of Serbia. The era follows the early modern history of Serbia.

Partition of Albania delineation of the new Albanian state (independence proclaimed on 1912) by the 1913 London Conference, leaving Albanian and non-Albanian populations on both sides of the border; seen as a partition of Albania by Albanian nationalists

The Partition of Albania is a term used for the partition of the Albanian state, which proclaimed its independence on 28 November 1912. The delineation of the newly established Principality of Albania under the terms of the London Conference of 1912-1913 and the Ambassadors of the six Great Powers of that time left Albanian and non-Albanian populations on both sides of the border. Representatives of the Albanian national movement viewed this as a partition of claimed Albanian-inhabited territories, also territories contained in a proposed Albanian Vilayet.

Liberation of Serbia, Albania and Montenegro (1918)

The Liberation of Serbia, Albania and Montenegro was a military action in the Balkans in the final weeks of World War I. Between 29 September and 11 November 1918, the Allied Army of the Orient liberated these three countries from occupation by the Central Powers.

References

  1. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-27. Retrieved 2010-01-10.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  2. Biondich, Mark (17 February 2011). "The Balkans: Revolution, War, and Political Violence Since 1878". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 4 May 2018 via Google Books.
  3. Malcolm, Noel (26 February 2008). "Is Kosovo Serbia? We ask a historian". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 1 September 2013.
  4. Bogdanović, Dimitrije; Radovan Samardžić (1990). Knjiga o Kosovu: razgovori o Kosovu. Književne novine. p. 208. Retrieved August 2, 2011. На освојеном подручју су одмах успостављене грађанске власти и албанска територија је Де Факто анектирана Србији : 29. новембра је основан драчки округ са четири среза (Драч, Љеш, Елбасан, Тирана)....On conquered territory of Albania was established civil government and territory of Albania was de facto annexed by Serbia: On November 29 was established Durres County with four srez (Durres, Lezha, Elbasan, and Tirana)
  5. Petrović, Dragoljub S. (1990). "Heterogenost stanovništva determinanta složenosti rešenja političkog statusa albanskog prostora (Heterogeneity of the population as determinant of the complexity of solving the political status of the Albania)" (in Serbian). pp. 237–271. OCLC   439985244. Archived from the original on December 30, 2010. Potom, 29. novembra 1912. formiran je Drački okrug u okviru kojeg su srezovi - Drač, Tirana, Elbasan i Lješ. ... On November 29, 1912 the Durres County was established and in it there were established the following districts - Durres, Tirana, Elbasan and Lezhe
  6. "(HIS,P) Treaty of Peace between Greece, Bulgaria, Montenegro, Serbia on the one part and Turkey on the other part. (London) May 17/30, 1913". www.zum.de. Archived from the original on 6 April 2009. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  7. "The Treaty of London, 1913". www.mtholyoke.edu. Archived from the original on 1 May 1997. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
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  9. Strachan, Hew (2001) The First World War Volume 1: To Arms (pp. 46). Oxford University Press. Oxford. ISBN   0-19-926191-1
  10. "Montenegrins' Effort to Prevent Annexation of Their Country to Serbia" (PDF). nytimes.com. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  11. Serbs wipe out royalist party in Montenegro Archived 2010-03-02 at the Wayback Machine
  12. Hall, Richard C. (4 May 2018). "The Balkan Wars, 1912-1913: Prelude to the First World War". Routledge. Retrieved 4 May 2018 via Google Books.
  13. History of Serbian railways at serbianrailways.com, retrieved 26-10-2018

Further reading

Other languages

  • Bataković, Dušan T., ed. (2005). Histoire du peuple serbe [History of the Serbian People] (in French). Lausanne: L’Age d’Homme.
  • Đurović, Arsen (2004). Modernizacija obrazovanja u Kraljevini Srbiji: 1905-1914. Istorijski institut.
  • Kostić, Đorđe S. (2006). Dobro došli u Srbiju: Kraljevina Srbija u nemačkim vodičima za putnike; 1892-1914. Evoluta.
  • Nikolić, Pavle (2001). Ustav Kraljevine Srbije (PDF).
  • Vucinich, Wayne S. (1954). "Serbia between East and West: the events of 1903-1908". X. Stanford University Press. 9.
  • Dokumenti o spoljnoj politici Kraljevine Srbije.

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Coordinates: 44°49′N20°28′E / 44.817°N 20.467°E / 44.817; 20.467