Kiskőrös

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Kiskőrös
Szent Jozsef katolikus templom es Kiskoros varoshaza, Kiskoros1.jpg
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Kiskőrös
Location of Kiskőrös
Coordinates: 46°37′13″N19°17′02″E / 46.62038°N 19.28381°E / 46.62038; 19.28381 Coordinates: 46°37′13″N19°17′02″E / 46.62038°N 19.28381°E / 46.62038; 19.28381
Country Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary
County Bács-Kiskun
Area
  Total102.23 km2 (39.47 sq mi)
Population
 (2009)
  Total14,452
  Density143.3/km2 (371/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
6200
Area code(s) 78
Website http://www.kiskoros.hu/

Kiskőrös (Slovak : Malý Kereš / Kiškereš, Yiddish : קישקערישKishkerish, German : Körösch, Croatian : Kireš [1] ) is a town in Bács-Kiskun, Hungary. Kiskőrös is situated between the Danube and Tisza rivers at around 46°37′14″N19°17′19″E / 46.62056°N 19.28861°E / 46.62056; 19.28861 . Sándor Petőfi, the national poet of Hungary, was born here.

Contents

Geography

Kiskőrös is the sixth biggest city in Bács-Kiskun county by population. It is located in the center of the county, 22 kilometres (14 miles) east from the river Danube and 110 km (68 mi) south of Budapest. About 2–3 km (1–2 mi) north of the town lies the nature reserve area (since 1974) of Szücsi Forest as part of the Kiskunság National Park. The flora includes close to 300 protected plant species, one of them a special species of orchid, which blossoms here in April. Moreover, there are 98 registered, protected bird species. Many of them are songbirds that coexist with birds of prey like kestrels, sparrow-hawks and hobbies.

Climate

Kiskőrös has a continental climate combined with a high number of yearly sunlight. The hours of annual sunlight is over 2,000 hours.

History

Kiskőrös has been populated since the Stone Age. In the first half of the second millennium before Christ it was populated by the Vatya-culture which was developed around the central area of the Danube basin between 2000 and 1500/1400 BC. [2] Archeologists unearthed 161 metal objects - out of them 11 made of gold - in the vicinity of Kiskőrös in 2016, representing the biggest ever Middle Bronze Age found - both quantity and quality - in the areas between the Danube and Tisza (in Hungarian: Duna-Tisza köze). [3] [4] In addition to bronze and gold jewellery, daggers, spears, axes as well as goldsmith tools were found. Celtic coins from the Late Iron Age (4th century B.C.) have also been found. In the first century Transdanubia (i.e. Pannonia) was invaded by the Romans and its population ran away and settled in the area. Archaeological evidence suggests that Scythian-Sarmatian were settled here, to the border region, to protect the "limes", who continued to be present up to the 5th century AD. Seven sarmata cemeteries have been found so far within the permiaters of Kiskőrös. In the graves of a Jazig-Sarmatian cemetery a necklace of pearls in gold setting and other rare polished jewellery were found. [5] In the 1930s five Avar villages and seven cemeteries have been discovered. The archeological findings strongly suggest a strong connection between the Sarmatians living in the area and the Roman provinces. Only a few relics were have been found from the Hun-period (420-454). Nine Avar cemeteries have been dug so far. Their characteristic metal buckles with a griffin fitting are strikingly similar to those found in the Caucasus and along the River Volga. The most beautiful findings of all, a necklace of 5 oval almandine pendants in gold setting and 6 gold pendants were uncovered in a princes's grave. [6] The first written documents mentioning Kiskõrös date back to 1277 issued by the "Kuman" László IV and referred to as "Keurus". By 1433 Kõrös was an independent town. The peaceful life of the town came to an end in the 16th century when the Turkish army occupied the region. A letter was written on April 11, 1529 by Mihály Pósa warning the bishop of Kalocsa about the attacks of the Turks. He informs the bishop that Kiskőrös was ruined by the Turks 8 April together with other settlements in the area. The town lceased to exist during the occupation and referred to as "puszta" (lat. desertum). n 1702 documents show that the area was not fully uninhabited. The rebirth of Kiskõrös is the work of the Wattay [7] [ circular reference ] family. For their contribution to defeat the Turks, Leopold I gave the family the land and the surrounding areas. [8] On May 19, 1718 700 Slovak farmers moved to Kiskõrös. The population has reached 5,000 by 1785. On January 1, 1823 Sándor Petőfi was born in Kiskõrös. In the 20th century Hungary lost both world wars and during the years of the Great Depression the economy of the village suffered greatly. Kiskõrös was occupied by the Soviet Army in 1944. After World War II, most of the income came from agriculture (wine and fruit production). In the 1950s, when drilling for oil, salty-iodous-brominous medicinal thermal water of 56 °C was found, forming the basis of the popular thermal bath and swimming pool. [9] Kiskőrös began to develop rapidly in the 1970s and infrastructure, educational, healthcare and welfare institutions were built. Kiskõrös became a town again in 1973.

Economy

The largest part of the economy is provided by the service sector (family enterprises) and agriculture (mainly related to winegrowing and fruits).

Wine

Vineyard in Kiskoros Vineyard in Kiskoros.jpg
Vineyard in Kiskőrös

Kiskőrős is situated in the middle of Hungary largest wine producing region, the "Kunsági borvidék" and its history is intimately entwined with wine-making. The sandy soil and high sunshine hours provide the perfect conditions for grape. Wine-growing in Kiskőrös is first mentioned in written documents from the XIII. century. [10] After the city was ruined during the Ottoman wars, For over 200 years there has been a deep tradition of grape production and wine making in this region. As such, a large percentage of the town workforce is devoted to the grape and wine industry in the area wine producing region (Kunsági borvidék) Kiskőrös is known for and the local population has strong ties to its wine-growing and wine-production. Home winemaking has been an important part of the local culture and self-identityi as well as a defining part of family tradition. The most well-known traditional grapes are: „Kövidinka” – “Ezerjó” – "Sárfehér", "Bianca" and the "Kadarka".

Demographics

Kiskőrös had 15,348 residents in 2001. The population is homogeneous with a Hungarian majority. (95.8% Magyars, 3.1% Slovaks, 1.4% Romani, 0.7% Germans etc.). The distribution of religions were: 46.4% Lutheran, 27.5% Roman Catholic, 4.5% Calvinist etc.). [11]

Personalities

Buildings and structures

East of Kiskörös, there is a 150 metres (490 ft) tall concrete tower used for FM radio and television broadcasting.

Twin towns – sister cities

Kiskőrös is twinned with: [12]

Related Research Articles

Geography of Hungary

Hungary is a landlocked country in East-Central Europe with a land area of 93,030 square km. It measures about 250 km from north to south and 524 km from east to west. It has 2,106 km of boundaries, shared with Austria to the west, Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia to the south and southwest, Romania to the southeast, Ukraine to the northeast, and Slovakia to the north.

Bačka Geographical area in the Pannonian Plain

Bačka is a geographical and historical area within the Pannonian Plain bordered by the river Danube to the west and south, and by the river Tisza to the east. It is divided between Serbia and Hungary. Most of the area is located within the Vojvodina region in Serbia and Novi Sad, the capital of Vojvodina, lies on the border between Bačka and Syrmia. The smaller northern part of the geographical area is located within Bács-Kiskun County, in Hungary.

Sándor Petőfi Hungarian poet and liberal revolutionary

Sándor Petőfi was a Hungarian poet and liberal revolutionary. He is considered Hungary's national poet, and was one of the key figures of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. He is the author of the Nemzeti dal, which is said to have inspired the revolution in the Kingdom of Hungary that grew into a war for independence from the Austrian Empire. It is most likely that he died in the Battle of Segesvár, one of the last battles of the war.

Bács-Bodrog County

Bács-Bodrog County was an administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1802 century to 1920. Most of its territory is currently part of Serbia, while a smaller part belongs to Hungary. The capital of the county was Zombor.

Pest-Pilis-Solt-Kiskun County

Pest-Pilis-Solt-Kiskun is the name of an administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. Its territory is now in central Hungary, comprising the territory of the present Hungarian county Pest and the northern part of present Bács-Kiskun county. The capital of the county was Budapest.

Tokaj Town in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén, Hungary

Tokaj is a historical town in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, Northern Hungary, 54 kilometers from county capital Miskolc. It is the centre of the Tokaj-Hegyalja wine district where Tokaji wine is produced.

Bács-Kiskun County County of Hungary

Bács-Kiskun is a county located in southern Hungary. It was created as a result of World War II, merging the pre war Bács-Bodrog and the southern parts of Pest-Pilis-Solt-Kiskun counties. With an area of 8,445 km2, Bács-Kiskun is the largest county in the country. The terrain is mostly flat with slight emergences around Baja. The county seat and largest city of Bács-Kiskun is Kecskemét.

Kecskemét City with county rights in Southern Great Plain, Hungary

Kecskemét is a city in the central part of Hungary. It is the eighth-largest city in the country, and the county seat of Bács-Kiskun.

Kiskunfélegyháza Town in Bács-Kiskun, Hungary

Kiskunfélegyháza is a city in Bács-Kiskun County, Hungary.

Bácsalmás Town in Bács-Kiskun, Hungary

Bácsalmás is a small town in southern Hungary in the region of Bácska close to the border with the Vojvodina region of Serbia, with a population of 7,694 people.

This is a list of articles that have something substantive to do with the county of Bács-Kiskun.

Kisszállás is a village and municipality in Bács-Kiskun county, in the Southern Great Plain region of southern Hungary.

Pirtó Place in Bács-Kiskun, Hungary

Pirtó is a village in Bács-Kiskun county, in the Southern Great Plain region of southern Hungary.

Helvécia Place in Bács-Kiskun, Hungary

Helvécia is a large village in Bács-Kiskun county, in the Southern Great Plain region of southern Hungary.

Abony Place in Central Hungary, Hungary

Abony is a town in Pest County, Hungary.

Hungarian art

Hungarian art stems from the period of the conquest of the Carpathian basin by the people of Árpád in the 9th century. Prince Árpád also organized earlier people settled in the area.

Hungarian dialects

The Hungarian language has ten dialects. These are, for the most part, mutually intelligible, and do not differ significantly from standard Hungarian. They are mostly distinguished by pronunciation; although there are differences in vocabulary, these are usually small and do not hinder intelligibility. Due to increased internal migration and urbanization during the 20th century, most of the characteristics of the different dialects can only be observed in smaller towns and villages, and even there mostly among the elderly; the population of the larger cities and especially the capital has been mixed for generations and the dialectal differences have been lost. A notable exception is the Western Transdanubian pronunciation, which is distinctly noticeable even in Szombathely, the largest city in the region.

Kiskőrös District Districts of Hungary in Bács-Kiskun

Kiskőrös is a district in central part of Bács-Kiskun County. Kiskőrös is also the name of the town where the district seat is found. The district is located in the Southern Great Plain Statistical Region.

References

  1. (in Croatian) "Folia onomastica croatica 14/2005". (462 KB) Živko Mandić: Hrvatska imena naseljenih mjesta u Madžarskoj,
  2. http://www.archaeology.wiki/blog/2014/03/14/revealing-the-secrets-of-4000-year-old-settlements-in-hungary/
  3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8eTJ0b_qiNA
  4. http://www.baon.hu/bacs-kiskun/kultura/szenzacios-aranykincsek-a-bronzkorbol-675983/
  5. http://www.grunwald.hu/kiskoros/Internat/english.htm
  6. http://www.grunwald.hu/kiskoros/Internat/english.htm
  7. hu:Wathay család
  8. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-11-30. Retrieved 2017-04-27.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. http://gotohungary.com/more-spas/-/netaview/37713;jsessionid=AFD1FC9F96BF70F7336238C0A5FECEE6
  10. "Kiskőrösi Gondűző Borlovagrend". www.borrend.hu. Retrieved 2020-01-09.
  11. Gazetteer of Hungary 2009 (Hungarian)
  12. "Testvérvárosok". kiskoros.hu (in Hungarian). Kiskőrös. Retrieved 2021-03-23.