קליינווארדיין / Kleynvardeyn(in Yiddish)
|• Total||35.91 km2 (13.86 sq mi)|
|• Density||502.03/km2 (1,300.3/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Area code||(+36) 45|
Kisvárda (pronounced [ˈkiʃvaːrdɒ] ; German : Kleinwardein, Yiddish : קליינווארדייןKleynvardeyn) is a town in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county, in the Northern Great Plain region of eastern Hungary near the border of Slovakia and Ukraine. It is the 3rd largest town in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg after Nyíregyháza and Mátészalka with a population of 16 669 people. The Subregion of Kisvárda lies between two large landscapes, the Nyírség and the Rétköz. Kisvárda is just 22 km (14 mi) from the border of Ukraine, 30 km (18.6 mi) from Slovakia, 43.9 km (27.3 mi) from Nyíregyháza, 50 km (31 mi) from Ungvár (Uzhorod), 52.1 km (32.4 mi) from Beregszász (Berehove), 52.9 km (32.9 mi) from Sátoraljaújhely and 80 km (50 mi) from Dorolţ, Romania.
The name of the town, which means "little castle" in Hungarian, dates back to the Conquest of Hungary. The conquering Hungarians named the town for its earthwork. In the Middle Ages, it occurred like Warda and Warada in documents. The "kis" (meaning little) word part was added to differentiate the town from Nagyvárad (now Oradea, Romania), "nagy" meaning great or large.
The red and white stripes on the shield symbolize the Árpád Dynasty, the medieval kings of Hungary. The sword with the Sun and green background shows the heroic knights of Kisvárda. The scales represents the town's trade and markets. In the middle of the shield there is the Castle of Kisvárda in gold. There is a winged dragon around the shield biting its tail. This is the insignia of the Order of the Dragon which derives from the Várday family's coat of arms.
The conquering Hungarians found a hill fort here in 895 which then they used for their border protection system.
St. Ladislaus defeated the Kuntesk Cuman prince in 1085 in a great fight. In memory of the glorious battle, he had a church established. He dedicated it to St Peter and St Paul Apostles.
In the 12th century, the settlement's importance declined. The castle became the possession of the Swabian-Swedish Gutkeled family. The settlement was the denominator of one branch of the family, the Várdays. The Várday family worked a lot to revive Kisvárda. Shortly the place got their fair housing law.
Pelbárt Várady got permission from the king to build the Castle of Kisvárda in 1415.
In 1421, it became a town. István Várday, the Archbishop of Kalocsa, Matthias Corvinus's chancellor expended the town's autonomy in 1468. At that time, the population of Kisvárda was more than a thousand people. It became the centre of Szabolcs. The first guild was formed in 1591.
Because of the Turkish conquest of Hungary and the economic changes, the town's importance diminished.
Prior to World War II, Kisvárda had a large Jewish community that represented about 30 percent of the town's population. They were confined to a ghetto in 1944, and then deported to Auschwitz. The majority perished there. A small community was re-established after the war, but almost no Jews are left in Kisvárda today. The former synagogue, which remains one of the most imposing structures in Kisvárda, is now a local history museum known as the Rétközi Múzeum.
Historically, Kisvárda has been a market town for the surrounding agricultural district, and is also has some light industry such as distilling, electrics, and brake pad production. It is on the main railway line from the Hungarian capital of Budapest to Ukraine. Kisvárda also attracts tourists to its thermal springs, and the ruins of a medieval castle.
Kisvárda is twinned with:
Nyíregyháza is a city in northeastern Hungary and the county capital of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg. With a population of 118,001, it is the seventh-largest city in Hungary and is the leading city of Northern Hungary and of the northern part of the Great Hungarian Plain (Alföld). Its development has been ongoing since the 18th century, making it the economic and cultural center of the region. Its zoo, exhibiting more than 501 species, is recognized throughout Europe. Also, it is home for the famous KÖZ-pont office.
Bereg was an administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. Its territory is now mostly in western Ukraine and less in northeastern Hungary. The capital of the county was Beregszász.
Szabolcs was an administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. Its territory is now part of Hungary, except three villages which are in Zakarpattia Oblast of Ukraine. The capital of the county was Nyíregyháza.
Szatmár County was an administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary, situated south of the river Tisza. Most of its territory is now divided between Romania and Hungary, while a very small area is part of Ukraine. The capital of the county was Nagykároly, today called Carei.
Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg is an administrative county in north-eastern Hungary, bordering Slovakia, Ukraine, and Romania. It shares borders with the Hungarian counties Hajdú-Bihar and Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén. The capital of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county is Nyíregyháza.
Nagykálló is a small town in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county, in the Northern Great Plain region of eastern Hungary. Before World War II it belonged to Szabolcs county.
The Carpathian Euroregion is an international association formed on February 14, 1993, by the representatives of the regional administrations of Poland, Ukraine, Slovakia and Hungary in the city of Debrecen. In 2000, the request from several regional administrations of Romania to join the Euroregion was accepted.
Újfehértó is a small town in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County, in the Northern Great Plain region of eastern Hungary.
Apagy is a village in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County in the Northern Great Plain region of eastern Hungary.
Mátészalka is a town in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county, in the Northern Great Plain region of eastern Hungary. It is on the Kraszna River, 52 kilometers from the city of Nyiregyhaza.
Csaroda is a village in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county, in the Northern Great Plain region of eastern Hungary.
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Mérk is a village in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county, in the Northern Great Plain region of eastern Hungary.
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Baktalórántháza is a district in central part of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County. Baktalórántháza is also the name of the town where the district seat is found. The district is located in the Northern Great Plain Statistical Region. This district is a part of Nyírség geographical region.
Nyíregyháza is a district in western part of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County. Nyíregyháza is also the name of the town where the district seat is found. The district is located in the Northern Great Plain Statistical Region. This district is a part of Nyírség geographical region.
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