Knight Ridder

Last updated

Knight Ridder
Industry Mass media
  • Knight Newspapers, Inc.
  • Ridder Publications, Inc.
FoundedJuly 11, 1974;49 years ago (1974-07-11)
DefunctJune 27, 2006;17 years ago (2006-06-27)
FatePurchased by The McClatchy Company
SuccessorThe McClatchy Company
Products Newspapers

Knight Ridder /ˈrɪdər/ was an American media company, specializing in newspaper and Internet publishing. Until it was bought by McClatchy on June 27, 2006, it was the second largest newspaper publisher in the United States, with 32 daily newspaper brands sold. Its headquarters were located in San Jose, California. [1]




The corporate ancestors of Knight Ridder were Knight Newspapers, Inc. and Ridder Publications, Inc. The first company was founded by John S. Knight upon inheriting control of the Akron Beacon Journal from his father, Charles Landon Knight, in 1933; the second company was founded by Herman Ridder when he acquired the New Yorker Staats-Zeitung , a German language newspaper, in 1892. As anti-German sentiment increased in the interwar period, Ridder successfully transitioned into English language publishing by acquiring The Journal of Commerce in 1926.

Both companies went public in 1969 and merged on July 11, 1974. For a brief time, the combined company was the largest newspaper publisher in the United States.

At its peak

Knight Ridder had a long history of innovation in technology. It was the first newspaper publisher to experiment with videotex when it launched its Viewtron system in 1983. After investing six years of research and $50 million into the service, Knight Ridder shut down Viewtron in 1986 when the service's interactivity features proved more popular than news delivery. [2]

Knight-Ridder purchased Dialog Information Services Inc. from Lockheed Corporation in August 1988. In October 1988, the company placed its eight broadcast television stations up for sale to reduce debt and to pay for the purchase of Dialog. [3]

In 1997, when Tony Ridder was CEO, it bought four newspapers from The Walt Disney Company formerly owned by Capital Cities Communications, after Disney's purchase of Cap Cities mainly for the ABC television network (The Kansas City Star, Fort Worth Star-Telegram , Belleville News-Democrat and (Wilkes-Barre) Times Leader for $1.65 billion. It was, at the time, the most expensive newspaper acquisition in history.

For most of its existence, the company was based in Miami, with headquarters on the top floor of the Miami Herald building. In 1998, Knight Ridder relocated its headquarters from Miami to San Jose, Calif.; there, that city's Mercury News —the first daily newspaper to regularly publish its full content online—was booming along with the rest of Silicon Valley. The internet division had been established there three years earlier. The company rented several floors in a downtown high-rise as its new corporate base.

In November 2005, the company announced plans for "strategic initiatives," which involved the possible sale of the company. This came after three major institutional shareholders publicly urged management to put the company up for sale. At the time, the company had a higher profit margin than many Fortune 500 companies, including ExxonMobil. [4]

Iraq War

In the run-up to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, Knight Ridder DC Bureau reporters Jonathan Landay and Warren Strobel wrote a series of articles critical of purported intelligence suggesting links between Saddam Hussein, the obtainment of weapons of mass destruction, and Al-Qaeda, citing anonymous sources.

Landay and Strobel's stories ran counter to reports by The New York Times , The Washington Post and other national publications, resulting in some newspapers within the Knight-Ridder chain refusing to run the two reporters' stories. After the war and the discrediting of many initial news reports written and carried by others, Strobel and Landay received the Raymond Clapper Memorial Award from the Senate Press Gallery on February 5, 2004, for their coverage. [5]

The Huffington Post headlined the two as "the reporting team that got Iraq right". [6] The Columbia Journalism Review described the reporting as "unequaled by the Bigfoots working at higher-visibility outlets such as the New York Times, the Washington Post, the Wall Street Journal and the Los Angeles Times". [7]

Later after the war, their work was featured in Bill Moyers' PBS documentary "Buying The War" [8] and was dramatized in the 2017 film Shock and Awe .

Purchase by McClatchy

On March 13, 2006, The McClatchy Company announced its agreement to purchase Knight Ridder for a purchase price of $6.5 billion in cash, stock and debt. [9] The deal gave McClatchy 32 daily newspapers in 29 markets, with a total circulation of 3.3 million. However, for various reasons, McClatchy decided immediately to resell twelve of these papers. [10]

On April 26, 2006, McClatchy announced it was selling the San Jose Mercury News, Contra Costa Times, Monterey Herald, and St. Paul Pioneer Press to MediaNews Group (with backing from the Hearst Corporation) for $1 billion. [11]

List of newspapers

Daily newspapers owned by Knight Ridder and its predecessors – listed alphabetically by place of publication – included:

Knight Ridder-owned companies

A list of companies that were at one time or another owned by Knight Ridder:

Knight Ridder-owned television stations

Knight Newspapers entered broadcasting in 1946 via the purchase of minority ownership stakes in WQAM in Miami, WIND in Chicago, and WAKR in Akron; all three stations were in markets served by a Knight newspaper. [16] [17] [18] The minority stake in WAKR's parent company, Summit Radio, also included the establishment of WAKR-TV (channel 49), as well as WAKR-FM (97.5) and six radio stations purchased in Dayton, Ohio, Dallas, Texas, and Denver, Colorado. [19] WAKR-TV was built and signed on by Summit on July 23, 1953, as the Akron market's ABC affiliate, [20] moving to channel 23 on December 1, 1967. [21] Knight Ridder divested its stake in Summit Radio by 1977; [22] a planned merger between the two entities in 1968 failed to be consummated. [23]

In 1954, Ridder Newspapers launched WDSM-TV in Superior, Wisconsin, serving the Duluth, Minnesota market. Initially a CBS affiliate, it switched to its present NBC affiliation a year and a half after the station's launch. It was spun off after Ridder's merger with Knight Newspapers, Inc.

From 1956 to 1962, Knight and the Cox publishing family jointly operated Biscayne Television, which owned NBC affiliate WCKT in Miami, Florida, as well as WCKR radio, which this entity purchased from Cox; [24] Knight sold off WQAM to a third party as part of Biscayne's formation. [25] Revelations of improper behavior and underhanded tactics by Biscayne [26] [27] [28] and National Airlines (which signed on WPST-TV, also in Miami [29] ) to secure their licenses, along with ethics violations within the FCC itself, resulted in the licenses for both stations being revoked. [30] [31] A replacement license for WCKT was granted in 1960 to Sunbeam Television, the lone bidder for the prior license not to have engaged in any unethical behavior; [32] [33] Biscayne sold to Sunbeam WCKT's non-license assets: the studios, intellectual property and all off- and on-air personnel for the new station, which took the WCKT name for continuity. [34] Cox repurchased WCKR, reviving that station's prior WIOD call sign. [35]

Following the divestment of their stake in Summit Radio, Knight Ridder acquired Poole Broadcasting, which consisted of WJRT-TV in Flint, Michigan, WTEN in Albany, New York and its satellite WCDC in Adams, Massachusetts, and WPRI-TV in Providence, Rhode Island. Immediately after the acquisition of these stations was finalized, Knight Ridder cut a corporate affiliation deal with ABC, switching then-CBS affiliates WTEN/WCDC and WPRI (the latter of which eventually rejoined CBS) to ABC (WJRT was already affiliated with ABC when the affiliation deal was made). As part of the deal, Poole Broadcasting would eventually become Knight Ridder Broadcasting. Knight Ridder would acquire several television stations in medium-sized markets during the 1980s, including three stations owned by The Detroit News which the Gannett Company—which purchased the newspaper in 1986—could not keep due to Federal Communications Commission regulations on media cross-ownership and/or television duopolies then in effect. (None of Knight Ridder's later acquisitions changed their network affiliations under Knight Ridder ownership; for example, then-NBC affiliate WALA-TV in Mobile, Alabama remained an NBC affiliate when it was owned by Knight Ridder and would switch to Fox several years after Knight Ridder sold the station.)

In early 1989, Knight Ridder announced its exit from broadcasting, selling all of its stations to separate buyers; the sales were finalized in the summer and early fall of that year. This deal was made in order to reduce their debt loads from the proceedings. [36] One of the stations, WALA-TV went to Burnham Broadcasting for $40 million, while WKRN would go to Young Broadcasting for $50 million, KOLD-TV to News-Press & Gazette Company for an undisclosed price, and two television stations WPRI and WTKR to Narragansett Television L.P. for $150 million on February 18, 1989. [37] This was followed by the following month with the sale of KTVY-TV to WHO-TV owner Palmer Communications, for $50 million. [38] WTEN was the next-to-last station to be sold, going to Young Broadcasting for $38 million, [39] and WJRT would eventually becoming the final Knight Ridder station, to be sold to SJL Broadcasting for $39 million. [40]

City of license / Market StationChannel
Years ownedCurrent status
AkronCleveland, OH WAKR-TV [lower-alpha 1] 23 (22)1953–1977 Ion Television affiliate, WVPX-TV, owned by Inyo Broadcast Holdings
Mobile, ALPensacola, FL WALA-TV 10 (9)1986–1989 Fox affiliate owned by Gray Television
Tucson, AZ KOLD-TV 13 (32)1986–1989 CBS affiliate owned by Gray Television
Miami, FL WCKT [lower-alpha 2] 7 (7)1956–1962Fox affiliate WSVN, owned by Sunbeam Television [lower-alpha 3]
Flint, MI WJRT-TV 12 (12)1978–1989 ABC affiliate owned by Allen Media Broadcasting
Albany, NY WTEN 10 (26)1978–1989ABC affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
Adams, MA WCDC-TV [lower-alpha 4] 19 (36)1978–1989Defunct, license cancelled in 2018
Oklahoma City, OK KTVY4 (27)1986–1989 NBC affiliate KFOR-TV, owned by Nexstar Media Group
Providence, RI WPRI-TV 12 (13)1978–1989CBS affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
Nashville, TN WKRN-TV 2 (27)1983–1989ABC affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
Norfolk, VA WTKR 3 (40)1981–1989CBS affiliate owned by the E. W. Scripps Company
Superior, WIDuluth, MN WDSM-TV [lower-alpha 5] 6 (19)1954–1974NBC affiliate KBJR-TV, owned by Gray Television
  1. While this station was owned by Summit Radio from 1953 to 1994, Knight Newspapers held a 45 percent minority stake in Summit that predated this station's establishment, this was fully divested by Knight Ridder in 1977.
  2. Co-owned by Knight Newspapers and Cox Newspapers, long before Knight's merger with Ridder Publications.
  3. The license for WCKT under Cox-Knight ownership was revoked by the FCC, with the current license dating back to 1962. However, most contemporary accounts and WSVN itself recognize the history of both WCKTs as one and the same.
  4. Satellite of WTEN.
  5. Owned by Ridder Publications until the merger between Ridder and Knight forced its divestiture.


Shock and Awe, 2018 film about a group of journalists at Knight Ridder's Washington Bureau who investigate the reasons behind the Bush Administration's 2003 invasion of Iraq.

Notable people

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">WEWS-TV</span> ABC affiliate in Cleveland

WEWS-TV is a television station in Cleveland, Ohio, United States, affiliated with ABC. It has been owned by the E. W. Scripps Company since its inception in 1946, making it one of three stations that have been built and signed on by Scripps. WEWS-TV's studios are located on Euclid Avenue in Downtown Cleveland, and its transmitter is located in suburban Parma.

The McClatchy Company, commonly referred to as simply McClatchy, is an American publishing company incorporated under Delaware's General Corporation Law and based in Sacramento, California. It operates 29 daily newspapers in fourteen states and has an average weekday circulation of 1.6 million and Sunday circulation of 2.4 million. In 2006, it purchased Knight Ridder, which at the time was the second-largest newspaper company in the United States. In addition to its daily newspapers, McClatchy also operates several websites and community papers, as well as a news agency, McClatchy DC Bureau, focused on political news from Washington, D.C.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">WSVN</span> Fox affiliate in Miami

WSVN is a television station in Miami, Florida, United States, affiliated with the Fox network. Serving as the flagship station of locally based Sunbeam Television, it has studios on the 79th Street Causeway in North Bay Village and a transmitter in Miami Gardens, Florida.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">WPLG</span> ABC affiliate in Miami, Florida

WPLG is a television station in Miami, Florida, United States, affiliated with ABC. The station is owned by Berkshire Hathaway as its sole broadcast property. WPLG's studios are located on West Hallandale Beach Boulevard in Pembroke Park, and its transmitter is located in Miami Gardens, Florida.

WFOR-TV, branded CBS Miami, is a television station in Miami, Florida, United States, serving as the market's CBS outlet. It is owned and operated by the network's CBS News and Stations division alongside WBFS-TV, an independent station. The two stations share studios on Northwest 18th Terrace in Doral; WFOR-TV's transmitter is located in Andover, Florida.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">WBFS-TV</span> Television station in Miami, Florida, United States

WBFS-TV is an independent television station in Miami, Florida, United States. It is owned by the CBS News and Stations group alongside WFOR-TV, a CBS owned-and-operated station. The two stations share studios on Northwest 18th Terrace in Doral; WBFS-TV's transmitter is located in Andover, Florida.

WVPX-TV is a television station licensed to Akron, Ohio, United States, serving the Cleveland area as an affiliate of Ion Television. Owned by Inyo Broadcast Holdings, it is jointly operated with Canton-licensed Bounce TV affiliate WDLI-TV, which transmits using WVPX-TV's full-power spectrum via a channel sharing agreement.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">WKNR</span> Sports radio station in Cleveland, Ohio

WKNR – branded as 850 ESPN Cleveland – is a commercial sports radio station licensed to Cleveland, Ohio, serving Greater Cleveland. Owned by Good Karma Brands, WKNR is the Cleveland affiliate for ESPN Radio and the AM flagship station for the Cleveland Browns Radio Network; the Cleveland affiliate for the Ohio State Sports Network, and the radio home of Je'Rod Cherry and Tony Grossi. The WKNR studios are currently located in the East Bank of The Flats in Downtown Cleveland, while the station transmitter resides in the Cleveland suburb of North Royalton. In addition to a standard analog transmission, WKNR is available online.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">WTVX</span> CW affiliate in Fort Pierce, Florida

WTVX is a television station licensed to Fort Pierce, Florida, United States, serving the West Palm Beach area as an affiliate of The CW. It is owned by Sinclair Broadcast Group alongside CBS affiliate WPEC and two low-power, Class A stations: MyNetworkTV affiliate WTCN-CD and TBD owned-and-operated station WWHB-CD. The stations share studios on Fairfield Drive in Mangonia Park ; WTVX's transmitter is located southwest of Palm City, Florida.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">WLRN-TV</span> Television station in Florida, United States

WLRN-TV is a secondary PBS member television station in Miami, Florida, United States. It is owned by the Miami-Dade County Public Schools district alongside NPR member WLRN-FM (91.3); the two outlets are operated under a management agreement by Friends of WLRN, the stations' fundraising arm. Both stations share studios on Northeast 15th Street and Northeast 1st Avenue in Miami, while WLRN-TV's transmitter is located at McTyre Park in Miami Gardens.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">WLTV-DT</span> Univision TV station in Miami

WLTV-DT is a television station in Miami, Florida, United States, serving as the local Univision outlet. It is one of two flagship stations of the Spanish-language network. WLTV-DT is owned and operated by TelevisaUnivision alongside Hollywood, Florida–licensed UniMás station WAMI-DT. The two stations share studios known as "NewsPort" on Northwest 30th Terrace in Doral; WLTV-DT's transmitter is located in Andover, Florida. The station also serves as the de facto Univision outlet for the West Palm Beach market.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">TVX Broadcast Group</span> American media company

TVX Broadcast Group was an American media company that owned a group of mostly UHF television stations during the 1980s and early 1990s.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sunbeam Television</span> American television broadcast company

Sunbeam Television Corporation is a privately held broadcasting company based in Miami, Florida, that owns three television stations in the United States. Since the company's founding in 1953, it has been under the control of the Ansin family.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">WAQI</span> Spanish-language news/talk radio station in Miami

WAQI is a commercial radio station licensed to Miami, Florida, United States, featuring a Spanish-language talk format known as Radio Mambí. Owned by Latino Media Network and formerly operated by Uforia Audio Network, the radio division of TelevisaUnivision, under a transitional agreement, the station broadcasts with 50,000 watts and serves as South Florida's designated primary entry point for the Emergency Alert System, one of three in the state. The studios are located at Univision's Miami headquarters, and the transmitter is located at the intersection of U.S. 41 and Florida State Road 997, near the edge of the Everglades.

Wometco Enterprises is an American company headquartered in Coral Gables, Florida; a suburb of Miami. It was once a large media company with diversified holdings, but slowly sold off its assets during the early 1980s, and owned the Miami Seaquarium until it was sold in 2014.

WGBS-TV was a television station that broadcast on channel 23 in Miami, Florida, United States, from 1953 to 1957. Originally established as WFTL-TV in Fort Lauderdale, it moved south to Miami when it was purchased by Storer Broadcasting at the end of 1954 and consolidated with a construction permit Storer bought for a Miami station.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">WAKR</span> Radio station in Akron, Ohio

WAKR (1590 AM) is a commercial radio station licensed to serve Akron, Ohio, and known as "Soft Hits 93.5 FM". Locally owned and operated by Rubber City Radio Group, Inc., the station primarily services the Akron metropolitan area, including both Summit County and Portage County.

On January 1, 1989, six television stations in the Miami–Fort Lauderdale and West Palm Beach, Florida, markets, exchanged network affiliations. The event, referred to in contemporary media coverage as "The Big Switch", was described as "Miami's own soap opera" and at times compared to Dallas and Dynasty because of the lengthy public disputes between multiple parties that preceded it. Approximately three million television viewers in both markets were affected.

WITV was a television station that broadcast on channel 17 in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, United States. Owned by the Gerico Investment Company, it was the third television station on the air in the Miami–Fort Lauderdale area and the fourth in South Florida, operating from December 1953 to May 1958. It was doomed by troubles that plagued ultra high frequency (UHF) television in the days before the All-Channel Receiver Act and particularly the arrival of two additional VHF TV stations to Miami in 1956 and 1957. The WITV transmitter facility was purchased by the Dade County School Board, eventually resulting in the reactivation of channel 17 as Miami-based WLRN-TV in 1962.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">WPST-TV</span> Television station in Miami (1957–1961)

WPST-TV was a television station that broadcast on channel 10 in Miami, Florida, United States, for four years, from 1957 to 1961. Launched as the third commercially licensed very high frequency (VHF) station in Miami and the market's second American Broadcasting Company (ABC) affiliate after WITV (channel 17), it was owned by Public Service Television, Inc., the broadcasting subsidiary of Miami-based National Airlines (NAL), and managed by NAL founder/CEO George T. Baker. It was the first television station in the United States to have its broadcast license revoked by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC).


  1. "Where We Are." Knight Ridder. April 28, 2005. Retrieved on August 28, 2012. "Knight Ridder 50 W. San Fernando St. San Jose, CA 95113" and "Knight Ridder Digital 35 South Market Street San Jose, CA 95113-2302"
  2. "Viewtron Remembered Roundtable". Archived from the original on October 20, 2012. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
  3. "Knight-Ridder Puts 8 TV Stations on Block to Reduce $929-Million Debt". Los Angeles Times. AP. October 4, 1988. Retrieved January 26, 2016.
  4. [ dead link ]
  5. Astor, David. "Iraq-Coverage Awards for KR, UPI – Editor & Publisher". Archived from the original on March 4, 2020. Retrieved April 5, 2019.
  6. Follmer, Max (March 28, 2008). "The Reporting Team That Got Iraq Right". HuffPost. Retrieved April 5, 2019.
  7. Stranahan, Susan Q. (January 19, 2005). "Knight-Ridder Scores (Again)". Columbia Journalism Review. Retrieved April 5, 2019.
  8. "Bill Moyers Journal . Buying the War. Watch the Show". PBS. Retrieved April 5, 2019.
  9. "McClatchy to Acquire Knight Ridder - Becomes Country's Second Largest Newspaper Publisher". March 13, 2006. Archived from the original on April 9, 2006. Retrieved April 11, 2006.
  10. Seelye, Katharine Q.; Sorkin, Andrew Ross (March 13, 2006). "Newspaper Chain Agrees to a Sale for $4.5 Billion" . The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved January 17, 2019.
  11. "McClatchy to Sell Four Knight Ridder Newspapers for $1 Billion" (PDF). MediaNews Group, Inc. April 26, 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 26, 2006.
  12. Hane, Paula J. (February 5, 2001). "NewsBank Acquires MediaStream Businesses from Knight Ridder". Information Today. Archived from the original on July 22, 2020.
  13. "RealCities Network". The McClatchy Company. Archived from the original on August 13, 2012. Retrieved July 31, 2012.
  14. "McClatchy Interactive". Archived from the original on August 3, 2012. Retrieved July 31, 2012.
  15. "Centro". Centro. January 18, 2018. Retrieved April 9, 2018.
  16. "Knight Buys 42% WIND Stock From R.L. Atlass for $800,000" (PDF). Broadcasting . February 4, 1946. pp. 17–74. Retrieved January 31, 2020.
  17. "Miami-Herald Buys WQAM; Newark News to Get WBYN" (PDF). Broadcasting . February 12, 1945. p. 14. Retrieved January 31, 2020.
  18. "John S. Knight Buys 45% Interest in WAKR" (PDF). Broadcasting . April 15, 1946. p. 30. Retrieved January 31, 2020.
  19. "Profile: The low visibility of a highly involved broadcaster: Roger Berk" (PDF). Broadcasting . February 25, 1974. p. 73. Retrieved February 7, 2020.
  20. Cullison, Art (May 24, 1953). "WAKR-TV Signs With ABC". Akron Beacon Journal . p. 14-E. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
  21. "NEW TOWER OF POWER (Advertisement)". Akron Beacon Journal . December 1, 1967. p. B8. Retrieved February 7, 2020.
  22. "Closed Circuit: Monomedium" (PDF). Broadcasting . May 2, 1977. p. 7. Retrieved February 8, 2020.
  23. Dyer, Bob (October 14, 1990). "WAKR has 50 years under its belt: Will past outshine future?". Akron Beacon Journal . p. F1, F5 . Retrieved February 9, 2020.
  24. Anderson, Jack (March 11, 1956). "Here's the First Look at New WCKT Television Studio". The Miami Herald. Miami, Florida. p. 9B. Archived from the original on February 14, 2022. Retrieved February 14, 2022 via
  25. "FCC Sets Hearings On Channel 7 Bids". The Miami News. Miami, Florida. January 20, 1954. p. 1A. Archived from the original on February 12, 2022. Retrieved February 12, 2022 via
  26. "Pressure Is Usual, FCC Prober Finds". The Miami Herald. Miami, Florida. Associated Press. June 3, 1958. pp. 1A–2A. Archived from the original on February 11, 2022. Retrieved February 11, 2022 via
  27. Einstein, Paul (June 2, 1958). "Pressure Put On Mack For Channel 7 Is Told". The Miami News. Miami, Florida. pp. 1A–2A. Archived from the original on February 11, 2022. Retrieved February 11, 2022 via
  28. "Channel 7 Award Is Reopened". The Miami Herald. Miami, Florida. United Press. April 4, 1959. p. A1. Archived from the original on February 11, 2022. Retrieved February 11, 2022 via
  29. "Did Mack 'Jilt' Katzentine on TV Station?". The Miami Herald. Miami, Florida. February 18, 1958. p. 1. Archived from the original on February 11, 2022. Retrieved February 11, 2022 via
  30. Kraslow, David J. (July 15, 1960). "FCC Switches Ch. 10 Permit To Ohio Firm". The Miami Herald. Miami, Florida. pp. 1A-2A. Archived from the original on February 14, 2022. Retrieved February 11, 2022 via
  31. "FCC Lifts Channel 7 Franchise". The Miami Herald. Miami, Florida. July 27, 1961. p. 1A. Archived from the original on February 16, 2022. Retrieved February 15, 2022 via
  32. "FCC Orders Inquiry Into Miami TV Cases". Tampa Bay Times. St. Petersburg, Florida. Associated Press. June 12, 1960. p. 9A. Archived from the original on February 11, 2022. Retrieved February 15, 2022 via
  33. Anderson, Jack (March 16, 1961). "Ch. 7 Switched; New Station OKd". The Miami Herald. Miami, Florida. p. 1A. Archived from the original on February 11, 2022. Retrieved February 11, 2022 via
  34. Anderson, Jack (November 16, 1962). "If Channel 7 Sale Okd: $2 Million Gift Headed for UM?". The Miami Herald. Miami, Florida. p. C1. Archived from the original on February 15, 2022. Retrieved February 15, 2022 via
  35. Anderson, Jack E. (November 15, 1962). "Channel 7 Sale Is Proposed". The Miami Herald. Miami, Florida. pp. 1A–2A. Archived from the original on February 17, 2022. Retrieved February 15, 2022 via
  36. "Site Map - January 16, 1989". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  37. Feb. 18, L. A. Times Archives; Pt, 1989 12 Am (February 18, 1989). "Knight-Ridder Has Bidders for Its TV Stations : Expects 8 Properties to Pull Total of $400 Million". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 2, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  38. Ap (March 2, 1989). "Palmer to Buy Knight Station". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  39. "Knight-Ridder's legacy: more meager multiples" (PDF). Broadcasting . March 20, 1989. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  40. "Ownership Changes" (PDF). Broadcasting . May 1, 1989. Retrieved November 2, 2021.

Further reading