Kohala, Pakistan

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Kohala
کوہالا
Town
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Kohala
کوہالا
Pakistan location map.svg
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Kohala
کوہالا
Coordinates: 34°05′31″N73°29′48″E / 34.0919°N 73.4968°E / 34.0919; 73.4968 Coordinates: 34°05′31″N73°29′48″E / 34.0919°N 73.4968°E / 34.0919; 73.4968
Country Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan
Province Punjab
District Rawalpindi

Kohala (Urdu : کوہالا) is a town in Pakistan on the River Jhelum, north of Murree, south of Muzaffarabad, and east of Bagh. The town was at the independence of Pakistan in 1947 a border town between newly created Pakistan and the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, but is today only the border between the rest of Pakistan and Azad Kashmir. [1]

Pakistan federal parliamentary constitutional republic in South Asia

Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country, spanning 881,913 square kilometres. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre (650-mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China in the far northeast. It is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, and also shares a maritime border with Oman.

Jhelum River River in India and Pakistan

The Jhelum River is a river in Northern India and Eastern Pakistan. It is the westernmost of the five rivers of the Punjab region, and passes through the Kashmir Valley. It is a tributary of the Indus River and has a total length of about 725 kilometres (450 mi).

Murree Municipality in Punjab, Pakistan

Murree is a mountain resort town, located in the Galyat region of the Pir Panjal Range, within the Rawalpindi District of Punjab, Pakistan. It forms the outskirts of the Islamabad-Rawalpindi metropolitan area, and is about 30 km (19 mi) northeast of Islamabad. It has average altitude of 2,291 metres (7,516 ft).

Contents

Location

Kohala is the site of the well-known Kohala Bridge across the Jhelum. Kohala is a gateway to the Muzaffarabad and Bagh districts of Azad Kashmir. It lies where the Punjab, Kashmir and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa boundaries meet. [2]

Kohala Bridge bridge in Pakistan

The Kohala Bridge across the Jhelum River, a tributary of the Indus River, forms part of one of the land routes from the Azad Kashmir to Pakistan.

Muzaffarabad District Districts of Azad Kashmir in Pakistan

Muzaffarabad district of Azad Kashmir, Pakistan is located on the banks of the Jhelum and the Neelum rivers, and is very hilly. The district is bounded to Punjab in the west and to Kupwara and Baramulla districts of the Kashmir in the east. To the north is Neelum District; the fall on the northeast of the district and Bagh District forms the southern boundary. The total area of the district is 1,642 square kilometres. The city of Muzaffarabad serves as capital of Azad Kashmir.

Bagh District City in Azad Kashmir, Pakistan

Bagh District is one of the Ten districts of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. The district, which had been part of Poonch District, was created in 1988.

Etymology

There are two theories regarding the etymology of Kohala. One is that it originates from the name of a Hindu goddess Kohala Devi because Kohala was a place where Hindu deities were worshipped on the banks of the Watesta (Jhelum) River before the arrival of Islam. A temple called Dawal was there.

Another theory is that Kohala is derived from the Dhondi/Kareali language kohal, meaning "cattle room" or house that was divided in living room in ancient time or separate or beneath of living house in modern era, or gotrerhi, a place where livestock stay and sit.

Kohala is a place where caravans from Kashmir stayed after crossing Jhelum River and their horses and donkeys were tied there in antiquity. There are two Kohalas in the region; one is on both banks of river Jhelum and a Kohala Bala at Lora, a union council of Abbottabad District.

Lora, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Union council in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Lora is one of the 51 union councils of Abbottabad District in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa of Pakistan. Lora Union Council takes its name from the main village of area. The local language is Hindko but Urdu is also universally understood.

Abbottabad District District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Abbottabad District is a district of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. It is part of Hazara Division and covers an area of 1,969 km2, with the city of Abbottabad being the principal town. Neighbouring districts are Mansehra to the north, Muzaffarabad to the east, Haripur to the west, and Rawalpindi to the south.

History

Ancient era

In ancient times Kohala was a centre of Hindu pilgrimage who worshipped Kohala Dewi. By the middle of 500 BCE Kohala had become a centre of the Buddhist community and a temple was constructed between Kohala and Knair Pull. It was a route of Buddhist monks for travelling from Taxila to Sharda Buddhist university in Sharda, Kashmir.

18th century

Kohala was possessed by the Karlal tribe in the mid eighteenth century and in 1200 when the Dhond Abbasi tribe attacked, they vacated Bakot and Kohala also. From this time Kohala was under the proprietorship of Birote. When the Mojwal family of the Dhond Abbasi tribe migrated to Bakote by force, the Kohala proprietorship transferred to Mojwals of Bakote.

19th century

In the first decade of 1800, Malka Singh, administrator of Rawalpindi captured Kohala by force. In 1814 Malka Singh and the Dogra government of Kashmir under Gulab Singh developed the area as a business centre for Hindu merchants.

British era

In 1863 Sir James Abbott, the first commissioner of Hazara, changed the name of the area from Patan (the old name) to Kohala.

The British government transferred the administration of Kohala to Murree on a one hundred-year lease in 1873. The Punjab government renewed this lease in 1973 for 20 years and it was reunited with Bakote in 1993.

The government of British India built a rest house in the south of Kohala for high officials with seven drying rooms, two kitchens, one reading room, two toilets and horse and dog barns. The Indian olive, banana, apple and silkworm trees were in the guest house's eastern lawn. Guest house staff consisted of 30 people. A telegraph office (later a post office) was established there in 1880. Allama Iqbal (Poet of the East) staying in this rest house in 1930 and wrote his famous poem "Hammala", the 1st poem of his book Bang-e-Dra here. The bazaar of Kohala was most populated until 1947. Hindu merchants from Dewal, Murree, Rawalpindi and Punch controlled trade between Punjab and Kashmir.

After independence

In 1947 during the independence of Pakistan Kohala joined Pakistan.

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References

  1. Praveen Swami India, Pakistan and the Secret Jihad: The Covert War 1134137516 - 2006 " Kohala, the small town that marked Jammu and Kashmir's border with the new country that had come into being two months earlier, Pakistan."
  2. Lonely Planet Pakistan and the Karakoram Highway - 1741045428 Lindsay Brown, Paul Clammer, Rodney Cocks - 2008 Page 183 "Entry to Muzaffarabad district is from Mansehra (crossing at Gahri Habibullah) or Murree (crossing at Kohala)."