Kolárovo

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Kolárovo

Gúta
Town
Kolarovo09.JPG
A church in Kolárovo
Coat of arms of Kolarovo.svg
Coat of arms
Slovakia location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Kolárovo
Location of Kolárovo within Slovakia
Coordinates: 47°55′01″N17°59′44″E / 47.91694°N 17.99556°E / 47.91694; 17.99556 Coordinates: 47°55′01″N17°59′44″E / 47.91694°N 17.99556°E / 47.91694; 17.99556
CountrySlovakia
Region Nitra
District Komárno
First mentioned1268
Government
  MayorÁrpád Horváth
Area
  Total106.823 km2 (41.245 sq mi)
Elevation
111 m (364 ft)
Population
(2018-12-31 [1] )
  Total10,546
  Density99/km2 (260/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
946 03
Area code(s) 421-35
Car plate KN
Website http://www.kolarovo.sk
Source: [2]

Kolárovo (before 1948: Guta; Hungarian : Gúta or earlier Gutta) is a town in the south of Slovakia near the town of Komárno. It is an agricultural center with 11,000 inhabitants.

Hungarian language language spoken in and around Hungary

Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and parts of several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine (Subcarpathia), central and western Romania (Transylvania), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia and northern Slovenia. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America and Israel. Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family. With 13 million speakers, it is the family's largest member by number of speakers.

Town settlement that is bigger than a village but smaller than a city


A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary considerably between different parts of the world.

Slovakia Republic in Central Europe

Slovakia, officially the Slovak Republic, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to the west, and the Czech Republic to the northwest. Slovakia's territory spans about 49,000 square kilometres (19,000 sq mi) and is mostly mountainous. The population is over 5.4 million and consists mostly of Slovaks. The capital and largest city is Bratislava, and the second largest city is Košice. The official language is Slovak.

Contents

Basic information

The town of Kolárovo is located in the Podunajská nížina (Danubian Lowland) at the confluence of the Váh and Little Danube Rivers. The western part of the plane land is on Žitný ostrov, the medium part on boggy flats of the Little Danube, Váh, and Váh Danube Rivers, the eastern part with many old shoulders and inland embankments at the flat of the Váh and Nitra Rivers. The town comprises 6 neighborhoods: center, Částa (Császta), Kráľka (Királyrét), Veľký Ostrov (Nagysziget), Örtény and Pačérok (Pacsérok).

Danubian Lowland

The Danubian Lowland or Danube Lowland is the name of the part of Little Alföld situated in Slovakia, located between the Danube, the Little Carpathians and all other parts of the Western Carpathians.

Váh river in Slovakia

The Váh is the longest river within Slovakia. Towns on the river include Liptovský Hrádok, Liptovský Mikuláš, Ružomberok, Vrútky, Žilina, Bytča, Považská Bystrica, Púchov, Ilava, Dubnica nad Váhom, Nemšová, Trenčín, Nové Mesto nad Váhom, Piešťany, Hlohovec, Sereď, Šaľa, Kolárovo and Komárno.

Little Danube river in Slovakia

The Little Danube is a branch of the river Danube in Slovakia.

About 11,000 inhabitants live between the dams at the Little Danube, of whom 82.6% are of Hungarian ethnicity, 16% of Slovak ethnicity, and the rest 1.4% of other ethnicities.

Hungary Country in Central Europe

Hungary is a country in Central Europe. Spanning 93,030 square kilometres (35,920 sq mi) in the Carpathian Basin, it borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a medium-sized member state of the European Union. The official language is Hungarian, which is the most widely spoken Uralic language in the world, and among the few non-Indo-European languages to be widely spoken in Europe. Hungary's capital and largest city is Budapest; other major urban areas include Debrecen, Szeged, Miskolc, Pécs and Győr.

The Slovaks are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Slovakia who share a common ancestry, culture, history and speak the Slovak language.

Kolárovo belongs to the largest towns of the lower part of the Žitný ostrov.

Parts
PartLatitudeLongitudeFeet northInches northFeet eastInches east
Částa475439165754
Čierny Chrbát475756173814
Kolárovo47551175944
Kráľka47471172544
Pačérok47556018100
Veľká Gúta47550181260
Veľký Ostrov465120185944

History

The village was mentioned for the first time in 1268 and during its existence it has changed its name several times (Old Guta, Big Guta, Little Guta).

According to a local tradition, the surrounding area was populated by Jasz people from the rTisza river regions during the Árpád dynasty, which ruled the Kingdom of Hungary from 1000 to 1301. [3]

Jász is the Hungarian language and English language exonym for an Iranic ethnic minority, also known by the endonyms Iasi or Jassy, that has lived in Hungary since the 13th century. The Jász originated as an Ossetian (Alani) people in Sarmatia.

Tisza river in Europe

The Tisza or Tisa is one of the main rivers of Central and Eastern Europe. Once, it was called "the most Hungarian river" because it flowed entirely within the Kingdom of Hungary. Today, it crosses several national borders.

The Árpáds or Arpads was the ruling dynasty of the Principality of Hungary in the 9th and 10th centuries and of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1000 to 1301. The dynasty was named after Grand Prince Árpád who was the head of the Hungarian tribal federation during the conquest of the Carpathian Basin, c. 895. It is also referred to as the Turul dynasty, but rarely.

Other facts suggest that the area of Kolárovo was donated by King Ladislaus IV, the Cumanian. According to them, it was King Ladislaus I of Hungary, who delimited the area of the town to the extent of 56,000 acres (22,662 ha) by his bill.

Ladislaus IV of Hungary King of Hungary

Ladislaus the Cuman, also known as Ladislas the Cuman, was king of Hungary and Croatia from 1272 to 1290. His mother, Elizabeth, was the daughter of a chieftain from the pagan Cumans who had settled in Hungary. At the age of seven, he married Elisabeth, a daughter of King Charles I of Sicily. Ladislaus was only 10 when a rebellious lord, Joachim Gutkeled, kidnapped and imprisoned him.

Ladislaus I of Hungary King of Hungary

Ladislaus I or Ladislas I, also Saint Ladislaus or Saint Ladislas was King of Hungary from 1077 and King of Croatia from 1091. He was the second son of King Béla I of Hungary. After Béla's death in 1063, Ladislaus and his elder brother, Géza, acknowledged their cousin, Solomon as the lawful king in exchange for receiving their father's former duchy, which included one-third of the kingdom. They cooperated with Solomon for the next decade. Ladislaus's most popular legend, which narrates his fight with a "Cuman" who abducted a Hungarian girl, is connected to this period. The brothers' relationship with Solomon deteriorated in the early 1070s, and they rebelled against him. Géza was proclaimed king in 1074, but Solomon maintained control of the western regions of his kingdom. During Géza's reign, Ladislaus was his brother's most influential adviser.

A 1268 letter by King Béla IV of Hungary was the first to mention present-day Kolárovo. The letter called Kolárovo "villa Guta," and stated that its territory was owned by the archdiocese of Esztergom. Various documents confirm that villa Guta continued to fall under the tutelage of the archdiocese as of 1281, 1349, 1489 and 1550-1554. [4] [5]

Béla IV of Hungary King of Hungary

Béla IV, also known as Béla the Great, was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1235 and 1270, and Duke of Styria from 1254 to 1258. Being the oldest son of King Andrew II, he was crowned upon the initiative of a group of influential noblemen in his father's lifetime in 1214. His father, who strongly opposed Béla's coronation, refused to give him a province to rule until 1220. In this year, Béla was appointed Duke of Slavonia, also with jurisdiction in Croatia and Dalmatia. Around the same time, Béla married Maria, a daughter of Theodore I Laskaris, Emperor of Nicaea. From 1226, he governed Transylvania with the title Duke. He supported Christian missions among the pagan Cumans who dwelled in the plains to the east of his province. Some Cuman chieftains acknowledged his suzerainty and he adopted the title of King of Cumania in 1233. King Andrew died on 21 September 1235 and Béla succeeded him. He attempted to restore royal authority, which had diminished under his father. For this purpose, he revised his predecessors' land grants and reclaimed former royal estates, causing discontent among the noblemen and the prelates.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Esztergom-Budapest archdiocese

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Esztergom-Budapest is the primatial seat of the Roman Catholic Church in Hungary and the Metropolitan of one of its four Latin rite ecclesiastical provinces.

However, these landlords never became favoured among the inhabitants of Guta who revolted from time to time against them and other lords. The inhabitants of the town also suffered a lot during the war. In 1311, Chellus, an armiger of Matthew III Csák, destroyed the villages of Guta, Nesvady a Zemné with his horde.

The first village in this territory was called Little Guta and it was situated on the right bank of the river Váh, next to the river Nitra. This settlement was also called Old Guta (mentioned in 1268).

In the 14th century, the second settlement, called Great Guta, was established.

In the past, the "Frog Castle" (Hungarian : Békavár; Slovak : Žabí hrad) stood on the land of the village. It was built under the rule of Queen Mary in 1349 to protect fords and a business route.

After the Battle of Mohács the inhabitants of the two villages, being afraid of the Turks, moved to a safer place on the right bank of the Little Danube, to the Žitný ostrov, where present-day Kolárovo is situated. In 1573, the village was plundered by the Turkish beg of Esztergom (Strigonia). At this time Great Guta had already been destroyed together with its old church, although the village had partially been protected by embankments which were a part of the fortress system of Kolárovo.

In 1551, the village received town status. It was a fortified market town and it also obtained several privileges (to organize fairs, stock markets, etc.)

In 1669, Turkish units burned the eastern part of Kolárovo. Between 1848-1849 at the time of national-liberating fights, the retreating Austrian troops fired on the town after the battles they had won at Pered (now:Tešedíkovo) and Žihrác.

Guta was part of Csallóköz district in Komárom County of Kingdom of Hungary until becoming part of Czechoslovakia in 1918. It was retaken briefly by Hungarian Soviet Republic in 1919. Hungary regained Guta with First Vienna Award in 1938, but it was returned to Czechoslovakia in 1945. It was renamed as Kolarovo in honour of Ján Kollár, Slovak writer and scientist, in 1948.[ citation needed ] The renaming was carried out against the will of the town's population and as part of suppressing the Hungarian ethnicity in Slovakia.

Important occurrences of names of the city

Kolárovo "Békevár" Fortress

The fortress was built at the place of the castle of Queen Mary of Hungary. In comparison with the large fortresses in Nové Zámky and Komárom, it has always played a less important role in the town's history. It has been repaired and renovated several times according to the period requirements. After the battle of Mohács t the beginning of Ottoman Turkish occupation the fortress was quickly repaired by the local captain Gregor Martonosi Pesthényi in 1527, to protect it from the approaching army of John Zápolya, supported by Turks. That year an army commander of Zápolya, Gáspár Ráskay drew into Guta and conquered the town. Soon afterwards, the fortress fell into the hands of the Habsburg imperial army again.

Between 1584-1594 the fortress was strengthened with the help of the Italian army engineers. At the time when Gabriel Bethlen was conquering the fortress in Komárno, local Walloon and French soldiers escaped. Between 1662-1664, with the inhabitants afraid of new attacks by Turks, the fortress was modernized again. Inside there were stone accommodation houses and stone stores for gunpowder and guns. At that time there were 130 mercenaries behind the walls under the command of Mathias Frühwirtha. In the spring of 1707 at the time of the Rákóczi's War for Independence, Count Guido Starhemberg performed the fortification worth 6090 forints with the help of the army engineer Fischer.

The Kuruc general János Bottyán stayed near the town on four occasions. On 12 July 1708 he conquered the fortress with the help of heavy artillery and captured local mercenaries. After the fighting the fortress was destroyed and Kuruc soldiers retreated with the words "Let it be the residence of frogs from now!" Although the fortress was repaired later, its derogatory name Békavár (Frog Castle) was preserved. A Danish garrison was located there by General Heister. In the 1840s, the fortress had no importance, only the army of the general Görgeyho had a rest there after a lost battle.

Sports

The eventful sports life of our town is reflected by active and successfully performing sports clubs.

Each sports club, including football, handball, judo, wrestling, cycling, karate, table tennis, Gut-gym, water tourism, pigeon breeders, cynologic - budgets independently. The budget of individual sports clubs consists of financial aid from the Town of Kolárovo after being approved by the Municipal Parliament, contributions acquired from sponsors, various subsidies, tickets, membership fees etc. All sports clubs, either club of classical sports, sporting-artistic, combat or just for fun, have a common objective. Their main objective is to obtain the best possible results and also to educate young people. They try to engage as many people as possible in various sporting activities. They organise year by year recruitment with demonstrations for pupils of primary schools with the idea that in this way they acquire as many young people, active sportsmen, as possible.

The sports clubs on the territory of the Town of Kolárovo organise year by year mass sporting events like "Sporting Day of the Town of Kolárovo" and "International Sporting Day of Sister Cities of Kolárovo - Kisbér". The Committee of Sports of the Municipal Parliament is a co-ordinator of these event organization.

Apart from giving financial aid, the Municipal Parliament tries to inspire young people and older sportsmen. It supports the sports collectives of our town and is involved with the Committee of Sports.

Cultural sights

Memorial to those inhabitants of Kolarovo who perished at Dachau and Schonberg concentration camps during World War II. Guta049.JPG
Memorial to those inhabitants of Kolárovo who perished at Dachau and Schönberg concentration camps during World War II.

The Roman Catholic Church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary was built between the years 1723-1724 in Baroque style at the place of the older burnt-out Gothic church. In 1772, the building was enlarged. In the interior of the church there is a late baroque wagon vault. The altar painting on the main classical altar illustrates the translation of the Virgin Mary being a masterpiece of Ferdinand Lütgerndorff from 1832. There was an older fortifying wall around the church with loopholes and round corner bastions from the 17th century. However, the wall was sadly pulled down in the 1950'.

The chapel in the former cemetery is a Baroque construction from the 1750s. In front of the chapel there is a gate to the former cemetery.

The Holy Trinity Column is erected at the original spot in the church park and dates back to 1831. It was built to commemorate the victims of cholera. The statue of St Valentine is a work of folk art dating back to 1835 and was placed in front of the market entrance. Today, after having been removed several times, it is situated next to the chapel. The Memorial of World War I dates back to the 1920s. The statue "Come up to me" is the work of Alajos Riegele. On the board there are the names of dead soldiers. The memorial of the people taken to the concentration camps in Dachau and Schonberg is the work of János Reicher and constructor István Lukačovič. The memorial was in 1965 originally situated next to the Municipality Office. The statue of Mother Earth is the work of the sculptor János Nagy. The fountain in front of the Municipality Office illustrates the unity during flood, the work called Outburst in front of the Municipality Office is based on the design of the constructor Paluš.

The memorial of the victims of World War II with the names of victims is situated in a new park. The tables on deportation in 1947 are on the statue of Mother and Child in the park of the Health Center. On the wall next to the entrance gate to the former cemetery there is a diploma by the sculptor Klára Pataki. The statue of a girl with a bucket situated in the area of the Slovak Primary School is the work of the sculptor J. V. Huck. The houses made from extruded bricks with a walled gable under the thatched roof date back to 19th century. Several of these houses have been preserved today.

Shipboard mill

Ship mill in Kolarovo. 946 03 Kolarovo, Slovakia - panoramio (6).jpg
Ship mill in Kolárovo.

The last floating mill was moved to Slovak village museum's storage in Martin in 1965. Administration of relics in Komárno in 1980 initialised the main idea to build up at least one floating mill as an exhibit for educational and museum function. They work out a project, to make it suitable for new surroundings on the Little Danube rim, based on a steel floater.

Expositions

Natural area

Shipboard Water mill, is situated in Kolarovo town, on the southwest part of "Rye Island" which is surrounded by two rivers- the Little Danube and the Vah, and by the dead sector of the Little Danube. It was built as part of a cultural monument - Shipboard mill - in an area with typical meadow forest fauna and flora. An almost unbelievable part of this area is the ruins of "Peace Castle". The next notable sight is the wooden bridge with wooden roofing. Its length (86 m) ranks it among the longest wooden bridges in Europe. Characteristic of life in this area is that peacocks breed here in the wild. The area's historic development is studied by members of the Society of Protectors. They have created a place to show country architecture, a place for children's education, summer camps, and country tourists. The Water mill Museum is open daily from 10 a.m. to 7 p.m. in the summer season i.e. from May to September. There is an excellent camping site and a lot of community activity.

Notable people
RelationshipPersonDescription
Born Károly Hadaly Born in 1743. He studied at the university of Nagyszombat (currently Trnava), where he obtained his doctorate in philosophy and law. He was a professor of mathematics in Nagyszombat, Győr, Pécs, Pressburg and from 1810 to 1831 in Budapest. He was a lecturer in Institutum Geometricum in the capital of Hungary too. He died in 1834 in Budapest.
Lived Kálmán Gőgh football player
Peter Magvaši first commissioner of works in Slovakia

Institutions

Church

Schools

Pensioners Club

Companies

Partner towns

See also

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References

  1. "Population and migration". Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. Retrieved 2019-04-16.
  2. "Mestská a obecná štatistika SR". Statistics.sk. Archived from the original on April 12, 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
  3. Borovszky, Samu (ed.). Magyarország Vármegyéi és Városai [Counties and Cities of Hungary](PDF). Athenaeum (in Hungarian). 3. Budapest: Országos Monográfia Társaság.
  4. Knauz, Ferdinandus (1882). Monumenta ecclesiae strigoniensis: Ab a. 1273 ad a. 1321 (in Latin). 2. Esztergom. p. 434.
  5. Csánki, Dezső (11 October 1897). Magyarország Történelmi Földrajza a Hunyadiak Korában [Hungary's Historical Geography During the Age of Hunyadis] (in Hungarian). 3. Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences. p. 522.

Genealogical resources

The records for genealogical research are available at the state archive "Statny Archiv in Nitra, Slovakia"