Kombat (Russian : Комбат, lit. ' battalion commander ') is a black-and-white photograph by the Soviet photographer Max Alpert. It depicts a Soviet military officer armed with a TT pistol who is raising his unit for an attack during World War II. This work is regarded as one of the most iconic Soviet World War II photographs, yet neither the date nor the subject is known with certainty. According to the most widely accepted version, the photograph depicts junior politruk Aleksei Gordeyevich Yeryomenko , minutes before his death on 12 July 1942, in Voroshilovgrad Oblast, Ukraine.
Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.
Literal translation, direct translation, or word-for-word translation is a translation of a text done by translating each word separately, without looking at how the words are used together in a phrase or sentence.
Kombat, abbreviated from Командир батальона was a military rank in the Red Army from 1918 to 1935. At that time it was roughly equivalent to the rank of Captain.
Over the years Alpert gave several contradictory versions of the event, with dates ranging from autumn 1941 to 1943.However, it is unlikely that it is a 1943 photograph, as the M43 tunic with shoulder boards is not being worn, and the collar differs from that on the M43. He was consistent in that he did not know the officer's name, and that the photograph's title kombat ("commander of a battalion") was likely inaccurate – after he took it, he overheard that "the kombat is killed" and tentatively associated this message with the subject of the photograph. After the war Alpert received numerous letters claiming identification of the officer, but only one was confirmed by a joint investigation by Komsomolskaya Pravda and administration of Lugansk Oblast undertaken in the 1970s. According to this reconstructed version, Yeryomenko was the political commissar in his unit. When the commander was wounded, he took command and raised the unit for a counterattack against the German offence. He died within minutes after that.
A battalion is a military unit. The use of the term "battalion" varies by nationality and branch of service. Typically a battalion consists of 300 to 800 soldiers and is divided into a number of companies. A battalion is typically commanded by a lieutenant colonel. In some countries, the word "battalion" is associated with the infantry.
Komsomolskaya Pravda is a daily Russian tabloid newspaper, founded on 13 March 1925.
In the military, a political commissar or political officer, is a supervisory officer responsible for the political education (ideology) and organization of the unit they are assigned to, and intended to ensure civilian control of the military.
The photograph was reused in numerous publications, sculptures, artworks and commercial products, both in the Soviet Union and abroad.
Zaporizhia, Zaporizhzhia or Zaporizhzhya, also known as Zaporozhye and formerly as Alexandrovsk, is a city in south-central Ukraine, situated on the banks of the Dnieper River. It is the administrative centre of the Zaporizhia Oblast (region).
Slovianoserbsk Raion is a raion (district) in Luhansk Oblast of eastern Ukraine. The administrative center of the raion is the urban-type settlement of Slovianoserbsk. It was named after Slavo-Serbia, an imperial Russian province that existed between 1753–64. Population: 55,121 (2013 est.).
Pobeda is a Russian brand of wrist-watches owned by the Petrodvorets Watch Factory "Raketa". The brand name was chosen by Stalin himself in April 1945, he gave the order that the first watches be ready for the 1st year of Victory celebration. The first prototype came out of the Penza factory by the end of 1945, and the first model for the public came out of the Kirov Watch Factory in March 1946.
The title Hero of the Soviet Union was the highest distinction in the Soviet Union, awarded personally or collectively for heroic feats in service to the Soviet state and society.
Andrey (Andrei) Ivanovich Yeryomenko was a Soviet general during World War II and, subsequently, a Marshal of the Soviet Union. During the war, Yeryomenko commanded the Southeastern Front during the Battle of Stalingrad in summer 1942 and planned the successful defense of the city. He later commanded the armies responsible for the liberation of Western Hungary and Czechslovakia in 1945.
Oleksiy Fedorovych Fedorov, was one of the leaders of Soviet partisan movement during World War II. He was twice awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union, making him one of the only two partisan leaders to receive the title twice.
Pavel Alekseyevich Kurochkin was a Soviet military leader.
Mikhail Ivanovich Pugovkin was a Soviet and Russian comic actor named a People's Artist of the USSR in 1988.
Julius Kuperjanov VR I/2, VR II/2 and VR II/3 was an Estonian military officer during the War of Independence and commander of the Tartumaa Partisan Battalion renamed after him posthumously.
Georgy Filippovich Baydukov was a Soviet aircraft test pilot, a Hero of the Soviet Union (1936) and a writer.
Colonel Ilya Grigoryevich Starinov was a Soviet military officer.
The Jubilee Medal "65 Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945" is a state commemorative medal of the Russian Federation. It was established on March 4, 2009 by Presidential Decree № 238 to denote the 65th anniversary of the 1945 victory over Nazi Germany.
The Jubilee Medal "60 Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945" is a state commemorative medal of the Russian Federation created to denote the 60th anniversary of the 1945 victory over Nazi Germany. It was established on February 28, 2004 by Presidential Decree № 277.
The Jubilee Medal "50 Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945" is a state commemorative medal of the Russian Federation created to denote the 50th anniversary of the 1945 victory over Nazi Germany. It was established on July 7, 1993 by the Law of the Russian Federation № 5336-1. It was also established in Ukraine, in Kazakhstan by Decision of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan № 2485-XII of October 26, 1993, and in the Republic of Belarus on the basis of Presidential Decree № 102 of March 14, 1995.
The Medal "In Commemoration of the 1500th Anniversary of Kiev" was a state commemorative medal of the Soviet Union established by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on May 10, 1982 to commemorate the 1500th anniversary of the Hero City of Kiev.
The Jubilee Medal "Twenty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945" was a state commemorative medal of the Soviet Union established on May 7, 1965 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR to denote the twentieth anniversary of the Soviet victory over Nazi Germany in World War II.
The Jubilee Medal "Thirty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945" was a state commemorative medal of the Soviet Union established on April 25, 1975 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR to denote the thirtieth anniversary of the Soviet victory over Nazi Germany in World War II.
The Jubilee Medal "Forty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945" was a state commemorative medal of the Soviet Union established on April 12, 1985 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR to denote the fortieth anniversary of the Soviet victory over Nazi Germany in World War II.
The Jubilee Medal "60 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR" was a state military commemorative medal of the Soviet Union established and bestowed to military personnel to denote the sixtieth anniversary of the creation of the armed forces of the Soviet Union. It was established on January 28, 1978 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. Its statute was amended by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on July 18, 1980.
The Jubilee Medal "70 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR" was a state military commemorative medal of the Soviet Union established on January 28, 1988 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR to denote the seventieth anniversary of the creation of the Soviet Armed Forces.
Vladimir Leonidovich Govorov was a Soviet General and Politician. He was the son of Soviet military commander Marshal Leonid Govorov.
The 2010 Kiev Victory Day Parade was held on May 9, 2010 in Kiev, honoring the 65th anniversary of the Soviet Union's victory in the Great Patriotic War. Military vehicles and soldiers dressed in Soviet Army uniforms marched on Khreschatyk Street and through the Maidan. Inspecting the parade was the Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces General of the Army Ivan Svyda while the commander of the Ukrainian Ground Forces, Colonel General Gennady Vorobyov commanded the parade. The President of Ukraine Viktor Yanukovych delivered a jubilee address in his position as Supreme Commander. 2,500 members of the Ukrainian Armed Forces as well as troops from Russia and Belarus took part in the parade. 17 military bands took part in the parade under the command of the Chief of the Military Music Department of the General Staff of the Ukrainian Armed Forces, Major General Volodymyr Derkach.
Timofei Strokach was a prominent military figure of the Soviet NKVD and KGB.
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