Komi Republic

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Komi Republic
Республика Коми
Other transcription(s)
  KomiКоми Республика
Anthem: State Anthem of the Komi Republic
[1]
Map of Russia - Komi.svg
Coordinates: 64°17′N54°28′E / 64.283°N 54.467°E / 64.283; 54.467 Coordinates: 64°17′N54°28′E / 64.283°N 54.467°E / 64.283; 54.467
CountryRussia
Federal district Northwestern [2]
Economic region Northern [3]
EstablishedDecember 5, 1936 [4]
Capital Syktyvkar [5]
Government
  Body State Council [6]
   Head [6] Vladimir Uyba (acting) [7]
Area
[8]
  Total415,900 km2 (160,600 sq mi)
Area rank 13th
Population
 (2010 Census) [9]
  Total901,189
  Estimate 
(2018) [10]
840,873 (−6.7%)
  Rank 58th
  Density2.2/km2 (5.6/sq mi)
   Urban
76.9%
   Rural
23.1%
Time zone UTC+3 (MSK   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg [11] )
ISO 3166 code RU-KO
License plates 11
OKTMO ID87000000
Official languagesRussian; [12]   Komi [13]
Website http://www.rkomi.ru

The Komi Republic (Russian:Респу́блика Ко́ми, tr. Respúblika Kómi; Komi : Коми Республика, romanized: Komi Respublika), or Komi [14] is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). Its capital is the city of Syktyvkar. The population of the republic, as of the 2010 Census was 901,189. [9]

Contents

Administrative divisions

History

Map of the Komi Republic. Komi03.png
Map of the Komi Republic.

The Komi people first feature in the records of the Novgorod Republic in the 12th century, when East Slavic traders from Novgorod traveled to the Perm region in search of furs and animal hides. The Komi territories came under the influence of Muscovy in the late Middle Ages (late 15th to early 16th centuries). The site of Syktyvkar, settled from the 16th century, was known as Sysolskoye (Сысольскoe). In 1780, under Catherine the Great, it was renamed to Ust-Sysolsk (Усть-Сысольск) and used as a penal colony.

Russians explored the Komi territory most extensively in the 19th and early 20th centuries, starting with the expedition led by Alexander von Keyserling in 1843. They found ample reservoirs of various minerals, as well as timber, to exploit. After the founding of the Soviet Union in 1922, the Komi-Zyryan Autonomous Oblast was established on August 22, 1921, [15] and on December 5, 1936, it was reorganized into the Komi Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic with its administrative center located at the town of Syktyvkar.

Many of the "settlers" who arrived in the early-20th century were prisoners of the Gulag - sent by the hundreds of thousands to perform forced labor in the Arctic regions of the USSR. Towns sprang up around labor-camp sites, which gangs of prisoners initially carved out of the untouched tundra and taiga. The first mine, "Rudnik No. 1", became the city of Vorkuta, and other towns of the region have similar origins: "Prisoners planned and built all of the republic's major cities, not just Ukhta but also Syktyvkar, Pechora, Vorkuta, and Inta. Prisoners built Komi's railways and roads, as well as its original industrial infrastructure." [16] On 21 March 1996, the Komi Republic signed a power-sharing agreement with the government of Russia, granting it autonomy. [17] The agreement was abolished on 20 May 2002. [18]

Geography

Yugyd Va National Park Sablinskii khrebet.jpg
Yugyd Va National Park

The republic is situated to the west of the Ural mountains, in the north-east of the East European Plain. Forests cover over 70% of the territory and swamps cover approximately 15%. Komi republic is the second largest federal region by area in European Russia after Arkhangelsk Oblast.

Rivers

Major rivers include:

Lakes

There are many lakes in the republic. Major lakes include:

Natural resources

The Vym River, Komi Republic, Russia. Vym River.jpg
The Vym River, Komi Republic, Russia.

The republic's natural resources include coal, oil, natural gas, gold, diamonds, and timber. [19] [20] Native reindeer are in abundance and have been intentionally bred for human usage by the indigenous population.[ citation needed ]

Around 32,800 km2 of mostly boreal forest (as well as some alpine tundra and meadows) in the Republic's Northern Ural Mountains have been recognized in 1995 as a UNESCO World Heritage site, Virgin Komi Forests. It is the first natural UNESCO World Heritage site in Russia and the largest expanse of virgin forests in Europe. The site includes two pre-existing protected areas: Pechora-Ilych Nature Reserve (created in 1930) and Yugyd Va National Park (created in 1994).

Climate

Winters in the republic are long and cold, and the summers, while short, are quite warm.

Manpupuner and the 7 Strong Men rock formations

Deemed one of the Seven Wonders of Russia, the Komi Republic is home to Manpupuner (Man-Pupu-Nyer), a mysterious site in the northern Ural mountains, in the Troitsko-Pechorsky District, made out of seven rock towers bursting out of the flat plateau known as the "7 Strong Men." Manpupuner is a very popular attraction in Russia, but not on an international level. Information regarding its origin is scarce. It is known, however, that their height and abnormal shapes make the top of these rock giants inaccessible even to experienced rock-climbers.

Demographics

Population

Komi people Komi peoples.jpg
Komi people

Population: 901,189(2010 Census); [9] 1,018,674(2002 Census); [21] 1,261,024(1989 Census). [22]

17-12-192617-01-193917-01-195915-01-197017-01-197917-01-198909-10-200214-10-2010
Total population207,314318,996806,199964,8021,110,3611,250,8471,018,674901,189
Average annual population growth+1.7%+1.6%+1.3%-1.6%-1.5%
Males46%49%52%50%51%50%48%
Females54%51%48%50%49%50%52%
Females per 1000 males
Proportion urban4.4%9.1%59.4%61.9%70.8%75.5%75.3%
Territory (km2)434,150415,900415,900415,900415,900415,900415,900415,900
Population density/km20.50.81.92.32.73.02.42.2

Settlements

Vital statistics

Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service
Average population (x 1000)Live birthsDeathsNatural changeCrude birth rate (per 1000)Crude death rate (per 1000)Natural change (per 1000)Total fertility rate
19204 7604 353407
193010 2566 5743 682
194014 97612 1342 842
19456 4326 185247
195053420 0876 00214 08537.611.226.4
196083625 5785 01020 56830.66.024.6
196593818 9565 24113 71520.25.614.6
197097016 4626 27610 18617.06.510.5
19751 04418 8997 28411 61518.17.011.1
19801 13720 6859 16911 51618.28.110.1
19811 15321 2449 10312 14118.47.910.5
19821 16923 4208 75814 66220.07.512.5
19831 18523 8069 25014 55620.17.812.3
19841 19924 2179 48614 73120.27.912.3
19851 21323 3039 33413 96919.27.711.5
19861 22824 1768 11216 06419.76.613.1
19871 24223 6168 54415 07219.06.912.1
19881 25620 9168 93011 98616.77.19.5
19891 25618 4818 8579 62414.77.17.7
19901 24416 9309 3217 60913.67.56.11.873
19911 23115 5899 6655 92412.77.94.8
19921 21413 88011 4262 45411.49.42.0
19931 19912 15814 642- 2 48410.112.2- 2.1
19941 17411 83516 074- 4 23910.113.7- 3.6
19951 14511 10515 057- 3 9529.713.2- 3.51.317
19961 12410 90013 674- 2 7749.712.2- 2.5
19971 10610 38812 244- 1 8569.411.1- 1.7
19981 08710 79311 545- 7529.910.6- 0.7
19991 0689 68012 253- 2 5739.111.5- 2.4
20001 0509 90613 594- 3 6889.412.9- 3.51.219
20011 03610 32513 968- 3 64310.013.5- 3.51.272
20021 02111 17715 265- 4 08810.915.0- 4.01.374
20031 00411 46215 810- 4 34811.415.8- 4.31.401
200498711 48915 210- 3 72111.615.4- 3.81.397
200597110 97515 074- 4 09911.315.5- 4.21.332
200695510 87213 519- 2 64711.414.1- 2.81.318
200794111 52312 304- 78112.213.1- 0.81.406
200892811 71912 270- 55112.613.2- 0.61.452
200991611 86812 182- 31413.013.3- 0.31.62
201090311 64811 819- 17112.913.1- 0.21.63
201111 71511 097+ 44313.012.4+ 0.61.71
201289012 41810 830+ 1 58814.012.2+ 1.81.88
201387612 43610 484+ 1 95214.212.0+ 2.21.96
201486812 29110 621+ 1 67014.212.2+ 2.02.01
201586111 79710 666+ 1 13113.612.3+ 1.32.00
201685411 23910 523+ 71613.112.3+ 0.81.97
20178459 7669 958- 19211.511.8- 0.31.78

Regional vital statistics for 2011

Source: [23]

DistrictBirth RateDeath RateNatural Growth RateRussians as % of PopNative Komi and Nenets as % of Pop
Komi Republic13.012.4Increase2.svg0.06%96.05%3.95%
Syktyvkar 12.510.2Increase2.svg0.23%97.61%2.39%
Vorkuta 11.89.7Increase2.svg0.21%92.33%7.67%
Vuktyl 11.212.6Decrease2.svg-0.14%95.27%4.73%
Inta 11.112.6Decrease2.svg-0.15%95.40%4.60%
Pechora 13.013.6Decrease2.svg-0.06%96.89%3.11%
Sosnogorsk 12.614.4Decrease2.svg-0.18%97.02%2.98%
Usinsk 14.79.0Increase2.svg0.57%86.04%13.96%
Ukhta 11.010.7Increase2.svg0.03%96.20%3.80%
Izhemsky 19.118.8Increase2.svg0.03%99.62%0.38%
Knyazhpogostsky 11.615.9Decrease2.svg-0.43%95.50%4.50%
Koygorodsky 16.218.3Decrease2.svg-0.21%97.89%2.11%
Kortkerossky 16.918.6Decrease2.svg-0.17%98.86%1.14%
Priluzsky 15.618.4Decrease2.svg-0.28%98.98%1.02%
Syktyvdinsky 17.313.3Increase2.svg0.40%98.11%1.89%
Sysolsky 16.417.6Decrease2.svg-0.12%98.37%1.63%
Troitsko-Pechorsky 14.017.9Decrease2.svg-0.39%97.80%2.20%
Udorsky 15.613.1Increase2.svg0.25%95.33%4.67%
Ust-Vymsky 12.015.8Decrease2.svg-0.38%96.48%3.52%
Ust-Kulomsky 19.218.9Increase2.svg0.03%98.96%1.04%
Ust-Tsilemsky 16.115.4Increase2.svg0.07%99.62%0.38%

Ethnic groups

According to the 2010 Census, [9] ethnic Russians make up 65.1% of the republic's population, while the ethnic Komi make up 23.7%. Other groups include Ukrainians (4.2%), Tatars (1.3%), Belarusians (1%), Ethnic Germans (0.6%), Chuvash (0.6%), Azeris (0.6%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population.

Ethnic
group
1926 census
(1926 territory)1
1926 census
(present territory)
1939 census1959 census1970 census1979 census1989 census2002 census2010 census2
Number %Number %Number %Number %Number %Number %Number %Number %Number %
Komi 191,24592.2%195,40086.9%231,30172.5%245,07430.4%276,17828.6%280,79825.3%291,54223.3%256,46425.2%202,34823.7%
Russians 13,7316.6%28,30012.6%70,22622.0%389,99548.4%512,20353.1%629,52356.7%721,78057.7%607,02159.6%555,96365.1%
Ukrainians 340.0%2000.1%6,0101.9%80,1329.9%82,9558.6%94,1548.5%104,1708.3%62,1156.1%36,0824.2%
Nenets 2,0801.0%1,0000.4%5080.2%3740.0%3690.0%3660.0%3760.0%7080.1%
Tatars 330.0%7090.2%8,4591.0%11,9061.2%17,8361.6%25,9802.1%15,6801.5%10,7791.3%
Belarusians 110.0%3,3231.0%22,3392.8%24,7062.6%24,7632.2%26,7302.1%15,2121.5%8,8591.0%
Others1800.1%6,9192.2%59,8267.4%56,4855.9%62,9215.7%80,2696.4%61,4746.0%40,2724.7%
1The territory of the Komi AO was different from the Komi Republic.

2Excluding 46,886 people who were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group. [24]

Religion

Religion in Komi Republic as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas) [25] [26]
Russian Orthodoxy
30.2%
Other Orthodox
0.6%
Old Believers
0.6%
Other Christians
4.9%
Islam
0.9%
Rodnovery and other native faiths
0.9%
Spiritual but not religious
41%
Atheism and irreligion
14.5%
Other and undeclared
6.4%

According to a 2012 survey, [25] 30.2% of the population of Komi adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 4% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% are Rodnovers or Komi native religious believers, 1% are Muslims, 1% are Orthodox Christians not belonging to churches or members of non-Russian Orthodox churches, 1% are Old Believers, and 0.4% are members of the Catholic Church. In addition, 41% of the population declared to be "spiritual but not religious", 14% is atheist, and 6.4% follows other religions or failed to answer the question. [25]

Politics

The head of government in the Komi Republic is the Head of the Republic. As of 2021, the current Head is Vladimir Uyba who took office after his predecessor Sergey Gaplikov resigned.

The State Council is the legislature.

Economy

The Komi Republic's major industries include oil processing, timber, woodworking, natural gas and electric power industries. Major industrial centers are Syktyvkar, Inta, Pechora, Sosnogorsk, Ukhta, and Vorkuta.

Natural gas transportation and distribution is conducted by Komigaz.

Transportation

Railroad transportation is very well developed. The most important railroad line is KotlasVorkutaSalekhard, which is used to ship most goods in and out of the republic. The rivers Vychegda and Pechora are navigable. There are airports in Syktyvkar, Ukhta, and Vorkuta.

In 1997, total railroad trackage was 1,708 km, automobile roads 4,677 km.

Education

There are over 450 secondary schools in the republic (with ~180,000 students). The most important higher education facilities include Komi Republican Academy of State Service and Administration, Syktyvkar State University and Ukhta State Technical University.

Sports

Respublikansky Stadion in Syktyvkar. Stadion Syktyvkar.jpg
Respublikansky Stadion in Syktyvkar.

Stroitel plays again in the Russian Bandy Super League in the 2017–18 season, after several years in Russian Bandy Supreme League, the second highest division. In 2015 a bandy federation for the republic was founded. [27] In 2016 the authorities presented a five-year plan to develop bandy in the republic. There is an application in place to host the 2021 Bandy World Championship. [28]

See also

Related Research Articles

Vorkuta Town in Komi Republic, Russia

Vorkuta is a coal-mining town in the Komi Republic, Russia, situated just north of the Arctic Circle in the Pechora coal basin at the river Vorkuta. Population: 70,548 (2010 Census); 84,917 (2002 Census); 115,646 (1989 Census).

Ukhta Town in Komi Republic, Russia

Ukhta is an important industrial town in the Komi Republic of Russia. Population: 99,591 (2010 Census); 103,340 (2002 Census); 110,548 (1989 Census).

Pechora Town in Komi Republic, Russia

Pechora is a town in the Komi Republic, Russia, located on the Pechora River, west of and near the northern Ural Mountains. The area of the town is 28.9 square kilometres (11.2 sq mi). Population: 43,105 (2010 Census); 48,700 (2002 Census); 64,746 (1989 Census).

Vuktyl Town in Komi Republic, Russia

Vuktyl is a town in the Komi Republic, Russia, located on the right bank of the Pechora River near its confluence with the Vuktyl River, 575 kilometers (357 mi) northeast of Syktyvkar, the capital of the republic. Population: 12,356 (2010 Census); 14,472 (2002 Census); 19,330 (1989 Census).

Yemva Town in Komi Republic, Russia

Yemva is a town and the administrative center of Knyazhpogostsky District of the Komi Republic, Russia, located on the Vym River 130 kilometers (81 mi) northeast of Syktyvkar. Population: 14,570 (2010 Census); 16,739 (2002 Census); 18,782 (1989 Census).

Usinsk Town in Komi Republic, Russia

Usinsk is a town in the Komi Republic, Russia, located 757 kilometers (470 mi) east of the republic's capital city of Syktyvkar and 100 kilometers (62 mi) north of the town of Pechora, on the northern bank of the Usa River, 30 kilometers (19 mi) before its confluence with the Pechora River. Population: 40,827 (2010 Census); 45,358 (2002 Census); 47,219 (1989 Census).

Krasnozatonsky Urban-type settlement in Komi Republic, Russia

Krasnozatonsky is an urban locality under the administrative jurisdiction of the city of republic significance of Syktyvkar in the Komi Republic, Russia. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 8,603.

Sedkyrkeshch Urban-type settlement in Komi Republic, Russia

Sedkyrkeshch is an urban locality under the administrative jurisdiction of the city of republic significance of Syktyvkar in the Komi Republic, Russia. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 1,999.

Verkhnyaya Maksakovka Urban-type settlement in Komi Republic, Russia

Verkhnyaya Maksakovka is an urban locality under the administrative jurisdiction of the city of republic significance of Syktyvkar in the Komi Republic, Russia. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 4,198.

Izyayu Urban-type settlement in Komi Republic, Russia

Izyayu is an urban locality under the administrative jurisdiction of the town of republic significance of Pechora in the Komi Republic, Russia. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 1,323.

Puteyets Urban-type settlement in Komi Republic, Russia

Puteyets is an urban locality under the administrative jurisdiction of the town of republic significance of Pechora in the Komi Republic, Russia. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 1,116.

Borovoy, Komi Republic Urban-type settlement in Komi Republic, Russia

Borovoy is an urban locality under the administrative jurisdiction of the town of republic significance of Ukhta in the Komi Republic, Russia. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 1,560.

Shudayag Urban-type settlement in Komi Republic, Russia

Shudayag is an urban locality under the administrative jurisdiction of the town of republic significance of Ukhta in the Komi Republic, Russia. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 3,411.

Vodny, Komi Republic Urban-type settlement in Komi Republic, Russia

Vodny is an urban locality under the administrative jurisdiction of the town of republic significance of Ukhta in the Komi Republic, Russia. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 6,382.

Yarega Urban-type settlement in Komi Republic, Russia

Yarega is an urban locality under the administrative jurisdiction of the town of republic significance of Ukhta in the Komi Republic, Russia. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 7,806.

Komsomolsky, Komi Republic Urban-type settlement in Komi Republic, Russia

Komsomolsky is an urban locality under the administrative jurisdiction of the town of republic significance of Vorkuta in the Komi Republic, Russia. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 1,047.

Oktyabrsky, Komi Republic Urban-type settlement in Komi Republic, Russia

Oktyabrsky is an urban locality under the administrative jurisdiction of the town of republic significance of Vorkuta in the Komi Republic, Russia. It had no recorded population as of the 2010 Census.

Severny, Komi Republic Urban-type settlement in Komi Republic, Russia

Severny is an urban locality under the administrative jurisdiction of the town of republic significance of Vorkuta in the Komi Republic, Russia. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 9,023.

Yeletsky, Komi Republic Urban-type settlement in Komi Republic, Russia

Yeletsky is an urban locality under the administrative jurisdiction of the town of republic significance of Vorkuta in the Komi Republic, Russia. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 631.

Zapolyarny, Komi Republic Urban-type settlement in Komi Republic, Russia

Zapolyarny is an urban locality under the administrative jurisdiction of the town of republic significance of Vorkuta in the Komi Republic, Russia. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 1,948.

References

Notes

  1. Law #XII-20/5
  2. Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", No. 20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  3. Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  4. Komi ASSR. Administrative-Territorial Structure, p. 5
  5. Constitution of the Komi Republic, Article 69
  6. 1 2 Constitution, Article 8
  7. Official website of the Komi Republic. Sergey Gaplikov Archived June 9, 2010, at the Wayback Machine (in Russian)
  8. Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (May 21, 2004). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved November 1, 2011.
  9. 1 2 3 4 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  10. "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  11. "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  12. Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  13. Constitution of the Komi Republic, Article 67
  14. Komi
  15. Коми Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика. Great Soviet Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  16. Anne Applebaum, Gulag: A History (Random House, Inc., 2004: ISBN   1-4000-3409-4), pp. 78, 82.
  17. "Russia Signs Power-Sharing Treaty with Komi Republic". Jamestown. March 21, 1996. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  18. Chuman, Mizuki. "The Rise and Fall of Power-Sharing Treaties Between Center and Regions in Post-Soviet Russia" (PDF). Demokratizatsiya: 146.
  19. Walker, T. R., Crittenden, P. D., Dauvalter, V. A., Jones, V., Kuhry, P., Loskutova, O., ... & Pystina, T. (2009). Multiple indicators of human impacts on the environment in the Pechora Basin, north-eastern European Russia. Ecological Indicators, 9(4), 765-779. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2008.09.008
  20. Walker, T. R., Habeck, J. O., Karjalainen, T. P., Virtanen, T., Solovieva, N., Jones, V., ... & Patova, E. (2006). Perceived and measured levels of environmental pollution: interdisciplinary research in the subarctic lowlands of northeast European Russia. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 35(5), 220-228. https://doi.org/10.1579/06-A-127R.1
  21. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000](XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  22. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 via Demoscope Weekly.
  23. "База данных показателей муниципальных образований". www.gks.ru. Archived from the original on April 9, 2013.
  24. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 18, 2012. Retrieved January 15, 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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Sources

Further reading