Komsomolsk-on-Amur

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Komsomolsk-on-Amur

Комсомольск-на-Амуре
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Location of Komsomolsk-on-Amur
Komsomolsk-on-Amur
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Komsomolsk-on-Amur
Location of Komsomolsk-on-Amur
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Komsomolsk-on-Amur
Komsomolsk-on-Amur (Khabarovsk Krai)
Coordinates: 50°34′N137°00′E / 50.567°N 137.000°E / 50.567; 137.000 Coordinates: 50°34′N137°00′E / 50.567°N 137.000°E / 50.567; 137.000
Country Russia
Federal subject Khabarovsk Krai [1]
Founded1932
City status since1933
Government
  HeadAlexander Viktorovich Zhornik
Area
[2]
  Total325.10 km2 (125.52 sq mi)
Elevation
47 m (154 ft)
Population
  Total263,906
  Estimate 
(2018) [4]
248,254 (−5.9%)
  Rank 70th in 2010
  Density810/km2 (2,100/sq mi)
  Subordinated to city of krai significance of Komsomolsk-na-Amure [1]
   Capital ofcity of krai significance of Komsomolsk-na-Amure [5] , Komsomolsky District [6]
  Urban okrugKomsomolsk-na-Amure Urban Okrug [7]
   Capital ofKomsomolsk-na-Amure Urban Okrug [7] , Komsomolsky Municipal District [8]
Time zone UTC+10 (MSK+7   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg [9] )
Postal code(s) [10]
6810xx
Dialing code(s) +7 4217
OKTMO ID08709000001
Website www.kmscity.ru

Komsomolsk-on-Amur (Russian:Комсомольск-на-Амуре, tr. Komsomolsk-na-Amure,IPA:  [kəmsɐˈmolʲsk nɐɐˈmurʲə] ) is a city in Khabarovsk Krai, Russia, located on the west bank of the Amur River in the Russian Far East. It is located on the Baikal-Amur Mainline, 356 kilometers (221 mi) northeast of Khabarovsk. As of 2010, it had a population of 263,906(2010 Census); [3] 281,035(2002 Census); [11] 315,325(1989 Census). [12]

Contents

Geography

The city and its suburbs stretch for over 30 kilometers (19 mi) along the left bank of the Amur River. The river at this point is up to 2.5 kilometers (1.6 mi) wide.

The distance to Khabarovsk—the administrative center of the krai—is 356 kilometers (221 mi); to the Pacific Ocean—about 300 kilometers (190 mi). The nearest other major town is Amursk, about 45 kilometers (28 mi) south.

It is about 3,900 miles (6,300 km) east of Moscow, and lies at the eastern end of the BAM Railway.

History

A street in Komsomolsk-on-Amur Street Komsomoks on Amur1.JPG
A street in Komsomolsk-on-Amur

The future site of Komsomolsk-on-Amur was conquered by Mongols in the 13th century, becoming part of Mongol Empire under the Mongol Yuan Dynasty and later Manchus held until 1858 treaty of Aigun ceded the area to the Russian Empire.

The village of Permskoye (Пе́рмское) was established on the later site of Komsomolsk in 1860 by migrant peasants from what is now Perm Krai.

The government of the Russian SFSR announced in 1931 plans to construct a shipyard on the Amur at the present site of Komsomolsk, with construction beginning in 1932.[ citation needed ] The town was largely built using volunteer labor from the Communist youth organization Komsomol, thus receiving the name Komsomolsk. However, the construction of the town was aided with the use of penal labour from the prison camps situated in the area. [13] The suffix on Amur was added to differentiate from other towns with the same name. It was granted town status in 1933.[ citation needed ]

By the end of the 1940s, the shipyards along with facilities for other heavy industry had been completed. The city developed into a regional center for industries such as aircraft manufacturing, metallurgy, machinery, oil refining, and shipbuilding. At present, Komsomolsk-on-Amur is the main center for the manufacture of Sukhoi military aircraft and the Sukhoi Superjet airliner. [14] The MiG-15bis [15] and the Lisunov Li-2 [16] were both manufactured in Komsomolsk-on-Amur.

Administrative and municipal status

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Komsomolsk-on-Amur serves as the administrative center of Komsomolsky District, [6] even though it is not a part of it. [1] As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the city of krai significance of Komsomolsk-na-Amure—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. [1] As a municipal division, the city of krai significance of Komsomolsk-na-Amure is incorporated as Komsomolsk-na-Amure Urban Okrug. [7] The city is administratively divided into 2 okrugs (previously raion), coinciding with the historical parts: Leninsky (Dzemgi) and Central.

In the Soviet period, the administrative-territorial division of the city was different from the present. In accordance with the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR of 19 October 1943 were formed Lenin, Stalin and Central areas. Stalinsky district included the territory of Railway Amurstali and residential community.

Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR "On the Abolition of the city of Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Khabarovsk Krai" on August 7, 1957 in the district division was abolished, but the decree of March 31, 1972 the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the newly divided the city into two districts - Central and Leninsky.

Layout

"House with a spire" -unofficial symbol of Komsomolsk-on-Amur Neofitsial'nyi simvol Komsomol'ska-na-Amure schitaetsia <<dom so shpilem>>- 2014-01-06 19-54.jpg
"House with a spire" -unofficial symbol of Komsomolsk-on-Amur

Komsomolsk-on-Amur consists of two historical parts: the center, or "city", where the main enterprise - Shipyard, and the Dzemgi - an area that has formed during the construction of an aircraft factory (future KnAAPO). In fact, each of the parts is a separate town, itself a single center in the city.

Areas of the city are very different architectural appearance: Center Stalinist buildings dominated the 40-50s (exception - the residential area near the railway station), Dzemgi is built up mainly typical panel apartment blocks. The "sleeping" area Dzemgi is not, as the majority of their residents work in enterprises located here.

Climate

Komsomolsk-on-Amur has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb). Temperatures in the area of the city typically change by over 56 °C (100.8 °F) over the course of the year, with a daily average of −24.7 °C (−12.5 °F) in January, compared to +20.3 °C (68.5 °F) in July.

Climate data for Komsomolsk-on-Amur
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)0.7
(33.3)
0.0
(32.0)
13.6
(56.5)
23.9
(75.0)
31.0
(87.8)
33.2
(91.8)
36.2
(97.2)
38.0
(100.4)
30.0
(86.0)
20.5
(68.9)
8.3
(46.9)
1.0
(33.8)
38.0
(100.4)
Average high °C (°F)−19.6
(−3.3)
−13.9
(7.0)
−4.0
(24.8)
7.5
(45.5)
16.1
(61.0)
22.8
(73.0)
25.1
(77.2)
23.4
(74.1)
17.1
(62.8)
7.4
(45.3)
−6.4
(20.5)
−17.2
(1.0)
4.6
(40.3)
Daily mean °C (°F)−24.7
(−12.5)
−19.8
(−3.6)
−9.5
(14.9)
2.3
(36.1)
10.4
(50.7)
17.3
(63.1)
20.3
(68.5)
18.5
(65.3)
11.9
(53.4)
2.5
(36.5)
−10.5
(13.1)
−21.8
(−7.2)
−0.6
(30.9)
Average low °C (°F)−30.8
(−23.4)
−27.2
(−17.0)
−17.1
(1.2)
−3.4
(25.9)
3.7
(38.7)
10.8
(51.4)
15.2
(59.4)
13.5
(56.3)
6.4
(43.5)
−2.9
(26.8)
−16.1
(3.0)
−27.4
(−17.3)
−6.6
(20.1)
Record low °C (°F)−47.0
(−52.6)
−42.0
(−43.6)
−33.9
(−29.0)
−20.8
(−5.4)
−7.5
(18.5)
−2.2
(28.0)
0.0
(32.0)
−8.9
(16.0)
−6.0
(21.2)
−22.0
(−7.6)
−34.0
(−29.2)
−42.0
(−43.6)
−47.0
(−52.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches)30
(1.2)
19
(0.7)
30
(1.2)
43
(1.7)
63
(2.5)
65
(2.6)
95
(3.7)
110
(4.3)
74
(2.9)
62
(2.4)
49
(1.9)
32
(1.3)
672
(26.4)
Average precipitation days141213151513151414131615169
Average rainy days0017141315141481087
Average snowy days14121311300008151591
Source 1: climatebase.ru [17]
Source 2: Weatherbase [18]

Economy and infrastructure

Komsomolsk-on-Amur is an important industrial center of Khabarovsk Krai and of the Russian Far East. [19] It has a diversified economy where machine building, metallurgy and timber enterprises dominate. [20]

The city's most notable company is Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association, Russia's largest aircraft-manufacturing enterprise. It is among Khabarovsk Krai's most successful enterprises, and for years has been the largest taxpayer of the territory. [21] It has manufactured hundreds of civil aircraft and thousands of various-role military aircraft from the first recon aircraft to modern Su- series fighters and light amphibian aeroplanes. [22] The company is hugely important to the city's economy, contributing 45% of all payments into the local budget. [21]

Also based in the city is Amur Shipbuilding Plant, an important producer of ships and submarines. [23]

The easternmost GLONASS telemetry and tracking station is located in Komsomolsk-on-Amur.

Two air bases are located near the city, Khurba to the south and Dzemgi to the north.

Komsomolsk-on-Amur railway station is an important rail junction of Baikal-Amur Mainline and Komsomolsk-Dezhnyovka railway line.

The city is served by the Komsomolsk-on-Amur Airport

Public transport includes 5 tram routes, bus and fixed-taxi (marshrutka). However, since January 10, 2018 the tram has not been operated, due to 'poor road condition' on Mira Prospect. It has yet to reopen and it was speculated that the suspension of tram traffic might become permanent. [24]

The first sortie of the Sukhoi Su-57 prototype occurred at the Gagarin Factory. [25]

Twin towns – sister cities

Komsomolsk-on-Amur is twinned with: [26]

Notable residents

Alex Chubrevich Alex Chubrevich (2).JPG
Alex Chubrevich

See also

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References

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Resolution #143-pr
  2. "Результат запроса". www.gks.ru. Retrieved November 1, 2017.
  3. 1 2 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  4. http://habstat.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_ts/habstat/resources/4fcf3a80408ea6bca127eb4d45abe5e4/Численность+населения+Хабаровского+края+по+муниципальным+образованиям+на+1+января+2018+года.doc.
  5. Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 08 409», в ред. изменения №278/2015 от 1 января 2016 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division (OKATO). Code 08 409 , as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
  6. 1 2 Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 08 220», в ред. изменения №278/2015 от 1 января 2016 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division (OKATO). Code 08 220 , as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
  7. 1 2 3 Law #192
  8. Law #264
  9. "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  10. Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  11. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000](XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  12. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 via Demoscope Weekly.
  13. Aleksander Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago: 1918-1956, 592-593
  14. "Team.Aero - Sukhoi Rolls Out Superjet 100 in Aeroflot Livery". Team.Aero. Retrieved November 1, 2017.
  15. "What was the yearly number of MiG-15's produced?". aviation.stackexchange.com. Retrieved November 1, 2017.
  16. http://www.oldwings.nl/st/li2.pdf
  17. "climatebase.ru (1948-2011)" . Retrieved April 28, 2012.
  18. "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Russia". Weatherbase. 2012. Retrieved on November 24, 2011.
  19. Komsomolsk-on-Amur city Archived August 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  20. "Komsomolsk-on-Amur Regional Overview" . Retrieved November 1, 2017.
  21. 1 2 Pike, John. "KNAAPO Komsomolsk na Amure Aviation Industrial Association named after Gagarin - Russian". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved November 1, 2017.
  22. www.uacrussia.ru https://web.archive.org/web/20090131153815/http://www.uacrussia.ru/en/companies/index.php?id4=47. Archived from the original on January 31, 2009. Retrieved November 1, 2017.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  23. Sputnik. "Crew member 'tampered with temperature sensor on Nerpa sub'". en.rian.ru. Retrieved November 1, 2017.
  24. "Komsomolsk-on-Amur". transphoto.org. Retrieved May 20, 2021.
  25. "Sukhoi T-50 Prototype Flies For The First Time In 40 Minute Sortie" . Retrieved November 1, 2017.[ permanent dead link ]
  26. "Города-побратимы". kmscity.ru (in Russian). Komsomolsk-on-Amur. Retrieved February 4, 2020.

Sources