Konstantin Ghilian Karl d'Aspré

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Konstantin Ghilian Karl d'Aspré von Hoobreuk
Konstantin Ghilian Karl d'Aspre.jpg
Konstantin Ghilian Karl d'Aspré von Hoobreuk
Born27 December 1754 (1754-12-27)
Ghent, Austrian Netherlands, now Belgium
Died8 July 1809 (1809-07-09) (aged 54)
Mikulov (Nikolsburg), Habsburg Austria, now the Czech Republic
Allegiance Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor (after 1400).svg Habsburg Austria
Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg Austrian Empire
Rank Feldmarschall-Leutnant
Battles/wars Brabant Revolution
French Revolutionary Wars
Napoleonic Wars
Awards Military Order of Maria Theresa, KC 1790
Other work Inhaber Infantry Regiment Nr. 18

Konstantin Ghilian Karl d'Aspré von Hoobreuk (27 December 1754 [1] 8 July 1809), served in the army of Habsburg Austria during the French Revolutionary Wars. In the Napoleonic Wars, he made a mark in two major campaigns. In 1809, he was briefly Proprietor (Inhaber) of an infantry regiment and rose to command a division. His son Konstantin d'Aspré (1789–1850) also became an Austrian general.

French Revolutionary Wars series of conflicts fought between the French Republic and several European monarchies from 1792 to 1802

The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution. They pitted France against Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia and several other monarchies. They are divided in two periods: the War of the First Coalition (1792–97) and the War of the Second Coalition (1798–1802). Initially confined to Europe, the fighting gradually assumed a global dimension. After a decade of constant warfare and aggressive diplomacy, France had conquered a wide array of territories, from the Italian Peninsula and the Low Countries in Europe to the Louisiana Territory in North America. French success in these conflicts ensured the spread of revolutionary principles over much of Europe.

Napoleonic Wars Series of early 19th century European wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict. The wars are often categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon: the Third Coalition (1805), the Fourth (1806–07), the Fifth (1809), the Sixth (1813), and the Seventh (1815).


D'Aspré helped put down the Brabant Revolution of 1789 and 1790 in his native land, and won a coveted award. During the War of the First Coalition he was promoted to command a regiment. He played an important role in one clash during the 1805 campaign. In 1809, he led a brigade of grenadiers in the early battles and later was appointed to command a grenadier division. He was mortally wounded while leading his soldiers at the Battle of Wagram.

Brabant Revolution armed insurrection that occurred in the Austrian Netherlands

The Brabant Revolution or Brabantine Revolution, sometimes referred to as the Belgian Revolution of 1789–90 in older writing, was an armed insurrection that occurred in the Austrian Netherlands between October 1789 and December 1790. The revolution, which occurred at the same time as revolutions in France and Liège, led to the brief overthrow of Habsburg rule and the proclamation of a short-lived polity, the United Belgian States.

War of the First Coalition 1790s war to contain Revolutionary France

The War of the First Coalition is the traditional name of the wars that several European powers fought between 1792 and 1797 against the French First Republic. Despite the collective strength of these nations compared with France, they were not really allied and fought without much apparent coordination or agreement. Each power had its eye on a different part of France it wanted to appropriate after a French defeat, which never occurred.

Battle of Wagram battle

The Battle of Wagram was a military engagement of the Napoleonic Wars that ended in a costly but decisive victory for Emperor Napoleon I's French and allied army against the Austrian army under the command of Archduke Charles of Austria-Teschen. The battle led to the breakup of the Fifth Coalition, the Austrian and British-led alliance against France.

Early career

Born at Ghent in the Austrian Netherlands on 27 December 1754, d'Aspré made his career in the army. [2] A son, also named Konstantin, was born on 18 December 1789 in Brussels. [3] While a captain, the elder Konstantin performed with notable bravery in the Brabant Revolution and won the Knight's Cross of the Military Order of Maria Theresa on 19 December 1790. He fought during the War of the First Coalition, becoming Oberst in 1794. [2]

Ghent Municipality in Flemish Community, Belgium

Ghent is a city and a municipality in the Flemish Region of Belgium. It is the capital and largest city of the East Flanders province, and the second largest municipality in Belgium, after Antwerp. The city originally started as a settlement at the confluence of the Rivers Scheldt and Leie and in the Late Middle Ages became one of the largest and richest cities of northern Europe, with some 50,000 people in 1300. It is a port and university city.

Austrian Netherlands

The Austrian Netherlands was the larger part of the Southern Netherlands between 1714 and 1797. The period began with the Austrian acquisition of the former Spanish Netherlands under the Treaty of Rastatt in 1714 and lasted until Revolutionary France annexed the territory during the aftermath of the Battle of Sprimont in 1794 and the Peace of Basel in 1795. Austria, however, did not relinquish its claim over the province until 1797 in the Treaty of Campo Formio.

Brussels Capital region of Belgium

Brussels, officially the Brussels-Capital Region, is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the capital of Belgium. The Brussels-Capital Region is located in the central portion of the country and is a part of both the French Community of Belgium and the Flemish Community, but is separate from the Flemish Region and the Walloon Region. Brussels is the most densely populated and the richest region in Belgium in terms of GDP per capita. It covers 161 km2 (62 sq mi), a relatively small area compared to the two other regions, and has a population of 1.2 million. The metropolitan area of Brussels counts over 2.1 million people, which makes it the largest in Belgium. It is also part of a large conurbation extending towards Ghent, Antwerp, Leuven and Walloon Brabant, home to over 5 million people.

At the Battle of Verona on 26 April 1799, the d'Aspré Jäger Corps of 10 companies was assigned to the brigade of Anton von Elsnitz in Konrad Valentin von Kaim's division. [4] The Jäger Corps also fought at the Battle of Magnano on 6 April. [5] D'Aspré was promoted General-major on 6 February 1800. [2] He served under Peter Karl Ott von Bátorkéz in the operations leading up to the Siege of Genoa. [6] Like other émigré officers, D'Aspré had an aggressive outlook. In one action, his fellow general Friedrich Heinrich von Gottesheim chided him for being so impatient. Gottesheim asked what good could be done by cavalry across the rough ground between them and the French and d'Aspré replied, "Beat them". [7] On 7 April 1800, Nicolas Soult and 5,000 French soldiers launched a surprise attack on Monte Fascio. The French assault mauled Ott's division, forcing the 2nd Battalion of the Archduke Joseph Infantry Regiment Nr. 63 to surrender. For a loss of only 200 killed and wounded, Soult's men inflicted losses of 54 killed, 178 wounded, and 1,400 captured on the Austrians. D'Aspré was made a prisoner during the encounter. [6]

Battle of Verona (1799) 1799

Battle of Verona on 26 March 1799 saw a Habsburg Austrian army under Pál Kray fight a First French Republic army led by Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer. The battle encompassed three separate combats on the same day. At Verona, the two sides battled to a bloody draw. At Pastrengo to the west of Verona, French forces prevailed over their Austrian opponents. At Legnago to the southeast of Verona, the Austrians defeated their French adversaries. The battle was fought during the War of the Second Coalition, part of the French Revolutionary Wars. Verona is a city on the Adige River in northern Italy.

Franz Anton Freiherr von Elsnitz was an Austrian cavalry soldier and commander during the War of the Bavarian Succession, Austro-Turkish War (1787–91), and French Revolutionary Wars.

Johann Konrad Valentin Ritter von Kaim was a French soldier and Austrian infantry commander during the French Revolutionary Wars. He was born in Gengenbach and died in Udine.

Napoleonic Wars


D'Aspré received a command in the army of Archduke Ferdinand Karl Joseph of Austria-Este and Karl Mack von Lieberich at the beginning of the War of the Third Coalition. He led a brigade-sized unit of three and one-half infantry battalions and six cavalry squadrons. [8] When the army of Emperor Napoleon I of France reached the Danube on 6 October, Mack realized that his army was in danger of being cut off from Vienna. At that time, he made the questionable decision to assemble the corps of Franz Jellacic, Franz von Werneck, and Karl Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg near Ulm, renouncing any idea of retreating south to the Tyrol. [9] On 8 October, he issued orders for his army to concentrate at Günzburg downstream from Ulm. He hoped to put his troops in a position to sever Napoleon's supply line back to France. At this time, Napoleon was only vaguely aware of the Austrian army's position. [10]

Archduke Ferdinand Karl Joseph of Austria-Este Austrian archduke

Archduke Ferdinand Karl Joseph of Austria-Este was the third son of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este and of his wife Princess Maria Beatrice Ricciarda d'Este, last member and heiress of the House of Este. For much of the Napoleonic Wars he was in command of the Austrian army.

War of the Third Coalition war

The War of the Third Coalition was a European conflict spanning the years 1803 to 1806. During the war, France and its client states under Napoleon I defeated an alliance, the Third Coalition, made up of the Holy Roman Empire, Russia, Britain and others.

Danube River in Central Europe

The Danube is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga. It is located in Central and Eastern Europe.

Battle of Gunzburg, 9 October 1805, where d'Aspre was captured Battle of Gunzburg 1805 Campaign Map.JPG
Battle of Gunzburg, 9 October 1805, where d'Aspré was captured

On 8 October, Marshals Joachim Murat and Jean Lannes encountered Franz Xavier Auffenberg's division at the Battle of Wertingen. The French crushed the outnumbered Austrians and drove the survivors west to Günzburg. [11] The next day, Mack and Ferdinand drew up their troops facing east on the south bank of the Danube near Günzburg. Mack deployed d'Aspré and a light force that included Tyrolean Jägers to hold and scout the north bank. Unknown to Mack, Marshal Michel Ney sent one of his divisions to seize the Günzburg bridges from the north that morning. [12]

Joachim Murat Grand Duke of Berg and Cleves, The King of Naples

Joachim-Napoléon Murat was a Marshal of France and Admiral of France under the reign of Napoleon. He was also the 1st Prince Murat, Grand Duke of Berg from 1806 to 1808, and King of Naples from 1808 to 1815. Murat received his titles in part by being Napoleon's brother-in-law through marriage to his younger sister, Caroline Bonaparte, as well as personal merit. He was noted as a daring, brave, and charismatic cavalry officer as well as a flamboyant dresser, for which he was known as "the Dandy King".

Jean Lannes Marshall Of France

Jean Lannes, 1st Duc de Montebello, Prince de Siewierz, was a Marshal of the Empire. He was one of Napoleon's most daring and talented generals. Napoleon once commented on Lannes: "I found him a pygmy and left him a giant". A personal friend of the emperor, he was allowed to address him with the familiar "tu", as opposed to the formal "vous".

Battle of Wertingen

In the Battle of Wertingen Imperial French forces led by Marshals Joachim Murat and Jean Lannes attacked a small Austrian corps commanded by Feldmarschall-Leutnant Franz Xaver von Auffenberg. This action, the first battle of the Ulm Campaign, resulted in a clear French victory. Wertingen lies 28 kilometres (17 mi) northwest of Augsburg. The combat was fought during the War of the Third Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars.

Jean-Pierre Firmin Malher formed his 3rd Division of the VI Corps into three columns and marched south on 9 October. The western column blundered into a marsh, while the eastern column was badly delayed. The centre column marched straight for Günzburg and collided with d'Aspré's troops. As soon as the soldiers in Günzburg heard the firing, they immediately destroyed the bridges. Unfortunately, this left d'Aspré with the French in front of him and an unbridged river behind him. He surrendered with 200 Jägers and two cannons. [12]

Warned by d'Aspré's scouting force, the Archduke Charles Infantry Regiment Nr. 3 and 20 cannons mounted a vigorous defence, bringing Mahler's attack to an abrupt halt at the river bank. At this point, Mack ordered Ignaz Gyulai to rebuild the bridge on the east side of town and cross to the north bank. Mack still dreamed of crossing the Danube and advancing on Giengen and Nördlingen. No sooner did Gyulai have the bridge ready, when the tardy western column appeared and captured the span, winning the battle for the French. [13]

Mack later claimed that d'Aspré failed to report his contact with the French, though this may be an attempt at self-justification. [14] Ney interrogated his prisoner d'Aspré and reported to Napoleon that the Austrian army was falling back to Biberach an der Riß. This was not true, but it is not clear whether d'Aspré deliberately misled his captor or if he was only guessing what Mack's intentions were. [15] The campaign ended in disaster for Austria when Mack capitulated with 25,000 troops at Ulm on 20 October, Werneck surrendered his remaining 6,000 men on 18 October, and the 4,600-strong garrison of Memmingen also ran up the white flag. A total of almost 50,000 Austrians became prisoners in the fighting. [16]


Battle of Landshut, 21 April 1809. Painting by Louis Hersent. Louis Hersent-Crossing the bridge at Landshut.jpg
Battle of Landshut, 21 April 1809. Painting by Louis Hersent.

At the start of the War of the Fifth Coalition, d'Aspré led a brigade in Michael von Kienmayer's small II Reserve Armeekorps consisting of the Puteani, Brezeczinsky, Scovaud, Kirchenbetter, and Scharlach grenadier battalions, plus a battery of eight 6-pounder cannons. [17] In the Battle of Abensberg on 20 April 1809, Archduke Louis of Austria tried unsuccessfully to defend the line of the Abens River. During the morning, Louis called up Kienmayer's corps from Ludmannsdorf to support Joseph Radetzky von Radetz's left flank brigade near Siegenburg. [18] During the afternoon, d'Aspré's grenadiers supported Radetzky as he fell back toward Pfeffenhausen. [19] At 11:00 PM that night, Bavarian pursuers aggressively crossed the Große Laber stream and attacked. Radetzky borrowed one of d'Aspré's grenadier battalions and held the Hornbach hill south of Pfeffenhausen until the early morning hours. [20]

Michael von Kienmayer Michael von Kienmayer.jpg
Michael von Kienmayer

On 21 April, Napoleon attacked Johann von Hiller in the Battle of Landshut but the Austrians managed to avoid being trapped. [21] However, Hiller's left wing lost an estimated 9,000 casualties during the day. Three of d'Aspré's grenadier battalions formed the Austrian rear guard as they retreated to Neumarkt-Sankt Veit. [22] D'Aspre was present at the Battle of Neumarkt-Sankt Veit on 24 April, when Hiller lashed out at his Bavarian and French pursuers. [23] Kienmayer's force retreated through Braunau am Inn on 26 April. [24] D'Aspré missed the hard-fought Battle of Ebelsberg on 3 May. Hiller unwisely sent Kienmayer's troops to Asten, even as the French were in the process of driving in his rear guards. [25] Nevertheless, d'Aspré's promotion to Feldmarschall-Leutnant came through the next day. [2]

Prince Johann Liechtenstein Johann Josef I von Liechtenstein.jpg
Prince Johann Liechtenstein

On 8 May, most of Hiller's wing, including Kienmayer's corps, crossed to the north bank of the Danube at Mautern an der Donau. [26] Within a short time, d'Aspré's grenadiers crossed to the south bank again to assist in Archduke Maximilian of Austria-Este's short-lived defence of Vienna. Other defending forces were landwehr under Andreas O'Reilly von Ballinlough, a division led by Josef von Dedovich, and a brigade co-commanded by Armand von Nordmann and Joseph, Baron von Mesko de Felsö-Kubiny. [27] At 3:00 AM on 12 April, d'Aspré led his five battalions in an attack on the French positions at the Lusthaus on Prater Island. The attack was repulsed by the defenders, but its real purpose was to cover the Austrian retreat to the north bank of the Danube, which was successfully carried out. [28]

In mid-May, Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen merged the II Reserve Armeekorps into the I Reserve Armeekorps under the leadership of Johann I Joseph, Prince of Liechtenstein. [29] In the new organization, d'Aspré and Johann Nepomuk von Prochaska became the two infantry division commanders. D'Aspré's division comprised the five battalions from his former brigade plus the Bissingen, Oklopsin, and Mayblümel grenadier battalions. The 5,362 elite infantry were divided into two 4-battalion brigades under Franz Mauroy de Merville and Anton von Hammer, and included a brigade battery of six 6-pounder cannons. [30]

Merville's grenadier brigade of d'Aspre's division storms Essling. Painting by Felician Myrbach. Myrbach-Austrian grenadiers at Essling.jpg
Merville's grenadier brigade of d'Aspré's division storms Essling. Painting by Felician Myrbach.

On 21 May, the first day of the Battle of Aspern-Essling, the grenadier reserve was not committed to combat. [31] The next day, Napoleon tried to break out of the narrow bridgehead by sending Marshal Jean Lannes with three divisions to assault the weak Austrian centre. In the crisis, Archduke Charles moved d'Aspré's and Prochaska's grenadier divisions (under Kienmayer) to block Lannes. [32] When the troops showed unsteadiness, Charles personally waved the colours of the grenadiers of the Zach Infantry Regiment Nr. 15 to rally his troops. This greatly heartened the defenders, and the French assault was defeated when reinforcements arrived from the right and left flanks. [33] In the afternoon, Charles ordered Merville's brigade from d'Aspré's division to attack Essling, which had held out against repeated assaults. The grenadiers routed the French from the village, except for the fortress-like granary which held out. Later, five battalions of the Imperial Guard recaptured Essling. [34]

On 24 May, the emperor appointed d'Aspré Proprietor (Inhaber) of the Infantry Regiment Nr. 18. Unfortunately, the general was not destined to enjoy this honour for very long. [2] D'Aspré's division maintained the same organization for the Battle of Wagram on 5 and 6 July, except that the Mayblümel battalion was renamed Locher. Also, two 6-pounder and one 3-pounder brigade batteries were attached, with a total strength of 24 cannons. [35] On the night of the 4th, Napoleon launched a massive amphibious assault from Lobau Island to the north bank of the Danube, forcing back the Austrian VI Armeekorps and Advance Guard. [36] At 6:00 PM that afternoon, Napoleon sent Nicolas Oudinot's II Corps, Eugène de Beauharnais' Army of Italy, and Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte's IX Saxon Corps to break Archduke Charles' line near Wagram. After initially being driven back, the Austrian I and II Armeekorps counterattacked and routed the Franco-Allied forces. [37]

D'Aspre was mortally wounded at the Battle of Wagram. Painting by Carle Vernet. Napoleon.Wagram.jpg
D'Aspré was mortally wounded at the Battle of Wagram. Painting by Carle Vernet.

For the 6th, Archduke Charles planned to envelop both of Napoleon's flanks. At 4:00 AM, Prince Franz Seraph of Rosenberg-Orsini's IV Armeekorps and Nordmann's Advance Guard attacked the French right flank. Meanwhile, Johann von Klenau's VI Armeekorps and Johann Kollowrat's III Armeekorps marched against the French left. Charles intended for Liechtenstein's I Reserve, Heinrich, Count of Bellegarde's I Armeekorps, and Prince Friedrich Franz Xaver of Hohenzollern-Hechingen's II Armeekorps to support the attack of the right wing. Napoleon planned for Louis Davout's III Corps to crush Rosenberg's left flank and roll up the Austrian line. [38]

Rosenberg's early morning attack quickly failed against Davout's defences. Believing his position in the centre badly exposed, Bernadotte defied his orders and evacuated Aderklaa, a village located southwest of Wagram. After Bellegarde occupied the village, a furious Napoleon ordered its immediate recapture by Bernadotte's Saxons and André Masséna's IV Corps. The Saxons ran into an intense artillery barrage and ran away, but Claude Carra Saint-Cyr's division retook Aderklaa. [39] On the Austrian side, Charles was compelled to send in the two grenadier divisions to support Bellegarde's troops in the see-saw contest for Aderklaa. [40] The Austrians managed to recapture Aderklaa, but Gabriel Jean Joseph Molitor's division soon counterattacked. After brutal fighting, Molitor was forced to leave the village in Austrian hands. [41]

Early in the afternoon, Napoleon ordered Jacques MacDonald's 8,000 men to attack the Austrian centre. Forming his three weak divisions into a hollow square, MacDonald led his soldiers forward at the boundary between the Austrian Reserve and III Armeekorps. The French smashed into their adversaries' front, but the Austrian formations on the flanks held firm, preventing a breakthrough. [42] Seeing MacDonald's attack stall, Napoleon sent his reserves to help. In order to halt the French attack, one Austrian grenadier brigade had wheeled to face the northern side of the square. The reinforcements took the brigade in flank and drove it back in confusion to Aderklaa, where it attempted to hold out. D'Aspré tried to rally his men but suffered a fatal wound. After the fall of their leader, his men abandoned the position. [43] When the army retreated north after the battle, the stricken general was taken along and he died on 8 July at Mikulov (Nikolsburg) in what is now the Czech Republic. [2] He was one of four Austrian generals killed or mortally wounded at Wagram. The others were Josef Philipp Vukassovich, Peter von Vécsey, and Nordmann. [44]

Like his father, his son Konstantin went on to become an Austrian general, fighting at the Battle of Novara in 1849 and dying in 1850. [3]


  1. Some sources list his birth date in 1754, (as the date of his baptism) and others in 1767. See (in German) Constantin Wurzbach, "Konstantin Ghilian Karl d'Aspre von Hoobreuk", in Biographisches Lexicon des Kaisertums Oesterreich, Vienna, 1856, B:1 S:77 or "Konstantin Ghilian Karl d'Aspre von Hoobreuk", (in German)Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Munchen/Leipzig, Duncker & Humblot, 18751912, Band 1 (1875), S. 620–621.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Smith, Digby & Kudrna, Leopold (compiler). napoleon-series.org Austrian Generals 1792-1815: Konstantin D'Aspré von Hoobreuk
  3. 1 2 Wurzbach, Constantin von. "D'Aspre Constantin II Freiherr". Osterreichisches Biographisches Lexikon 1850-1950. Wien, 1957. 170
  4. Smith, Digby. The Napoleonic Wars Data Book. London: Greenhill, 1998. ISBN   1-85367-276-9. 149
  5. Smith, 151
  6. 1 2 Smith, 179
  7. Arnold, James R. Marengo & Hohenlinden. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK: Pen & Sword, 2005. ISBN   1-84415-279-0
  8. Ebert, Jens-Florian. napoleon-online.de Österreichische Generalität 1792-1815, Aspre
  9. Kagan, 392
  10. Kagan, 400
  11. Kagan, 402-404
  12. 1 2 Kagan, 406-408
  13. Kagan, 408-409
  14. Kagan, 409
  15. Kagan, 212
  16. Kagan, 440
  17. Bowden, Scotty & Tarbox, Charlie. Armies on the Danube 1809. Arlington, Texas: Empire Games Press, 1980. 72
  18. Arnold, James R. Crisis on the Danube. New York: Paragon House, 1990. ISBN   1-55778-137-0. 107-108
  19. Arnold Crisis, 116
  20. Arnold Crisis, 137
  21. Epstein, 68
  22. Petre, F. Loraine. Napoleon and the Archduke Charles. New York: Hippocrene Books, (1909) 1976. 153
  23. Petre, 218-219
  24. Petre, 220
  25. Petre, 234
  26. Petre, 251
  27. Petre, 254
  28. Petre, 256
  29. Petre, 264
  30. Bowden & Tarbox, 91
  31. Petre, 286
  32. Epstein, Robert M. Napoleon's Last Victory and the Emergence of Modern War. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1994. 113
  33. Petre 290
  34. Bowden & Tarbox, 79
  35. Bowden & Tarbox, 166
  36. Epstein, 150-151
  37. Epstein, 153-154
  38. Epstein, 156
  39. Petre, 367
  40. Epstein, 157
  41. Petre, 368-369
  42. Arnold, James R. Napoleon Conquers Austria. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers, 1995. ISBN   0-275-94694-0. 156-157
  43. Arnold Napoleon, 163
  44. Petre, 379

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Franz Freiherr von Werneck, born 13 October 1748 – died 17 January 1806, enlisted in the army of Habsburg Austria and fought in the Austro-Turkish War, the French Revolutionary Wars, and the Napoleonic Wars. He enjoyed a distinguished career until 1797, when he lost a battle and was dismissed as punishment. He was only reinstated in 1805. In that year he surrendered his command and was later brought up on charges. He died while awaiting a court-martial.

Battle of Neumarkt-Sankt Veit

The Battle of Neumarkt-Sankt Veit on 24 April 1809 saw a Franco-Bavarian force led by Marshal Jean-Baptiste Bessières face an Austrian Empire army commanded by Johann von Hiller. Hiller's numerically superior force won a victory over the Allied troops, forcing Bessières to retreat to the west. Neumarkt-Sankt Veit is located ten kilometers north of Mühldorf and 33 kilometers southeast of Landshut in Bavaria.

Joseph-Armand Ritter von Nordmann, was a French officer in the French Royal Army. He transferred his allegiance to Habsburg Austria during the French Revolution, like other French émigrés. In Austrian service he fought capably against his former country during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.

The Battle of Günzburg on 9 October 1805 saw General of Division Jean-Pierre Firmin Malher's French division attempt to seize a crossing over the Danube River at Günzburg in the face of a Habsburg Austrian army led by Feldmarschall-Leutnant Karl Mack von Lieberich. Malher's division managed to capture a bridge and hold it against Austrian counterattacks. The battle occurred during the War of the Third Coalition, part of the larger Napoleonic Wars.

Jean-Pierre Firmin Malher French general

Jean-Pierre Firmin Malher joined the army of the First French Republic and fought in the French Revolutionary Wars. During the Napoleonic Wars he rose in rank to command a division. He was accidentally killed in 1808 while on campaign in Spain. His surname is one of the Names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe.

Peter von Vécsey Austrian-Hungarian general

Peter, Freiherr von Vécsey or Peter Vécsey de Hernádvécse et Hajnácskeő was an Imperial Austrian military commander of Hungarian descent who took part in the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars. As a Freiherr (Baron), he was a member of the Austrian landless nobility. He make his mark while leading cavalry units and advanced in rank to become a general officer in 1808. He led an independent brigade during part of the 1809 campaign, and was mortally wounded while leading his troops in battle.

Karl Daniel Gottfried Wilhelm von Stutterheim, born 6 August 1770 – died 13 December 1811, served in the Prussian and Saxon armies during the French Revolutionary Wars, leaving the latter service in 1798. He spent most of his career in the army of Habsburg Austria and the Austrian Empire. He commanded a brigade in combat against the First French Empire during the 1805 and 1809 wars. In the latter conflict, he led his troops with dash and competence. He authored two histories about the wars; the second work remained unfinished due to his suicide in 1811.

Alois Graf von Gavasini led a combat brigade in the armies of Habsburg Austria and the Austrian Empire during a remarkable number of battles in the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars. A native of Bonn, he offered his services to Austria and won an award for bravery in 1790. While a field officer in the Italian campaign, he led the rear guard at Primolano in September 1796. Badly outnumbered by the French, he and his soldiers put up a vigorous fight until he was wounded and captured. At Arcole in November 1796, he commanded a brigade on the field of battle against Napoleon Bonaparte's French army. Promoted to general officer in the spring of 1800, he led a powerful brigade at Hohenlinden during that year's fall campaign in Bavaria. Though the battle ended in a decisive defeat, Gavasini's troops fought well before being forced to retreat. The 1805 campaign in Italy found him directing a reserve brigade at Caldiero. After briefly retiring, the warrior returned to lead a brigade at the battles of Sacile, Piave River, and Graz during the 1809 war. That year he retired from the army and did not return.

The Battle of Linz-Urfahr on 17 May 1809 saw soldiers from the Austrian Empire fighting against troops from two of Emperor Napoleon's allies, the Kingdom of Württemberg and the Kingdom of Saxony. An Austrian corps led by Feldzeugmeister Johann Kollowrat attacked General of Division Dominique Vandamme's Württembergers who held a fortified bridgehead on the north bank of the Danube opposite the city of Linz. As the combat got underway, Saxons led by Marshal Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte began reinforcing the defenders. This prompted Kollowrat to order a retreat, which was followed up by Napoleon's German allies.

Battle of Caldiero (1809)

In the Battle of Caldiero or Battle of Soave or Battle of Castelcerino from 27 to 30 April 1809, an Austrian army led by Archduke John of Austria defended against a Franco-Italian army headed by Eugène de Beauharnais, the Viceroy of the Kingdom of Italy. The outnumbered Austrians successfully fended off the attacks of their enemies in actions at San Bonifacio, Soave, and Castelcerino before retreating to the east. The clash occurred during the War of the Fifth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars.


Military offices
Preceded by
Patrick Stuart
Proprietor (Inhaber) of Infantry Regiment Nr 18
Succeeded by
Prince Heinrich XIII of Reuss-Greiz