Top:Koper viewed from Žusterna, Middle: Port of Koper (left), Assumption Cathedral (right), Bottom: Praetorian Palace (left), Loggia Palace (right)
|Traditional region||Slovene Littoral|
|Municipality||City Municipality of Koper|
|• Mayor||Aleš Bržan (LAB)|
|• Total||13.0 km2 (5.0 sq mi)|
|Elevation||3 m (10 ft)|
|• Density||2,000/km2 (5,100/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+01 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+02 (CEST)|
|Area code(s)||+386 (0)5|
Koper (Slovene pronunciation: [ˈkoːpəɾ] ( listen ); Italian : Capodistria, Croatian : Kopar) is the fifth largest city in Slovenia. Located in the Istrian region in southwestern part of the country, approximately five kilometres (3.1 miles) south of the border with Italy and 20 kilometres (12 miles) from Trieste, Koper is the largest coastal city in the country. It is bordered by the satellite towns of Izola and Ankaran. With a unique ecology and biodiversity, it is considered an important natural resource. The city's Port of Koper is the major contributor to the economy of the Municipality of Koper. With only one percent of Slovenia having a coastline, the influence that the Port of Koper also has on tourism was a factor in Ankaran deciding to leave the municipality in a referendum in 2011 to establish its own. The city is a destination for a number of Mediterranean cruising lines. Koper is the main urban centre of the Slovenian Istria, with a population of about 25,000. Ales Brzan is the current mayor, serving since 2018.
The city of Koper is officially bilingual, with both Slovene and Italian as its official languages. Sights in Koper include the 15th-century Praetorian Palace and Loggia in Venetian Gothic style, the 12th-century Carmine Rotunda church, and St. Nazarius' Cathedral, with its 14th-century tower. In terms of sports, local football club NK Koper managed to win the Slovenian First League once.
Koper is also one of the main road entry points into Slovenia from Italy, which lies to the north of the municipality. The main motorway crossing is at Spodnje Škofije to the north of the city of Koper. The motorway continues into Rabuiese and Trieste. Koper also has a rail connection with the capital city, Ljubljana. On the coast, there is a crossing at Lazaret into Lazaretto in Muggia municipality in Trieste province. The Italian border crossing is known as San Bartolomeo.
The Italian name of the city was anciently written as Capo d'Istria, : Kopar, Serbian : Копар, romanized: Kopar, German : Gafers. The Slavic-speaking Slovene population calls the city "Koper." The Slavic-speaking population, present in the area since at least the late 7th century, largely relied on oral tradition up to the invention of printing. The Slovenian name Koper was first attested in writing in 1557, but with the spelling Copper.and as such reported on maps and sources in other European languages. Modern names of the city include: Croatian
Koper began as a settlement built on an island in the southeastern part of the Gulf of Koper in the northern Adriatic. Called Insula Caprea (Goat Island) or Capro by Roman settlers, it developed into the city of Aegida,which was mentioned by the Roman author Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia (Natural History) (iii. 19. s. 23).
In 568, Roman citizens of nearby Tergeste (modern Trieste) fled to Aegida due to an invasion of the Lombards. In honour of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian II, the town was renamed Justinopolis.Later, Justinopolis was under both Lombard and Frankish rule and was briefly occupied by Avars in the 8th century.
Since at least the 8th century (and possibly as early as the 6th century) Koper was the seat of a diocese. One of Koper's bishops was the Lutheran reformer Pier Paolo Vergerio. In 1828, it was merged into the Diocese of Trieste.
Trade between Koper and Venice has been recorded since 932. In the war between Venice and the Holy Roman Empire, Koper was on the latter side, and as a result was awarded with town rights, granted in 1035 by Emperor Conrad II. After 1232, Koper was under the Patriarch of Aquileia, and in 1278 it joined the Republic of Venice. It was at this time that the city walls and towers were partly demolished.
In 1420, the Patriarch of Aquileia ceded his remaining possessions in Istria to the Republic, consolidating Venetian power in Koper.
Koper grew to become the capital of Venetian Istria and was renamed Caput Histriae 'head of Istria' (from which stems its modern Italian name, Capodistria).
The 16th century saw the population of Koper fall drastically, from its high of between 10,000 and 12,000 inhabitants, due to repeated plague epidemics.When Trieste became a free port in 1719, Koper lost its monopoly on trade, and its importance diminished further.
According to the 1900 census, 7,205 Italian, 391 Slovenian, 167 Croatian, and 67 German inhabitants lived in Koper.
Assigned to Italy after World War I, at the end of World War II it was part of the Zone B of the Free Territory of Trieste, controlled by Yugoslavia. Most of the Italian inhabitants left the city by 1954, when the Free Territory of Trieste formally ceased to exist and Zone B became part of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In 1977, the Roman Catholic Diocese of Koper was separated from the Diocese of Trieste.
With Slovenian independence in 1991, Koper became the only commercial port in Slovenia. The University of Primorska is based in the city.
Koper's 15th-century Praetorian Palace is located on the city square. It was built from two older 13th-century houses that were connected by a loggia, rebuilt many times, and then finished as a Venetian Gothic palace. Today, it is home to the city of Koper's tourist office.
The city's Cathedral of the Assumption was built in the second half of the 12th century and has one of the oldest bells in Slovenia (from 1333), cast by Nicolò and Martino, the sons of Master Giacomo of Venice.The upper terrace is periodically open and offers a great view of the Bay of Trieste. In the middle of it hangs the Sacra Conversatione painting from 1516, one of the best Renaissance paintings in Slovenia, made by Vittore Carpaccio.
Koper has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa). There is an adequate amount of rainfall in Koper, even in the driest month. This climate is considered to be Cfa according to the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. The average temperature in Koper is 14.4 °C (57.9 °F). The average annual rainfall is 1,056 millimetres (42 in).
|Climate data for Koper|
|Average high °C (°F)||7.8|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||5.6|
|Average low °C (°F)||3.5|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||75|
Italian was once the main language in the town, spoken by 92% of the population in 1900, but this number decreased sharply after Slovenian Istria was incorporated into Yugoslavia in 1954 and many ethnic Italians left the town. Today, Italian is mainly used as a second language by the Slovene-speaking majority.
First established during the Roman Empire, the Port of Koper has played an important role in the development of the area. It is among the largest in the region and is one of the most important transit routes for goods heading from Asia to central Europe. In contrast with other European ports, which are managed by port authorities, the activities of the Port of Koper comprise the management of the free zone area, the management of the port area, and the role of terminal operator.
Koper is twinned with:
Istria, formerly Histria (Latin), Ίστρια, is the largest peninsula within the Adriatic Sea. The peninsula is located at the head of the Adriatic between the Gulf of Trieste and the Kvarner Gulf. It is shared by three countries: Croatia, Slovenia, and Italy. Croatia encapsulates most of the Istrian peninsula with its Istria County.
Izola is an old fishing town in southwestern Slovenia on the Adriatic coast of the Istrian peninsula. It is the seat of the Municipality of Izola. Its name originates from Italian Isola, which means 'island'.
Piran is a town in southwestern Slovenia on the Gulf of Piran on the Adriatic Sea. It is one of the three major towns of Slovenian Istria. The town is known for its medieval architecture, with narrow streets and compact houses. Piran is the administrative seat of the Municipality of Piran and one of Slovenia's major tourist attractions. Until the mid-20th century, Italian was the dominant language, but it was replaced by Slovene as demographics shifted.
PierPaolo Vergerio, the Younger, was an Italian Protestant reformer. Although at first opposed to Primož Trubar, the consolidator of the Slovene language, he later supported him and was his mentor for some time. He also contributed to the development of Croatian literature.
The Province of Trieste was a province in the autonomous Friuli-Venezia Giulia region of Italy. Its capital was the city of Trieste. It had an area of 212 square kilometres (82 sq mi) and it had a total population of 234,668. It had a coastal length of 48.1 kilometres (29.9 mi).
Venezia Giulia, traditionally called Julian March or Julian Venetia is an area of southeastern Europe which is currently divided among Croatia, Italy and Slovenia. The term was coined in 1863 by the Italian linguist Graziadio Isaia Ascoli, a native of the area, to demonstrate that the Austrian Littoral, Veneto, Friuli and Trentino shared a common Italian linguistic identity. Ascoli emphasized the Augustan partition of Roman Italy at the beginning of the Empire, when Venetia et Histria was Regio X.
The Austrian Littoral was a crown land (Kronland) of the Austrian Empire, established in 1849. It consisted of three regions: the Istria peninsula, Gorizia and Gradisca, and the Imperial Free City of Trieste. Throughout history, the region has been frequently contested, with parts of it controlled at various times by the Republic of Venice, Austria-Hungary, Italy, and Yugoslavia among others.
Muggia is an Italian town and comune in the extreme south-east of the Province of Trieste in the region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia on the border with Slovenia. Lying on the eastern flank of the Gulf of Trieste in the northern Adriatic Sea, Muggia is the only Italian port town in Istria. The town's architecture is marked by its Venetian and Austrian history, and its harbour hosts a modern 500-berth marina for yachts.
San Dorligo della Valle is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Trieste in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, located about 4 kilometres southeast of Trieste, on the border with Slovenia. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 6,019 and an area of 24.5 square kilometres (9.5 sq mi). According to the 1971 census, 70.5% of the population are ethnic Slovenes, while the rest are mostly Italians.
The Slovene lands or Slovenian lands is the historical denomination for the territories in Central and Southern Europe where people primarily spoke Slovene. The Slovene lands were part of the Illyrian provinces, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary. They encompassed Carniola, southern part of Carinthia, southern part of Styria, Istria, Gorizia and Gradisca, Trieste, and Prekmurje. Their territory more or less corresponds to modern Slovenia and the adjacent territories in Italy, Austria, Hungary, and Croatia, where autochthonous Slovene minorities live. In the areas where present-day Slovenia borders to neighboring countries, they were never homogeneously ethnically Slovene.
Ankaran is a town in the Municipality of Ankaran, located near the border with Italy, in the Littoral region of Slovenia. It is less than 5 km from the Italian town of Muggia near Trieste, about 2.5 km from the Italian-Slovenian border, 6.5 km from Koper, and 33 km from the nearest Croatian town, Buje. In the entire municipality both Slovenian and Italian are official languages.
Spodnje Škofije is a settlement in the City Municipality of Koper in the Littoral region of Slovenia. A major border crossing on the Highway 5 into Italy was located here, with the Italian side known as Rabuiese.
Plavje is a village in the City Municipality of Koper in the Littoral region of Slovenia. It is located on the northernmost edge of the Istrian peninsula, on the border with Italy, on a small hill overlooking the Gulf of Trieste.
Gravisi–Barbabianca Mansion is a Baroque mansion in Koper, a port town in southwestern Slovenia. It was built in 1710. It was the family seat of the Gravisi family, who held the title of the Marquis of Pietrapelosa. Today it is the home of a music school.
Fulvio Tomizza was an Italian writer. He was born in Giurizzani di Materada in Istria, to a middle-class family. His mother was Margherita Frank Trento, of Slav and popular (poor) extraction. His father, Ferdinando, reportedly was from an ancient family of southern Dalmatian Italian origins. Tomizza grew up in a zone where the dialect was mixed.
Istrian Italians are an ethnic group from the Adriatic region of Istria in modern northwestern Croatia and southwestern Slovenia. Istrian Italians descend from the original Latinized population of Roman Histria, from the Venetian-speaking settlers who settled in the region during the time of the Republic of Venice, and from the local South Slavic people who culturally assimilated.
The Koper Regional Museum has been housed since 1954 in the spacious early 17th century Belgramoni Tacco Palace, and is responsible for the movable cultural heritage in Primorska region of Slovenia. The museum originated in 1911 as the Municipal Museum of History and Art. At its centenary in 2011, the museum opened a new permanent exhibition Between the Serenissima, Napoleon and the Habsburgs and enriched its collection.
The Slovene Riviera is the coastline of Slovenia, located on the Gulf of Trieste, by the Adriatic Sea. It is part of the Istrian peninsula and is 46.6 km long. The region comprises the towns of Koper and Piran with Portorož, and the municipality of Izola. It is a seaside tourist destination, with a vibrant multiethnic Slovenian and Italian heritage.
Istria is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. The peninsula is located at the head of the Adriatic between the Gulf of Trieste and the Bay of Kvarner. It is shared by three countries: Croatia, Slovenia, and Italy.
The Gulf of Koper or Koper Bay is located in the northern part of the Adriatic Sea, and is a part of the Gulf of Trieste.
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|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Capodistria .|