Koper

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Koper

Capodistria
City
Koperlandmarks.jpg
Top:Koper viewed from Žusterna, Middle: Port of Koper (left), Assumption Cathedral (right), Bottom: Praetorian Palace (left), Loggia Palace (right)
Flag of Koper.svg
Flag
Coa Koper.grb.svg
Coat of arms
Slovenia location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Koper
Location of the city of Koper in Slovenia
Coordinates: 45°33′N13°44′E / 45.550°N 13.733°E / 45.550; 13.733 Coordinates: 45°33′N13°44′E / 45.550°N 13.733°E / 45.550; 13.733
Country Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia
Traditional region Slovene Littoral
Statistical region Coastal-Karst
Municipality City Municipality of Koper
Government
  MayorAleš Bržan (LAB)
Area
  Total13.0 km2 (5.0 sq mi)
Elevation
3 m (10 ft)
Population
 (2020) [1]
  Total25,753
  Rank 5th
  Density2,000/km2 (5,100/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+01 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02 (CEST)
Postal code
6000
Area code(s) +386 (0)5
Vehicle registration KP
Climate Cfa
Website www.koper.si/sl/
[1]

Koper (Slovene pronunciation:  [ˈkoːpəɾ] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Italian : Capodistria, Croatian : Kopar) is the fifth largest city in Slovenia. Located in the Istrian region in southwestern part of the country, approximately five kilometres (3.1 miles) south of the border with Italy and 20 kilometres (12 miles) from Trieste, Koper is the largest coastal city in the country. It is bordered by the satellite towns of Izola and Ankaran. With a unique ecology and biodiversity, it is considered an important natural resource. The city's Port of Koper is the major contributor to the economy of the Municipality of Koper. With only one percent of Slovenia having a coastline, the influence that the Port of Koper also has on tourism was a factor in Ankaran deciding to leave the municipality in a referendum in 2011 to establish its own. The city is a destination for a number of Mediterranean cruising lines. Koper is the main urban centre of the Slovenian Istria, with a population of about 25,000. [1] Ales Brzan is the current mayor, serving since 2018.

Contents

The city of Koper is officially bilingual, with both Slovene and Italian as its official languages. Sights in Koper include the 15th-century Praetorian Palace and Loggia in Venetian Gothic style, the 12th-century Carmine Rotunda church, and St. Nazarius' Cathedral, with its 14th-century tower. In terms of sports, local football club NK Koper managed to win the Slovenian First League once.

Koper is also one of the main road entry points into Slovenia from Italy, which lies to the north of the municipality. The main motorway crossing is at Spodnje Škofije to the north of the city of Koper. The motorway continues into Rabuiese and Trieste. Koper also has a rail connection with the capital city, Ljubljana. On the coast, there is a crossing at Lazaret into Lazaretto in Muggia municipality in Trieste province. The Italian border crossing is known as San Bartolomeo.

Names

The Italian name of the city was anciently written as Capo d'Istria, [2] and as such reported on maps and sources in other European languages. Modern names of the city include: Croatian : Kopar, Serbian : Копар, romanized: Kopar, German : Gafers. The Slavic-speaking Slovene population calls the city "Koper." The Slavic-speaking population, present in the area since at least the late 7th century, [3] largely relied on oral tradition up to the invention of printing. The Slovenian name Koper was first attested in writing in 1557, but with the spelling Copper. [4]

History

The modifications of the environment around Koper since its beginning, showing the seashore prior to any land reclamation (red line) and the original island of Koper (light blue line on the left) and former island of Sermin on the right. Koperisland.JPG
The modifications of the environment around Koper since its beginning, showing the seashore prior to any land reclamation (red line) and the original island of Koper (light blue line on the left) and former island of Sermin on the right.

Koper began as a settlement built on an island in the southeastern part of the Gulf of Koper in the northern Adriatic. Called Insula Caprea (Goat Island) or Capro by Roman settlers, it developed into the city of Aegida, [2] which was mentioned by the Roman author Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia (Natural History) (iii. 19. s. 23). [5]

In 568, Roman citizens of nearby Tergeste (modern Trieste) fled to Aegida due to an invasion of the Lombards. In honour of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian II, the town was renamed Justinopolis. [2] Later, Justinopolis was under both Lombard and Frankish rule and was briefly occupied by Avars in the 8th century.

Since at least the 8th century (and possibly as early as the 6th century) Koper was the seat of a diocese. One of Koper's bishops was the Lutheran reformer Pier Paolo Vergerio. In 1828, it was merged into the Diocese of Trieste.

Trade between Koper and Venice has been recorded since 932. In the war between Venice and the Holy Roman Empire, Koper was on the latter side, and as a result was awarded with town rights, granted in 1035 by Emperor Conrad II. After 1232, Koper was under the Patriarch of Aquileia, and in 1278 it joined the Republic of Venice. It was at this time that the city walls and towers were partly demolished. [6]

In 1420, the Patriarch of Aquileia ceded his remaining possessions in Istria to the Republic, consolidating Venetian power in Koper. [7]

Koper grew to become the capital of Venetian Istria and was renamed Caput Histriae 'head of Istria' (from which stems its modern Italian name, Capodistria).

CAPO d'ISTRIA on a 3 kreuzer stamp of the 1850 issue 3kr IssueI RL-R Capo d'Istria.jpg
CAPO d'ISTRIA on a 3 kreuzer stamp of the 1850 issue

The 16th century saw the population of Koper fall drastically, from its high of between 10,000 and 12,000 inhabitants, due to repeated plague epidemics. [8] When Trieste became a free port in 1719, Koper lost its monopoly on trade, and its importance diminished further. [9]

According to the 1900 census, 7,205 Italian, 391 Slovenian, 167 Croatian, and 67 German inhabitants lived in Koper.

Assigned to Italy after World War I, at the end of World War II it was part of the Zone B of the Free Territory of Trieste, controlled by Yugoslavia. Most of the Italian inhabitants left the city by 1954, when the Free Territory of Trieste formally ceased to exist and Zone B became part of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In 1977, the Roman Catholic Diocese of Koper was separated from the Diocese of Trieste.

With Slovenian independence in 1991, Koper became the only commercial port in Slovenia. The University of Primorska is based in the city.

Architecture

Cathedral of the Assumption Capodistria, duomo, esterno 01.jpg
Cathedral of the Assumption

Koper's 15th-century Praetorian Palace is located on the city square. It was built from two older 13th-century houses that were connected by a loggia, rebuilt many times, and then finished as a Venetian Gothic palace. Today, it is home to the city of Koper's tourist office. [10]

The city's Cathedral of the Assumption was built in the second half of the 12th century and has one of the oldest bells in Slovenia (from 1333), cast by Nicolò and Martino, the sons of Master Giacomo of Venice. [11] [12] The upper terrace is periodically open and offers a great view of the Bay of Trieste. In the middle of it hangs the Sacra Conversatione painting from 1516, one of the best Renaissance paintings in Slovenia, made by Vittore Carpaccio. [13]

Climate

Koper has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa). There is an adequate amount of rainfall in Koper, even in the driest month. This climate is considered to be Cfa according to the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. The average temperature in Koper is 14.4 °C (57.9 °F). The average annual rainfall is 1,056 millimetres (42 in).

Climate data for Koper
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)7.8
(46.0)
9.2
(48.6)
12.6
(54.7)
16.7
(62.1)
21.5
(70.7)
25.0
(77.0)
27.5
(81.5)
27.1
(80.8)
23.4
(74.1)
18.6
(65.5)
13.1
(55.6)
9.4
(48.9)
17.7
(63.9)
Daily mean °C (°F)5.6
(42.1)
6.5
(43.7)
9.3
(48.7)
12.9
(55.2)
17.4
(63.3)
21.1
(70.0)
23.5
(74.3)
23.3
(73.9)
19.9
(67.8)
15.5
(59.9)
10.4
(50.7)
7.1
(44.8)
14.4
(57.9)
Average low °C (°F)3.5
(38.3)
3.9
(39.0)
6.0
(42.8)
9.2
(48.6)
13.4
(56.1)
17.2
(63.0)
19.6
(67.3)
19.5
(67.1)
16.4
(61.5)
12.4
(54.3)
7.7
(45.9)
4.8
(40.6)
11.1
(52.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches)75
(3.0)
70
(2.8)
72
(2.8)
89
(3.5)
82
(3.2)
92
(3.6)
69
(2.7)
93
(3.7)
111
(4.4)
98
(3.9)
117
(4.6)
88
(3.5)
1,056
(41.6)
Source: http://en.climate-data.org/location/59382/

Demographics

Modern residential quarter Koper modern residential quarter.jpg
Modern residential quarter

Italian was once the main language in the town, spoken by 92% of the population in 1900, but this number decreased sharply after Slovenian Istria was incorporated into Yugoslavia in 1954 and many ethnic Italians left the town. Today, Italian is mainly used as a second language by the Slovene-speaking majority.

The Port of Koper

Port of Koper Lukakoper.jpg
Port of Koper
Full article: Port of Koper

First established during the Roman Empire, the Port of Koper has played an important role in the development of the area. It is among the largest in the region and is one of the most important transit routes for goods heading from Asia to central Europe. In contrast with other European ports, which are managed by port authorities, the activities of the Port of Koper comprise the management of the free zone area, the management of the port area, and the role of terminal operator.

Prominent citizens

International relations

Twin towns and cities

Koper is twinned with:

Related Research Articles

Istria Peninsula on the Adriatic Sea

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Izola Place in Littoral, Slovenia

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Piran Place in Slovenian Littoral, Slovenia

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Pier Paolo Vergerio

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Province of Trieste Former Province in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy

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Julian March Region

Venezia Giulia, traditionally called Julian March or Julian Venetia is an area of southeastern Europe which is currently divided among Croatia, Italy and Slovenia. The term was coined in 1863 by the Italian linguist Graziadio Isaia Ascoli, a native of the area, to demonstrate that the Austrian Littoral, Veneto, Friuli and Trentino shared a common Italian linguistic identity. Ascoli emphasized the Augustan partition of Roman Italy at the beginning of the Empire, when Venetia et Histria was Regio X.

Austrian Littoral Former crown land of the Austrian Empire

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Slovene Lands

The Slovene lands or Slovenian lands is the historical denomination for the territories in Central and Southern Europe where people primarily spoke Slovene. The Slovene lands were part of the Illyrian provinces, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary. They encompassed Carniola, southern part of Carinthia, southern part of Styria, Istria, Gorizia and Gradisca, Trieste, and Prekmurje. Their territory more or less corresponds to modern Slovenia and the adjacent territories in Italy, Austria, Hungary, and Croatia, where autochthonous Slovene minorities live. In the areas where present-day Slovenia borders to neighboring countries, they were never homogeneously ethnically Slovene.

Ankaran Place in Littoral, Slovenia

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Plavje Place in Littoral, Slovenia

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Gravisi–Barbabianca Mansion

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Fulvio Tomizza

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Istrian Italians

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Koper Regional Museum

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Gulf of Koper

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References

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