This article needs additional citations for verification .(February 2018)
|Observed by||Korean people around the world|
|Significance||First day of the Chinese lunar calendar|
|Date||Typically the second new moon after the winter solstice|
|2021 date||Friday, February 12|
|2022 date||Tuesday, February 1|
|2023 date||Sunday, January 22|
|Korean New Year|
Seollal (Korean : 설날; RR : Seollal; MR : Sŏllal) is a festival and national holiday commemorating the first day of the Chinese lunisolar calendar. It is one of the most important traditional holidays in both North and South Korea. The celebration usually lasts three days:the day before New Year,New Year itself,and the day after New Year. During this time,many Koreans visit family,perform ancestral rites,wear the hanbok (한복,韓服),eat Korean food,including Korean cuisine,and play folk games. Additionally,children often receive money called Sebaetdon (New Year’s money) as a Seollal gift in a form of Bokjumeoni (복주머니,lucky bags) from their elders after performing a formal bow.
Seollal generally occurs in January or February on the second new moon after the winter solstice,unless there is an intercalary eleventh or twelfth month in the lead-up to the New Year. In such a case,the New Year falls on the third new moon after the solstice.
'Seollal' generally refers to Eumnyeok Seollal (Korean : 음력설날; Hanja : 陰曆설날;lit. "lunar new year",also known as 'Gujeong' (Korean: 구정; Hanja: 舊正)). 'Seollal' may also refer to Yangnyeok Seollal (Korean: 양력설날; Hanja: 陽曆설날;lit. "solar new year" i.e. Gregorian new year on 1 January ),also known as Sinjeong (신정;新正).
While Korean New Year is generally referred to as Seollal,it has been called by many other names. They are listed in the table below.
|The first day||원일||元日||Wonil||Wŏnil|
|The first morning||원단||元旦||Wondan||Wŏndan|
|The first month||원정||元正||Wonjeong||Wŏnjŏng|
|The first new||원신||元新||Wonsin||Wŏnshin|
|The morning of the first month||정조||正朝||Jeongjo||Chŏngjo|
|The head of the year||세수||歲首||Sesu||Sesu|
|The beginning of the year||세초||歲初||Secho||Sech'o|
The prototype of Korean New Year is believed to be found in the 3rd century Chinese historical work, Records of the Three Kingdoms,Book of Wei,Volume 30. 殷正月) of the Chinese calendar at that time.Worshipping events with the celebration of singing and dancing was held in Buyeo during the 12th month (
The earliest records of Korean New Year celebrations are included in the 7th century Chinese historical works,the Book of Sui and the Old Book of Tang ,containing excerpts of celebrations during at new year's day in the Silla Kingdom in the 7th century.
Korea's own record of new year celebration is found in Samguk yusa (Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms),compiled in the 13th century. Under the rule of 21st King of Silla,new year was celebrated in 488 AD. Then celebration of Korean New Year have continued to Goryeo and Joseon. By the 13th century,Korean New Year was one of the nine major Korean festivals that included ancestral rites,according to the Korean historical work,the Goryeosa .
After Japan annexed Korea,celebration of Seollal was prohibited. The Japanese rulers set the official Korean New Year to the first day of Gregorian calendar,following the Japanese New Year. The day is called 신정;新正,and the old new year became 구정;舊正. [ circular reference ]
After the liberation of Korea in 1945,the South Korean government designated the period from January 1 to January 3 of the Gregorian calendar as a public new year holiday.
In 1980s,the opinion that the old New Year should be designated as a holiday and respect its tradition was raised,and the government declared the first day of the Korean calendar as a folk day from 1985 to 1988.
In 1989,the Roh Tae-woo administration accepted public opinion that the old New Year's Day should be re-vitalized,designating the old New Year as both the official Korean New Year and a national holiday. [ verification needed ]
The Korean New Year is typically a family holiday. charye . The three days are the day of,the day before,and the day after. In 2016,36 million South Koreans reportedly would be traveling to visit their families during the Korean New Year. Koreans not only travel within the country,but around the world,as well. Many Koreans travel from overseas to visit their families for this annual holiday. Since it is one of the few times families may be able to get together and catch up on one another's lives,it is considered respectful and important to attend the holiday. Often,the family members first visit the elders,and this includes the grandparents and the parents. It is also considered respectful for people to visit their mothers- and fathers-in-law during the Korean New Year.The three-day holiday is used by many to return to their hometowns to visit their parents and other relatives,where they perform an ancestral ritual called
Including travel expense,preparation for this holiday is very costly. Gifts are usually given to family members and new clothes are worn during the holiday. Traditional food is prepared for many family members coming to visit for the holiday. Fruits are especially expensive. Due to the increased demand,food prices are inflated during the month of Seollal. As a result,some people have chosen to forgo some traditions because they have become too expensive. These families prepare a modest ancestral rite only with necessary foods for Seollal. The government has started taking certain measures to help stabilize and support ordinary people's livelihood for the New Year holiday period,raising the supply of agricultural,fishery,and livestock products. The government has also used rice reserves and pork imports to lower inflation. The government is also putting money into small and medium-sized companies to help with cash flow.[ citation needed ]
Many preparations go into celebrating the Korean New Year. During the first morning,Koreans pay their respect towards their ancestors. Traditional foods are placed on a table as an offering to the ancestors,and a rite begins with deep bows from all family members. This is a sign of respect and a very important practice on the first day of the New Year in Korea. It is also where they pray for the well-being of all the family members. hanbok,usually worn for special occasions such as weddings,Korean New Year,child's first birthday,amongst others. However,with modernization and evolving mores in the culture,more people tend to prefer westernized,modern clothing to the hanbok. After the rite,the members have a big feast.Many Koreans dress up in colourful traditional Korean clothing called
Additionally,Koreans follow a zodiac similar to the Chinese zodiac. 12 animals represent the 12 years in sequential order with the rat/mouse representing the first year. Buddha is believed to have invited animals from all over the world to visit,to which only 12 visited. In return,he honoured them by naming the years in the order that they arrived.Koreans believe that specific zodiac animals bring specific resources and qualities. For example,the year 2014 was the year of the horse,and it was considered a good year in the money and career aspect of life. It is said that a person born in a specific zodiacal year will carry that zodiac animal's characteristics. As a result,Koreans plan their year and activities around it to have a good,prosperous year. Parents may have even planned the birth year of their child,so the child may have a specific characteristic.
Another custom observed is the lighting of a "moon house" built from burnable firewood and branches. This symbolizes the warding off of bad/evil spirits for the new year. Many also choose to add wishes they want to come true in the next year to the moon house.
Sebae (Korean: 세배; Hanja: 歲拜;lit. "worship elders") is a ritual of filial piety that is traditionally observed on Seollal. Dressed in traditional clothing,people wish their elders (grandparents,parents and aunts and uncles) a happy new year by performing a deep traditional bow (rites with more than one bow involved are usually for the deceased) and saying the words 'saehae bok mani badeuseyo' (새해복많이받으세요,"Please receive a lot of good fortune for the New Year".) Elders typically reward this gesture by giving children new year's money,or "pocket money" called Sebaet Don (usually in the form of crisp paper money) in silk bags made with beautiful traditional designs,as well as offering words of wisdom (dŏkdam). Historically,parents gave out rice cakes ( ddeok ) and fruit to their children.
Tteokguk (soup with sliced rice cakes) is a traditional Korean food that is customarily eaten for the New Year. According to Korean age reckoning,the Korean New Year is similar to a birthday for Koreans,and eating tteokguk is part of the birthday celebration. Once a person has finished eating their tteokguk,they are one year older.
On New Year's day,people prepare a lot of food and spend much of the day with family. The rice cake in the tteokguk looks like a coin,and many people eat a lot of rice cakes in the hopes of becoming rich in the new year.
Jeon,sometimes called buchimgae,is a traditional Korean dish especially eaten on the Korean New Year's Day. A savory pancake,it is ripped apart with chopsticks,instead of being sliced with a knife,in the belief of making it taste better.
Other foods commonly prepared are mandu-guk , ddeok , galbi-jjim ,and japchae .
Many traditional games are associated with the Korean New Year. The traditional family board game yutnori remains a popular game,especially during Korean New Year. It is played using a set of specially designed sticks and is considered appropriate for all ages and genders. Men and boys traditionally would also fly rectangle kites called Yeon (연,see yeonnalligi ),and also play jegichagi ,a game in which a light object is wrapped in paper or cloth,and then kicked in a footbag-like manner. Korean women and girls would have traditionally played neolttwigi ,a game of jumping on a seesaw (시소),and gongginori ,a game played with five little gonggi (originally a little stone,but today many buy manufactured gongi in toy shops). Top (paengi (팽이) spinning is also a traditional game played by children. Recently,a few adults play Go-Stop instead of traditional hwatu .
The traditional Chinese calendar, is a lunisolar calendar which identifies years, months, and days according to astronomical phenomena. In China, it is defined by the Chinese national standard GB/T 33661–2017, "Calculation and Promulgation of the Chinese Calendar", issued by the Standardization Administration of China on May 12, 2017.
The Japanese New Year is an annual festival with its own customs. Since 1873, the official Japanese New Year has been celebrated according to the Gregorian calendar, on January 1 of each year, New Year's Day. However, some traditional events of the Japanese New Year are partially celebrated on the first day of the year on the modern Tenpō calendar, the last official lunisolar calendar which was used until 1872 in Japan.
New Year's Day is a festival observed in most of the world on 1 January, the first day of the year in the modern Gregorian calendar. 1 January is also New Year's Day on the Julian calendar, but this is not the same day as the Gregorian one. Whilst most solar calendars begin the year regularly at or near the northern winter solstice, cultures that observe a lunisolar or lunar calendar celebrate their New Year at less fixed points relative to the solar year.
Japanese calendar types have included a range of official and unofficial systems. At present, Japan uses the Gregorian calendar together with year designations stating the year of the reign of the current Emperor. The written form starts with the year, then the month and finally the day, coinciding with the ISO 8601 standard. For example, February 16, 2003 can be written as either 2003年2月16日 or 平成15年2月16日. 年 reads nen and means "year", 月 reads gatsu or 「がつ」and means "month" and finally 日 (usually) reads nichi and means "day".
The Double Ninth Festival (Chong Yang Festival or Chung Yeung Festival in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan; Chōyō no Sekku; Jungyangjeol, observed on the ninth day of the ninth month in the Chinese calendar, is a traditional Chinese holiday, mentioned in writings since before the Eastern Han period.
Lunar New Year is the beginning of a calendar year whose months are moon cycles, based on the lunar calendar or lunisolar calendar.
The Mid-Autumn Festival, also known as the Moon Festival or Mooncake Festival, is a traditional festival celebrated in Chinese culture. Similar holidays are celebrated in Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and other countries in East and Southeast Asia.
The traditional Korean calendar or Dangun calendar is a lunisolar calendar. Dates are calculated from Korea's meridian, and observances and festivals are based in Korean culture.
Public holidays in South Korea each belong to one or more of three categories:
Chuseok, also known as Hangawi, is a major mid-autumn harvest festival and a three-day holiday in South Korea celebrated on the 15th day of the 8th month of the lunar calendar on the full moon. In North Korea, they only celebrate for the day of chuseok. Like many other harvest festivals around the world, it is held around the autumn equinox, i.e. at the very end of summer or in early autumn. It is the biggest traditional holiday in South Korea.
The Mongolian Lunar New Year, commonly known as Tsagaan Sar, is the first day of the year according to the Mongolian lunisolar calendar. The festival of the Lunar New Year is celebrated by the Mongols and some Turkic peoples. The holiday has shamanistic influences.
Buddha's Birthday is a Buddhist festival that is celebrated in most of East Asia and South Asia commemorating the birth of the Prince Siddhartha Gautama, later the Gautama Buddha, who was the founder of Buddhism. According to Buddhist tradition, Gautama Buddha was born c. 563–483 BCE in Lumbini, Nepal.
Tteokguk (떡국) or sliced rice cake soup is a traditional Korean dish eaten during the celebration of the Korean New Year. The dish consists of the broth/soup (guk) with thinly sliced rice cakes (tteok). It is tradition to eat tteokguk on New Year's Day because it is believed to grant the people good luck for the year and gain a year of age. It is usually garnished with thin julienned cooked eggs, marinated meat, gim (김), and sesame oil (참기름).
Dano, also called Surit-nal, is a Korean traditional holiday that falls on the 5th day of the fifth month of the lunar Korean calendar. It is an official holiday in North Korea and one of the major traditional holidays in South Korea. South Korea has retained several festivals related to the holiday, one of which is Gangneung Dano Festival designated by UNESCO as a "Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity".
Yaksik or yakbap is a sweet Korean dish made by steaming glutinous rice, and mixing with chestnuts, jujubes, and pine nuts. It is seasoned with honey or brown sugar, sesame oil, soy sauce, and sometimes cinnamon. It is traditionally eaten on Jeongwol Daeboreum (정월대보름), a Korean holiday which falls on every January 15 in the lunar calendar, but also for weddings and hwangap festivities.
A hogeon is a type of gwanmo (관모), Korean traditional headgear for young boys aged one year to five years old. It was worn along with durumagi (overcoat) or jeonbok. Hogeon was worn on holidays such as Seollal, Chuseok, or celebrations for their birthdays like doljanchi. The shape and material are almost similar to bokgeon except a tiger pattern embroidered on hogeon. The outer is made of a black silk while the inner is dark blue silk. The tiger pattern was embroidered on the surface as reflecting parents' wish for their children to grow brave. The shapes of a tiger's eyebrow, eyes, whiskers, teeth and ears are decorated on the forehead of the hogeon. The ears was made with black and red fabrics. Strings attached to the end of the forehead part is able to tie the headgear to its back. Along with the tiger pattern, geumbak of some of Hanja that had good and auspicious meaning are adorned with the hogeon to bless the wearer. It was worn by young boys until they reached to the age of five or six years old.
Kkachi durumagi is a children's colorful overcoat in hanbok, traditional Korean clothing, which was worn on Seollal, New Year's Day in the Lunar calendar. It was worn mostly by young boys and literally means "a magpie's overcoat". The garment is also called obangjang durumagi which denotes "an overcoat of five directions". It was worn over jeogori and jokki while the wearer could put jeonbok over it. Kkachi durumagi was also worn along with headgear such as bokgeon, hogeon for young boys or gulle for young girls.
Chinese New Year is the festival that celebrates the beginning of a new year on the traditional lunisolar and solar Chinese calendar. In Chinese and other East Asian cultures, the festival is commonly referred to as the Spring Festival as the spring season in the lunisolar calendar traditionally starts with lichun, the first of the twenty-four solar terms which the festival celebrates around the time of the Chinese New Year. Marking the end of winter and the beginning of the spring season, observances traditionally take place from New Year’s Eve, the evening preceding the first day of the year to the Lantern Festival, held on the 15th day of the year. The first day of Chinese New Year begins on the new moon that appears between 21 January and 20 February.
In Korea, the marking of traditional milestones in life is known as The Four Ceremonial Occasions, or Gwanhonsangje. The four rites of passage celebrated in this tradition are the coming of age, marriage, death, or the funeral rites, and rites venerating the ancestors. The word Gwanhonsangje is a generic term made up of the first letter of each word.