Kosmos 2251

Last updated

Kosmos 2251
Strela-2M.jpg
A Strela-2M communication satellite, similar to Kosmos 2251
Mission type Communication
Operator VKS
COSPAR ID 1993-036A
SATCAT no. 22675
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft type Strela-2M
Bus KAUR-1 [1]
ManufacturerReshetnev
Launch mass900 kilograms (2,000 lb)
Start of mission
Launch date16 June 1993, 04:17 UTC (1993-06-16UTC04:17Z)
Rocket Kosmos-3M
Launch site Plesetsk 132/1
End of mission
Destroyed10 February 2009
Orbital parameters
Reference system Geocentric
Regime Low Earth
Eccentricity 0.00265
Perigee 778 kilometres (483 mi)
Apogee 803 kilometres (499 mi)
Inclination 74.00 degrees
Period 100.70 minutes
Epoch 16 June 1993, 20:00:00 UTC [2]
 

Kosmos-2251, (Russian : Космос-2251 meaning Cosmos 2251), was a Russian Strela-2M communications satellite. It was launched into Low Earth orbit from Site 132/1 at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome at 04:17 UTC on 16 June 1993, by a Kosmos-3M carrier rocket. [3] [4] The Strela satellites had a lifespan of 5 years, and the Russian government reported that Kosmos-2251 cesed functioning in 1995. [5] Russia was later criticised by The Space Review for leaving a defunct satellite in a congensted orbit, rather than deorbiting it. In response, Russia noted that they were (and are) [6] not required to do so under international law. [7] [8] In any case, the KAUR-1 satellites had no propulsion system. [9] [10]

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.

Strela is a Russian military communications satellite constellation operating in low Earth orbit.

Communications satellite artificial satellite designed for telecommunications

A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth. Communications satellites are used for television, telephone, radio, internet, and military applications. There are 2,134 communications satellites in Earth’s orbit, used by both private and government organizations. Many are in geostationary orbit 22,200 miles (35,700 km) above the equator, so that the satellite appears stationary at the same point in the sky, so the satellite dish antennas of ground stations can be aimed permanently at that spot and do not have to move to track it.

Destruction

At 16:56 UTC on 10 February 2009, [11] it collided with Iridium 33, an Iridium satellite, [12] in the first major collision of two satellites in Earth orbit. The Iridium satellite, which was operational at the time of the collision, was destroyed, as was Kosmos-2251. [13] NASA reported that a large amount of debris was produced by the collision. [14] [15]

2009 satellite collision 2009 collision between the Iridium 33 and Cosmos-2251 satellites

On February 10, 2009, two artificial satellites, Iridium 33 and Kosmos-2251, accidentally collided at a speed of 11,700 m/s and an altitude of 789 kilometres (490 mi) above the Taymyr Peninsula in Siberia. It was the first time a hypervelocity collision occurred between two satellites – until then, all accidental hypervelocity collisions had involved a satellite and a piece of space debris.

Iridium 33 Communications satellite operated by Iridium Communications

Iridium 33 was a communications satellite launched by the United States for Iridium Communications. It was launched into low Earth orbit from Site 81/23 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome at 01:36 GMT on 14 September 1997, by a Proton-K carrier rocket with a Block DM2 upper stage. It was operated in Plane 3 of the Iridium satellite constellation, with an ascending node of 230.9°.

NASA space-related agency of the United States government

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is an independent agency of the United States Federal Government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

Related Research Articles

Kosmos is a designation given to a large number of satellites operated by the Soviet Union and subsequently Russia. Kosmos 1, the first spacecraft to be given a Kosmos designation, was launched on 16 March 1962.

Kosmos 2, also known as 1MS #1 and occasionally in the West as Sputnik 12 was a scientific research and technology demonstration satellite launched by the Soviet Union in 1962. It was the second satellite to be designated under the Kosmos system, and the first spacecraft to be launched as part of the MS programme. Its primary missions were to develop systems for future satellites, and to record data about cosmic rays and radiation.

Kosmos 10, also known as Zenit-2 #5, was a Soviet reconnaissance satellite launched in 1962. It was the tenth satellite to be designated under the Kosmos system, and the fourth successful launch of a Soviet reconnaissance satellite, following Kosmos 4, Kosmos 7 and Kosmos 9.

Kosmos 25, also known as DS-P1 No.4 was a prototype radar target satellite for anti-ballistic missile tests, which was launched by the Soviet Union in 1964 as part of the Dnepropetrovsk Sputnik programme. Its primary mission was to demonstrate the necessary technologies for radar tracking of spacecraft, which would allow future satellites to function as targets.

Kosmos 394, also known as DS-P1-M No.2 is a satellite which was used to demonstrate technology for future satellites which would be used as targets for tests of anti-satellite weapons. It was launched by the Soviet Union in 1971 as part of the Dnepropetrovsk Sputnik programme. Following the completion of testing it was intercepted and destroyed by Kosmos 397 on 25 February.

Kosmos 400, also known as DS-P1-M No.3 was a satellite which was used as a target for tests of anti-satellite weapons. It was launched by the Soviet Union in 1971 as part of the Dnepropetrovsk Sputnik programme, and used as a target for Kosmos 404, as part of the Istrebitel Sputnik programme.

Kosmos 459, also known as DS-P1-M No.5 was a satellite which was used as a target for tests of anti-satellite weapons. It was launched by the Soviet Union in 1971 as part of the Dnepropetrovsk Sputnik programme, and used as a target for Kosmos 462, as part of the Istrebitel Sputnik programme.

Kosmos 839 was a satellite which was used as a target for tests of anti-satellite weapons. It was launched by the Soviet Union in 1976 as part of the Dnepropetrovsk Sputnik programme, and used as a target for Kosmos 843 as part of the Istrebitel Sputnik programme.

Kosmos 880 was a satellite which was used as a target for tests of anti-satellite weapons. It was launched by the Soviet Union in 1976 as part of the Dnepropetrovsk Sputnik programme, and used as a target for Kosmos 886, as part of the Istrebitel Sputnik programme.

Kosmos 1375 was a target satellite which was used by the Soviet Union in the 1980s for tests of anti-satellite weapons as part of the Istrebitel Sputnik programme. It was launched in 1982, and was itself part of the Dnipropetrovsk Sputnik programme. It was a target for Kosmos 1379.

Kosmos 393, known before launch as DS-P1-Yu No.34, was a Soviet satellite which was launched in 1971 as part of the Dnepropetrovsk Sputnik programme. It was a 325-kilogram (717 lb) spacecraft, which was built by the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau, and was used as a radar calibration target for anti-ballistic missile tests.

Kosmos 633, also known as DS-P1-Yu No.71, was a Soviet satellite which was launched in 1974 as part of the Dnepropetrovsk Sputnik programme. It was a 400-kilogram (880 lb) spacecraft, which was built by the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau, and was used as a radar calibration target for anti-ballistic missile tests.

Kosmos 202, also known as DS-U2-V No.4, was a Soviet satellite which was launched in 1968 as part of the Dnepropetrovsk Sputnik programme. It was a 325-kilogram (717 lb) spacecraft, which was built by the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau, and was used to conduct classified technology development experiments for the Soviet armed forces.

Kosmos 2481 is a Russian Strela-3 military communications satellite which was launched in 2012 by the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces. It was launched with 2 Gonets-M civilian communication satellites and a research satellite called Yubileiny-2, also known as MiR.

Kosmos 2468 is a Russian military communications satellite which was launched in 2010 by the Russian Space Forces. It was launched with Kosmos 2467 and a Gonets-M civilian communication satellite.

Kosmos 2421 was a Russian spy satellite launched in 2006, but began fragmenting in early 2008. It also had the Konus-A gamma-ray burst experiment by the Yoffe FizTekh Institute. Three separate fragmentation events produced about 500 pieces of trackable debris, but about half of those had already re-entered by the fall of 2008.

Kosmos 50 or Zenit-2 No.25 was a Soviet optical film-return reconnaissance satellite launched in 1964. A Zenit-2 spacecraft, Kosmos 50 was the twenty-fourth of eighty-one such satellites to be launched and had a mass of 4,730.0 kilograms (10,427.9 lb).

References

  1. Brian Weeden (November 10, 2010). "2009 Iridium-Cosmos Collision Fact Sheet" (PDF). Secure World Foundation.
  2. "NASA – NSSDCA – Spacecraft – Trajectory Details". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2018-05-02.
  3. Wade, Mark. "Strela-2M". Encyclopedia Astronautica . Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  4. Wade, Mark. "Kosmos-11k65". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 11 February 2009.
  5. "First Satellite Collision Called Threat in Space". The Moscow Times. February 13, 2009.
  6. Chelsea Muñoz-Patchen (2018). "Regulating the Space Commons: Treating SpaceDebris as Abandoned Property in Violation of the Outer Space Treaty". Chicago Journal of International Law. 19: 233.
  7. Brian Weeden (February 23, 2009). "Billiards in Space". The Space Review.
  8. Michael Listner (February 13, 2012). "Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 three years later: where are we now?". The Space Review.
  9. Игорь Королев. Авария на $50 млн // Ведомости, № 26 (2296), 13 февраля 2009
  10. Brian Harvey; Olga Zakutnyaya (2011). "Russian Space Probes: Scientific Discoveries and Future Missions". Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN   1441981500.
  11. Iannotta, Becky (11 February 2009). "U.S. Satellite Destroyed in Space Collision". Space.com . Retrieved 11 February 2009.
  12. "Office for Outer Space Affairs". United Nations . Retrieved 12 February 2009. Reported as colliding with Iridum 33 (1997-051C) on 10/02/2009
  13. "Russian and US satellites collide". BBC News. 12 February 2009. Retrieved 12 February 2009. Russia has not commented on claims that the satellite was out of control.
  14. "2 orbiting satellites collide 500 miles up". Associated Press. 11 February 2009. Retrieved 11 February 2009.
  15. "U.S. Space debris environment and operational updates" (PDF). NASA. 7 February 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2010.