Kosmos 2251

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Kosmos 2251
Strela-2M.jpg
A Strela-2M communication satellite, similar to Kosmos 2251.
Mission type Military communication
Operator VKS
COSPAR ID 1993-036A
SATCAT no. 22675
Mission duration5 years (nominal mission)
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft type Strela-2M
Bus KAUR-1 [1]
ManufacturerReshetnev
Launch mass900 kg
Start of mission
Launch date16 June 1993, 04:17 UTC
Rocket Kosmos-3M
Launch site Plesetsk, Site 132/1
End of mission
Last contact1995
Decay date10 February 2009
(destroyed in space)
Orbital parameters
Reference system Geocentric [2]
Regime Low Earth
Perigee altitude 783 km
Apogee altitude 821 km
Inclination 74.0°
Period 101.0 minutes
 

Kosmos-2251, (Russian : Космос-2251 meaning Cosmos 2251), was a Russian Strela-2M military communications satellite. It was launched into Low Earth orbit from Site 132/1 at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome at 04:17 UTC on 16 June 1993, by a Kosmos-3M carrier rocket. [3] · [4] The Strela satellites had a lifespan of 5 years, and the Russian government reported that Kosmos-2251 ceased functioning in 1995. [5] Russia was later criticised by The Space Review for leaving a defunct satellite in a congested orbit, rather than deorbiting it. In response, Russia noted that they were (and are) [6] not required to do so under international law. [7] · [8] In any case, the KAUR-1 satellites had no propulsion system, which may be required for deorbiting. [9] · [10]

Destruction

At 16:56 UTC on 10 February 2009, [11] it collided with Iridium 33 (1997-051C), an Iridium satellite, [12] in the first major collision of two satellites in Earth orbit. The Iridium satellite, which was operational at the time of the collision, was destroyed, as was Kosmos-2251. [13] NASA reported that a large amount of debris was produced by the collision. [14] · [15]

Related Research Articles

Strela is a Russian military communications satellite constellation operating in low Earth orbit. These satellites operate as mailboxes ("store-and-forward"): they remember the received messages and then resend them after the scheduled time, or by a command from the Earth. Some sources state the satellites are capable of only three months of active operation, but in accordance with others they can serve for about five years. The satellites are used for transmission of encrypted messages and images.

Iridium 33 Communications satellite operated by Iridium Communications

Iridium 33 was a communications satellite launched by the United States for Iridium Communications. It was launched into low Earth orbit from Site 81/23 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome at 01:36 GMT on 14 September 1997, by a Proton-K carrier rocket with a Block DM2 upper stage. It was operated in Plane 3 of the Iridium satellite constellation, with an ascending node of 230.9°.

Strictly speaking, a satellite collision is when two satellites collide while in orbit around a third, much larger body, such as a planet or moon. This definition can be loosely extended to include collisions between sub-orbital or escape-velocity objects with an object in orbit. Prime examples are the anti-satellite tests by the US and China.

2009 satellite collision 2009 collision between the Iridium 33 and Cosmos-2251 satellites

On February 10, 2009, two communications satellites—the active commercial Iridium 33 and the derelict Russian military Kosmos-2251—accidentally collided at a speed of 11,700 m/s and an altitude of 789 kilometres (490 mi) above the Taymyr Peninsula in Siberia. It was the first time a hypervelocity collision occurred between two satellites – until then, all accidental hypervelocity collisions had involved a satellite and a piece of space debris.

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Kosmos 803 was a satellite which was used as a target for tests of anti-satellite weapons. It was launched by the Soviet Union in 1976 as part of the Dnepropetrovsk Sputnik programme, and used as a target for Kosmos 804 and Kosmos 814, as part of the Istrebitel Sputnik programme.

Kosmos 2421 was a Russian spy satellite launched in 2006, but began fragmenting in early 2008. It also had the Konus-A gamma-ray burst experiment by Ioffe Institute. Three separate fragmentation events produced about 500 pieces of trackable debris, but about half of those had already re-entered by the fall of 2008.

Kosmos 24 or Zenit-2 No.15 was a Soviet optical film-return reconnaissance satellite. It was a first generation, low resolution spacecraft. A Zenit-2 satellite, Kosmos 24 was the fifteenth of eighty-one such spacecraft to be launched and had a mass of 4,730 kilograms (10,430 lb).

Kosmos 33 or Zenit-2 No.20 was a Soviet, first generation, low resolution, optical film-return reconnaissance satellite launched in 1964. A Zenit-2 spacecraft, Kosmos 33 was the nineteenth of eighty-one such satellites to be launched and had a mass of 4,730 kilograms (10,430 lb).

Kosmos 99 or Zenit-2 No.32 was a Soviet, first generation, low resolution, optical film-return reconnaissance satellite launched in 1965. A Zenit-2 spacecraft, Kosmos 99 was the thirty-second of eighty-one such satellites to be launched and had a mass of 4,730 kilograms (10,430 lb).

Kosmos 115 or Zenit-2 No.35 was a Soviet, first generation, low resolution, optical film-return reconnaissance satellite launched in 1966. A Zenit-2 spacecraft, Kosmos 115 was the thirty-seventh of eighty-one such satellites to be launched and had a mass of 4,730 kilograms (10,430 lb).

Kosmos 117 or Zenit-2 No.39 was a Soviet optical film-return reconnaissance satellite launched in 1966. A Zenit-2 spacecraft, Kosmos 117 was the thirty-eighth of eighty-one such satellites to be launched and had a mass of 4,730 kilograms (10,430 lb).

Kosmos 120 or Zenit-2 No.41 was a Soviet, first generation, low resolution, optical film-return reconnaissance satellite launched in 1966. A Zenit-2 spacecraft, Kosmos 120 was the thirty-ninth of eighty-one such satellites to be launched and had a mass of 4,730 kilograms (10,430 lb).

Kosmos 124 or Zenit-2 No.42 was a Soviet, first generation, low resolution, optical film-return reconnaissance satellite launched in 1966. A Zenit-2 spacecraft, Kosmos 124 was the fortieth of eighty-one such satellites to be launched and had a mass of 4,730 kilograms (10,430 lb).

Kosmos 129 or Zenit-2 No.33 was a Soviet, first generation, low resolution, optical film-return reconnaissance satellite launched in 1966. A Zenit-2 spacecraft, Kosmos 129 was the forty-second of eighty-one such satellites to be launched and had a mass of 4,730 kilograms (10,430 lb).

Kosmos 132 or Zenit-2 No.46 was a Soviet, first generation, low resolution, optical film-return reconnaissance satellite launched in 1966. A Zenit-2 spacecraft, Kosmos 132 was the forty-third of eighty-one such satellites to be launched and had a mass of 4,730 kilograms (10,430 lb).

Kosmos 136 or Zenit-2 No.47 was a Soviet, first generation, low resolution, optical film-return reconnaissance satellite launched in 1966. A Zenit-2 spacecraft, Kosmos 136 was the forty-fourth of eighty-one such satellites to be launched and had a mass of 4,730 kilograms (10,430 lb). In addition to its reconnaissance mission, the satellite was also used for scientific research.

Kosmos 138 or Zenit-2 No.43 was a Soviet, first generation, low resolution, optical film-return reconnaissance satellite launched in 1967. A Zenit-2 spacecraft, Kosmos 138 was the forty-fifth of eighty-one such satellites to be launched and had a mass of 4,730 kilograms (10,430 lb).

References

  1. Brian Weeden (10 November 2010). "2009 Iridium-Cosmos Collision Fact Sheet" (PDF). Secure World Foundation.
  2. https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraft/displayTrajectory.action?id=1993-036A - 27 February 2020
  3. Wade, Mark. "Strela-2M". Encyclopedia Astronautica . Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  4. Wade, Mark. "Kosmos-11k65". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 11 February 2009.
  5. "First Satellite Collision Called Threat in Space". The Moscow Times. 13 February 2009.
  6. Chelsea Muñoz-Patchen (2018). "Regulating the Space Commons: Treating SpaceDebris as Abandoned Property in Violation of the Outer Space Treaty". Chicago Journal of International Law. 19: 233.
  7. Brian Weeden (23 February 2009). "Billiards in Space". The Space Review.
  8. Michael Listner (13 February 2012). "Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 three years later: where are we now?". The Space Review.
  9. Игорь Королев. Авария на $50 млн // Ведомости, № 26 (2296), 13 февраля 2009
  10. Brian Harvey; Olga Zakutnyaya (2011). "Russian Space Probes: Scientific Discoveries and Future Missions". Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN   1441981500.
  11. Iannotta, Becky (11 February 2009). "U.S. Satellite Destroyed in Space Collision". Space.com . Retrieved 11 February 2009.
  12. "Office for Outer Space Affairs". United Nations . Retrieved 12 February 2009. Reported as colliding with Iridum 33 (1997-051C) on 10/02/2009
  13. "Russian and US satellites collide". BBC News. 12 February 2009. Retrieved 12 February 2009. Russia has not commented on claims that the satellite was out of control.
  14. "2 orbiting satellites collide 500 miles up". Associated Press. 11 February 2009. Retrieved 11 February 2009.
  15. "U.S. Space debris environment and operational updates" (PDF). NASA. 7 February 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2010.