Kostolac

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Kostolac

Костолац
Kostolac (grb).png
Coat of arms
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Red pog.svg
Kostolac
Coordinates: 44°42′53″N21°10′12″E / 44.71472°N 21.17000°E / 44.71472; 21.17000 Coordinates: 44°42′53″N21°10′12″E / 44.71472°N 21.17000°E / 44.71472; 21.17000
Country Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia
Region Southern and Eastern Serbia
District Braničevo
City Požarevac
Government
  Municipality president Serdžo Krstanoski (SNS)
Area
[1]
  Urban9.76 km2 (3.77 sq mi)
  Municipality100.87 km2 (38.95 sq mi)
Population
 (2011) [2]
  Urban
9,569
  Urban density980/km2 (2,500/sq mi)
  Municipality
13,637
  Municipality density140/km2 (350/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
12208
Area code(s) +381(0)12
Vehicle registration PO
Website www.kostolac.info/kostolac.htm

The City municipality of Kostolac (Serbian Cyrillic : Градска општина Костолац, romanized: Gradska opština Kostolac; Romanian : Caştelu) is a town in Serbia and one of two city municipalities which constitute the City of Požarevac. It is situated on the Danube river. The remains of the Roman capital of the province of Moesia Superior Viminacium are located near Stari Kostolac some 2 km to the east of Kostolac. Kostolac is also a center of area called Stig and home of thermal power plants and coal mines.

Contents

History

A 1.5 million year old mammoth skeleton was uncovered in the Viminacium site in June 2009. [3]

The tribes of Autariatae and Scordisci are thought to have merged into one in this area after 313BC, since excavations show that the two groups made burials at the same exact grave field in Pecine, near Kostolac. [4] Nine graves of Autariatae dating to 4th century BC and scattered Autariatae and Celtic graves around these earlier graves show that the two groups mixed rather than made war [5] and this resulted in the lower Morava valley becoming a Celto-Thracio-Illyrian interaction zone. [6] The Celtic Invasions of Greece in 279 BC formed the sub-Celtic group of Scordisci who would according to Strabo, defeat and push the powerful Triballians towards the Getae, [7] the Scordisci self-rule in different regions of Serbia gradually ended with the Roman conquest of the Balkans in the 1st century AD.

Ruins of Viminacium Viminatium.jpg
Ruins of Viminacium
Viminacium mint by Antoninianus to celebrate the 1001 birthday of the Roman Empire. 248 AD. Antoninianus-Pacatianus-1001-RIC 0006cf.jpg
Viminacium mint by Antoninianus to celebrate the 1001 birthday of the Roman Empire. 248 AD.

Viminacium , a major city of the Roman province of Moesia, and the capital of Moesia Superior was situated 20 km east to the present centre, in the area of Stari Kostolac (Old Kostolac). Viminacium was the base camp of Legio VII Claudia, and hosted for some time the IV Flavia Felix. It was destroyed in 440 by the Huns, but rebuilt by Justinian I. During Maurice's Balkan campaigns, Viminacium saw destruction by the Avars and Slavs in 584 and a crushing defeat of Avar forces on the northern Danube bank in 599, destroying Avar reputation for invincibility. [8]

Đorđe Vajfert opened coal mines in Kostolac. During World War II, Germans constructed first power plant "Mali Kostolac" ("small Kostolac"). After the war, people from everywhere came to build it.

Settlements

Kostolac Kostolac.png
Kostolac

Aside from the town of Kostolac, the city municipality includes the following settlements:

Features

Tourism

In Kostolac is the archaeological site of Viminacium, a former Roman outpost with wide streets, luxurious villas, extensive baths and an amphitheater, just recently opened to the public.

Industry

Power Station Kostolac A Power Station Kostolac A.JPG
Power Station Kostolac A

Kostolac has two thermal power plants which comprise the TPP Kostolac. These are:

In addition to electric power, TPP "Kostolac A" produces heating energy for heating of Kostolac and Požarevac.

Demographics

According to the 2011 census results, the municipality has a population of 13,637 inhabitants.

Ethnic groups

EthnicityNumber
Serbs 9,842
Romani 2,659
Macedonians 45
Croats 35
Montenegrins 22
Others1,034

See also

Related Research Articles

Moesia Historical region of the Balkans

Moesia was an ancient region and later Roman province situated in the Balkans south of the Danube River, which included most of the territory of modern-day Central Serbia, Kosovo, the north-eastern parts of Albania and the northern parts of North Macedonia, the whole of Northern Bulgaria, Romanian Dobruja and small parts of Southern Ukraine.

Požarevac City in Southern and Eastern Serbia, Serbia

Požarevac is a city and the administrative centre of the Braničevo District in eastern Serbia. It is located between three rivers: Danube, Great Morava and Mlava and below the hill Čačalica (208m). As of 2011, the city has a population of 44,183 while the city administrative area has 75,334 inhabitants.

The Triballi were an ancient tribe whose dominion was around the plains of modern southern Serbia, northern part of North Macedonia and western Bulgaria, at the Angrus and Brongus and the Iskar River, roughly centered where Serbia and Bulgaria are joined.

The Scordisci were a Celtic Iron Age cultural group centered in the territory of present-day Serbia, at the confluence of the Savus (Sava), Dravus (Drava) and Danube rivers. They were historically notable from the beginning of the third century BC until the turn of the common era, and consolidated into a tribal state. At their zenith, their core territory stretched over regions comprising parts of present-day Serbia, Croatia, Bulgaria and Romania, while their influence spread even further. After the Roman conquest in the 1st century AD, their territories were included into the Roman provinces of Pannonia, Moesia and Dacia.

Dardani Ancient tribe in the Balkans

The Dardani were a Paleo-Balkan tribe, which lived in a region which was named Dardania after their settlement there. The eastern parts of the region were at the Thraco-Illyrian contact zone. In archaeological research, Illyrian names are predominant in western Dardania, and occasionally appear in eastern Dardania, while Thracian names are found in the eastern parts, but are absent from the western parts. Thus, their identification as either an Illyrian or Thracian tribe has been a subject of debate; the ethnolinguistic relationship between the two groups being largely uncertain and debated itself as well. The correspondence of Illyrian names, including those of the ruling elite, in Dardania with those of the southern Illyrians suggests a "thracianization" of parts of Dardania. Strabo in his geographica mentions them as one of the three strongest Illyrian peoples, the other two being the Ardiaei and Autariatae.

Sirmium Roman and Byzantine city

Sirmium was a city in the Roman province of Pannonia, located on the Sava river, on the site of modern Sremska Mitrovica in northern Serbia. First mentioned in the 4th century BC and originally inhabited by Illyrians and Celts, it was conquered by the Romans in the 1st century BC and subsequently became the capital of the Roman province of Pannonia Inferior. In 294 AD, Sirmium was proclaimed one of four capitals of the Roman Empire. It was also the capital of the Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum and of Pannonia Secunda. The site is protected as an Archaeological Site of Exceptional Importance. The modern region of Syrmia was named after the city.

Viminacium Roman city

Viminacium (VIMINACIUM) or Viminatium was a major city and military camp of the Roman province of Moesia, and the capital of Moesia Superior. As of 2018, only 3 to 4% of the site has been explored.

Singidunum

Singidunum was an ancient city which later evolved into modern Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. The name is of Celtic origin, going back to the time when Celtic tribe Scordisci settled the area in the 3rd century BC, following the Gallic invasion of the Balkans. Later on, the Roman Republic conquered the area in 75 BC and incorporated it into the province of Moesia. It was an important fort of the Danubian Limes and Roman Legio IV Flavia Felix was garrisoned there since 86 AD. Singidunum was the birthplace to the Roman Emperor Jovian. It was sacked by Huns in 441, and by Avars and Slavs in 584. At the beginning of the 7th century, the Singidunum fort was finally destroyed.

Autariatae Illyrian people

The Autariatae or Autariatai were an Illyrian people that lived between the valleys of the Lim and the Tara, beyond the Accursed Mountains, and the valley of West Morava. Their territory was located inland from the Ardiaei and the Lake Skodra, extending east to the Dardani and north or northeast to the Triballi.

Stari Slankamen Village in Vojvodina, Serbia

Stari Slankamen, also known as Slankamen, is a village located in the Inđija municipality, in the Syrmia District of Serbia. It is situated in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. Before the Yugoslav war ethnic Croats made up 38,78% of the population. The population of the village numbering 674 people, of whom 485 are ethnic Serbs.

Kostolac Airport

Kostolac Airport is situated on the bank of the Danube river, built in 1998 on the power plant's reclaimed former ash yard. It is two kilometres from the Kostolac town centre and also near the town of Požarevac.

Dardania (Roman province)

Dardania was a Roman province in the Central Balkans, initially an unofficial region in Moesia (87–284), then a province administratively part of the Diocese of Moesia (293–337). It was named after the tribe of the Dardani who inhabited the region in classical antiquity prior to the Roman conquest.

Celticisation, or Celticization, was historically the process of conquering and assimilating by the ancient Celts. Today, as the Celtic inhabited-areas significantly differ, the term still refers to making something Celtic, usually focusing around the Celtic nations and their languages.

Serbia in the Roman era

Much of the territory of the modern state of Serbia was part of the Roman Empire and later the East Roman or Byzantine Empire. In particular, the region of Central Serbia was under Roman rule for about 600 years, from the 1st century BC until the arrival of the Slavs into the Balkans during the 6th century. The territories were administratively divided into the provinces of Moesia, Pannonia and Dardania. Moesia Superior roughly corresponds to modern Serbia proper; Pannonia Inferior included the eastern part of Serbia proper; Dardania included the western part of Serbia proper.

The best known cultural archaeological discoveries from the prehistoric period on the territory of modern-day Serbia are the Starčevo and Vinča cultures dating back to 6400–6200 BC.

Ostrovo, Požarevac Village in Braničevo, Serbia

Ostrovo is a village in the municipality of Kostolac, city of Požarevac, Serbia. According to the 2002 census, the village has a population of 685 people.

Margus was an ancient Roman city situated at locality of present-day Požarevac (Serbia). Latin name Margus was in use after the Roman conquest in the first century BC. Before the Roman conquest, the area was inhabited by Thracians, Dacians and Celts. Nearby Viminacium was the provincial capital of Moesia Superior, of which Margus was part.

Moesia Prima

Moesia Prima was a frontier province of the late Roman Empire, situated in the central parts of present-day Serbia, along the south bank of the Danube River. Provincial capital was Viminacium, near modern Kostolac in Serbia).

TPP Kostolac is a coal fired thermal power plant complex operated by Elektroprivreda Srbije, located on the right bank of Danube river, in Kostolac, Požarevac. It is the second largest power plant in Serbia after TPP Nikola Tesla. Within the complex, there are 4 operational units as of October 2020. It makes around 10% of the total available capacity of the electric power system of Serbia and almost 11 percent of the total electric power production in EPS's system.

Braničevo Fortress is a medieval Serbian fortress whose remains are situated in the village of Kostolac, in Serbia, about 130km east of Belgrade and 24 km from northeast of Požarevac. It consists of two Medieval fortified structures located in Mali Grad and Veliki Grad, on the right bank of the Danube and above Dunavac and the Mlava River.

References

  1. "Насеља општине Костолац" (PDF). stat.gov.rs (in Serbian). Statistical Office of Serbia. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  2. Попис становништва, домаћинстава и станова 2011. у Републици Србији or 2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia (in Serbian). Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. 2012. ISBN   978-86-6161-023-3.
  3. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-06-21. Retrieved 2009-06-22.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. Jovanović 1984, 1985, 1991; Theodossiev 2000: 120- 121, cat. no. 113 with full bibliography
  5. Jovanović 1985, 1992
  6. "Council of American Overseas Research Centers" (PDF). Council of American Overseas Research Centers.
  7. Strabo (VII 3, 13)
  8. "Viminacium – Roman city and legionary fort". www.viminacium.org.rs.