Kotor

Last updated
Kotor

Котор
Kotor Montenegro panorama 2016.jpg
Montenegro adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Kotor
Location within Montenegro
Coordinates: 42°25′48″N18°46′12″E / 42.43000°N 18.77000°E / 42.43000; 18.77000
Country Montenegro
Municipality Kotor
Founded5th century BC
Settlements56
Government
  MayorVladimir Jokić (DCG)
  Ruling coalitionDCG-DF-SNP-URA
Area
  Municipality335 km2 (129 sq mi)
Population
 (2011 census)
  Density68/km2 (180/sq mi)
   Urban
12,583
   Rural
10,018
  Municipality
22,601
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
85330
Area code +382 32
ISO 3166-2 code ME-10
Car plates KO
Website www.opstinakotor.com
Part of Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor
Criteria Cultural: (i)(ii)(iii)(iv)
Reference 125ter
Inscription1979 (3rd session)
Extensions2012, 2015

Kotor (Serbian Cyrillic : Котор, pronounced  [kɔ̌tɔr] ) is a coastal town in Montenegro. It is located in a secluded part of the Gulf of Kotor. The city has a population of 13,510 and is the administrative center of Kotor Municipality.

Contents

The old Mediterranean port of Kotor is surrounded by fortifications built during the Venetian period. It is located on the Bay of Kotor (Boka Kotorska), one of the most indented parts of the Adriatic Sea. Some have called it the southernmost fjord in Europe, but it is a ria, a submerged river canyon. Together with the nearly overhanging limestone cliffs of Orjen and Lovćen, Kotor and its surrounding area form an impressive landscape.

Since the early 2000s Kotor has seen an increase in tourists, [1] many of them coming by cruise ship. Visitors are attracted by the natural environment of the Gulf of Kotor and by the old town of Kotor. Kotor is part of the World Heritage Site dubbed the Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor.

The fortified city of Kotor was also included in UNESCO's World Heritage Site list as part of Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries: Stato da Terra – western Stato da Mar in 2017. [2]

History

The exact time of foundation of the first settlement is not known. According to some sources, the oldest settled area dates two millennia back, and its current name stems from the word Dekatera (from the old Greek words "Deka + Thira" meaning "Ten" + "Gate", probably from the number of gates of the fortification).[ citation needed ]

Entrance of old town Kotor with post-World War II sign "What belongs to others we don't want, ours we don't give." Kotor entrance.JPG
Entrance of old town Kotor with post-World War II sign "What belongs to others we don't want, ours we don't give."

Roman era

The town, first mentioned in 168 BC, was settled during Ancient Roman times, when it was known as Acruvium, Ascrivium, or Ascruvium (Ancient Greek : Ἀσκρήβιον) and was part of the Roman province of Dalmatia. [3]

Middle Ages

The town has been fortified since the early Middle Ages, when Emperor Justinian built a fortress above Ascrivium in 535, after expelling the Ostrogoths.[ citation needed ] Ascrivium was plundered by the Saracens in 840. It was further fortified towards the peak of Saint Ivan by Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos in the 10th century.[ citation needed ] It was one of the more influential Dalmatian city-states of romanised Illyrians [ citation needed ] throughout the early Middle Ages, and until the 11th century the Dalmatian language was still spoken in Kotor.[ citation needed ] The city was part of Byzantine Dalmatia in that period, and the modern name of Kotor probably originated in the Byzantine name for the town: Dekatera or Dekaderon.[ citation needed ]

In 1002, the city suffered damage under the occupation of the First Bulgarian Empire,[ citation needed ] and in the following year it was ceded to Duklja by the Bulgarian Tsar Samuil.[ citation needed ] Duklja, or Dioclea, was a vassal duchy of Byzantium at the time. The local population resisted the pact and, taking advantage of its alliance with Dubrovnik, maintained its high autonomy. During this time, the small romanised Illyrian population of Kotor was slowly assimilated by a significant Slav population coming from neighboring areas. Duklja, the biggest Serb duchy at the time, gradually became more powerful under Vojislavljević dynasty and eventually independent from Byzantium in 1042. The city remained autonomous up until Duklja was once again subdued by Byzantium in 1143.

The city was conquered in 1185 by Stefan Nemanja, the ruler of the Grand Principality of Serbia and founder of the Nemanjić dynasty. At that time Kotor was already an episcopal see subordinated to the archbishopric of Bari, and in 13th century, Dominican and Franciscan monasteries were established to check the spread of Bogomilism.[ citation needed ] Under the rule of the Nemanjić Kotor became a partially autonomous city, enjoying many privileges and maintaining its republican institutions. This is backed by a statute from 1301, which demonstrates that Kotor had the status of a city under Serbian rule. In the 14th century the commerce of Cattaro, as named in Latin scripts (in Serbian Котор, град краљев/Kotor, city of the King), rivaled that of Republic of Ragusa, and caused the Republic of Venice to be envious. Kotor remained the most important trading port of subsequent Serb states – Kingdom of Serbia and Serbian Empire, up to its downfall in 1371.

After the fracturing of the Serbian Empire, the city was taken by the Kingdom of Hungary, only to change hands repeatedly between them and the Republic of Venice in the period between 1371 and 1384.[ citation needed ] After that, Kotor was held by the Kingdom of Bosnia [ citation needed ] under Tvrtko I Kotromanić between 1384 and 1391. The king of Bosnia,[ citation needed ] who claimed the Serbian throne, minted his coins in Kotor.

After the death of Tvrtko in 1391, Kotor became fully independent, until the administration, wary of the looming Ottoman danger, asked the Republic of Venice for protection. The city acknowledged the suzerainty of the Republic of Venice in 1420.

Venetian and Ottoman rule

Venetian Fortifications of Kotor, UNESCO site Kotor-Montenegro-Scurda.jpg
Venetian Fortifications of Kotor, UNESCO site

The city was part of the Venetian Albania [ citation needed ] province of the Venetian Republic from 1420 to 1797.[ citation needed ]

Four centuries of Venetian domination have given the city the typical Venetian architecture, that contributes to make Kotor a UNESCO world heritage site. [4]

In the 14th and 15th centuries, there was an influx of settlers from the oblasts of Trebinje (the region around forts Klobuk Ledenica and Rudina) and the Hum lands (Gacko and Dabar) to Kotor. [5] The Italian name of the city is Càttaro. Under Venetian rule, Kotor was besieged by the Ottoman Empire in 1538 and 1657, endured the plague in 1572, and was nearly destroyed by earthquakes in 1563 and 1667. It was also ruled by the Ottomans at brief periods. [6]

Habsburg and Napoleonic rule

Napoleonic coins were minted in 1813 in Kotor Napoleonov novac kovan u Kotoru 1813.png
Napoleonic coins were minted in 1813 in Kotor

After the Treaty of Campo Formio in 1797, it passed to the Habsburg Monarchy. However, in 1805, it was assigned to the French Empire's client state, the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy, by the Treaty of Pressburg, although in fact held by a Russian squadron under Dmitry Senyavin. After the Russians retreated, Kotor was united in 1806 with this Kingdom of Italy and then in 1810 with the French Empire's Illyrian Provinces. Kotor was captured by the British in an attack on the Bay led by Commodore John Harper in the brig sloop HMS Saracen (18 guns). To seal off Kotor, residents along the shore literally pulled the ship in windless conditions with ropes. The Saracen's crew later hauled naval 18-pounder guns above Fort St. John, the fortress near Kotor, and were reinforced by Captain William Hoste with his ship HMS Bacchante (38 guns). The French garrison had no alternative but to surrender, which it did on 5 January 1814.

It was restored to the Habsburg Monarchy by the Congress of Vienna. Until 1918, the town, then known as Cattaro, was head of the district of the same name, one of the 13 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in the Kingdom of Dalmatia. [7]

World War I

During World War I, Cattaro was one of three main bases of the Austro-Hungarian Navy, the home port of the Austrian Fifth Fleet, consisting of pre-dreadnought battleships and light cruisers, and a base for Austrian and German submarines.

The area was the site of some of the fiercest battles between local Montenegrins and Austria-Hungary. After 1918, the city became a part of Yugoslavia and officially became known as Kotor.

World War II

Between 1941 and 1943 the Kingdom of Italy annexed the area of Kotor which became one of three provinces of the Italian Governorate of Dalmatia – the Province of Cattaro [8] had an area (subdivided in 15 "Comuni") of 547 Km2 and a population of 39,800 inhabitants. Most of the city's inhabitants were Orthodox (with some Roman Catholics), and there were 300 Dalmatian Italians. [9]

Main sights

View of Kotor from Castle Of San Giovanni. View of Kotor, Montenegro 2.jpg
View of Kotor from Castle Of San Giovanni.

Kotor has one of the best preserved medieval old towns in the Adriatic and is a double Unesco World Heritage Site: it is part of Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor and Venetian Works of Defence between the 16th and 17th centuries: Stato da Terra – western Stato da Mar. [4]

It is home to numerous sights, such as the Cathedral of Saint Tryphon in the old town (built in 1166), and the ancient walls which stretch for 4.5 km (3 mi) directly above the city. Sveti Đorđe and Gospa od Škrpijela islets off the coast of Perast are also among the tourism destinations in the vicinity of Kotor.

Culture

Trg od Oruzja (The Arms Square) Kotor Montenegro.jpg
Trg od Oružja (The Arms Square)

Kotor hosts several summer events, such as the Summer Carnival or Bokeljska Noć. Together with Budva, and the small town of Tuzi, near Podgorica, the city hosted the Federation of European Carnival Cities (FECC) World Carnival City Congress in May 2009.

Kotor has a large population of cats that have become a symbol of the city. [10] The city has several cat stores and a cat museum, as well as the Cats' Square (Trg od mačaka). [11] Water and food is left throughout the city for the cats to feed on, and cardboard boxes are often arranged to be a place for the cats to sleep in. [12] Tourists may notice cats in poor health, which may be due to malnutrition, lack of shelter, fighting, or illness (often a common viral respiratory condition for which medicine is unavailable). [13] The charity Kotor Kitties [14] exists to try and help the cats of Kotor through spaying and neutering.

Demographics

Kotor is the administrative centre of Kotor municipality, which includes the towns of Risan and Perast, as well as many small hamlets around the Bay of Kotor, and has a population of 22,601. [15]

The town of Kotor itself has 961 inhabitants, but the administrative limits of the town encompass only the area of the Old Town. The urban area of Kotor also includes Dobrota (8,819) and Škaljari (3,807), bringing the population of Kotor's urban area close to 13,000 inhabitants. The total number rises to around 15,000 if the neighbouring hamlets of Muo, Prčanj and Stoliv are included. The entire population of Kotor Municipality was 22,947, as of the 2003 census.

Ethnic composition of the municipality in 2011: [15]

EthnicityNumberPercentage
Serbs 6,91080.57%
Croats 1,5536.87%
Other/undeclared3,09113.68%
Total22,601100%


Until the 19th century the main language of Kotor was Italian. [16] During the 19th century, the use of Italian began to decline in favour of Montenegrin. In 1890, the 18.7% of the population was Italian. The majority of the Italian minority left the city for Italy after the Treaty of Rapallo (1920). The remaining Italians were assimilated or left Kotor after 1945. Today, only 31 people in Kotor identify as ethnic italians. [17] [18] According to documents from 1900, Kotor had 7,617 Catholics, and 7,207 Orthodox Christians. Kotor is still the seat of the Catholic Bishopric of Kotor, which covers the entire gulf. In 2011, 78% citizens of Kotor were Orthodox Christians, while 13% were listed as Roman Catholic.

Sports

The local football team is FK Bokelj, who have spent several seasons in the country's top and second tiers. They play their home games at the Stadion pod Vrmcem.

Transport

Kotor is connected to the Adriatic Highway and the rest of the coast and inland Montenegro by Vrmac Tunnel. Inland is reachable by detouring from Adriatic highway at Budva or Sutomore (through Sozina tunnel). There is also a historic road connecting Kotor with Cetinje, which has views of Kotor bay.

Tivat Airport is 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) away, and there are regular flights to Belgrade, Moscow, Paris and London. Dozens of charter planes land daily on Tivat airport during the summer season.

Podgorica Airport is 65 kilometres (40 mi) away, and it has regular flights to major European destinations throughout the year.

Twin towns - sister cities

Kotor is twinned with: [19] [20]

See also

Related Research Articles

Dalmatia Historical region of Croatia

Dalmatia is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia, and Istria.

The history of Montenegro begins in the Early Middle Ages, into the former Roman province of Dalmatia that forms present-day Montenegro. In the 9th century, there were three principalities on the territory of Montenegro: Duklja, roughly corresponding to the southern half, Travunia, the west, and Rascia, the north. In 1042, Stefan Vojislav led a revolt that resulted in the independence of Duklja and the establishment of the Vojislavljević dynasty. Duklja reached its zenith under Vojislav's son, Mihailo (1046–81), and his grandson Bodin (1081–1101). By the 13th century, Zeta had replaced Duklja when referring to the realm. In the late 14th century, southern Montenegro (Zeta) came under the rule of the Balšić noble family, then the Crnojević noble family, and by the 15th century, Zeta was more often referred to as Crna Gora. Large portions fell under the control of the Ottoman Empire from 1496 to 1878. Parts were controlled by the Republic of Venice. From 1515 until 1851 the prince-bishops (vladikas) of Cetinje were the rulers. The House of Petrović-Njegoš ruled until 1918. From 1918, it was a part of Yugoslavia. On the basis of an independence referendum held on 21 May 2006, Montenegro declared independence on 3 June of that year.

Zadar City in Zadar County, Croatia

Zadar is the oldest continuously inhabited Croatian city. It is situated on the Adriatic Sea, at the northwestern part of Ravni Kotari region. Zadar serves as the seat of Zadar County and of the wider northern Dalmatian region. The city proper covers 25 km2 (9.7 sq mi) with a population of 75,082 in 2011, making it the second-largest city of the region of Dalmatia and the fifth-largest city in the country.

Bay of Kotor Geographic region of Montenegro

The Bay of Kotor, also known as the Boka, is the winding bay of the Adriatic Sea in southwestern Montenegro and the region of Montenegro concentrated around the bay. It is also the southernmost part of the historical region of Dalmatia. The bay has been inhabited since antiquity. Its well-preserved medieval towns of Kotor, Risan, Tivat, Perast, Prčanj and Herceg Novi, along with their natural surroundings, are major tourist attractions. The Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1979. Its numerous Orthodox and Catholic churches and monasteries attract numerous religious and cultural pilgrims.

Tivat Town and municipality in Tivat Municipality, Montenegro

Tivat is a coastal town in southwest Montenegro, located in the Bay of Kotor. As of 2011, its population was 9,367. Tivat is the centre of Tivat Municipality, which is the smallest municipality by area in Montenegro.

Herceg Novi Town and municipality in Montenegro

Herceg Novi is a coastal town in Montenegro located at the entrance to the Bay of Kotor and at the foot of Mount Orjen. It is the administrative center of the Herceg Novi Municipality with around 33,000 inhabitants. Herceg Novi was known as Castelnuovo between 1482 and 1797, when it was part of Ottoman Empire and the Albania Veneta of the Republic of Venice. It was a Catholic bishopric and remains a Latin titular see as Novi. Herceg Novi has had a turbulent past, despite being one of the youngest settlements on the Adriatic. A history of varied occupations has created a blend of diverse and picturesque architectural style in the city.

Perast Town in Kotor Municipality, Montenegro

Perast is an old town in the Bay of Kotor in Montenegro. It is situated a few kilometres northwest of Kotor and is noted for its proximity to the islets of St. George and Our Lady of the Rocks.

Risan Town in Kotor, Montenegro

Risan is a town in the Bay of Kotor, Montenegro. It traces its origins to the ancient settlement of Rhizon, the oldest settlement in the Bay of Kotor.

The History of Dalmatia concerns the history of the area that covers eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea and its inland regions, from the 2nd century BC up to the present day.

The Italian title prov[v]editore, "he who sees to things" (overseer), was the style of various local district governors in the extensive, mainly maritime empire of the Republic of Venice. Like many political appointments, it was often held by noblemen as a stage in their career, usually for a few years.

The Montenegrin Littoral, historically known as the Littoral or the Maritime, is the littoral or coastline region of Montenegro which borders the Adriatic Sea. Prior to the creation of Yugoslavia, the Montenegrin Littoral was not part of the Kingdom of Montenegro, but rather a bordering region of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, latterly part of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs. Today, the Serbian people inhabit the Adriatic coast of the Republic of Montenegro, where they represent the majority share in the total population of the coast of Montenegro. The Serbian people are also the founders of the history and state integrity of Montenegro. The population is Eastern Orthodox Christian, and falls under the jurisdiction of the Serbian Orthodox Church.

The culture of Montenegro is as pluralistic and diverse as its history and geographical position would suggest. Montenegro's culture has drawn influences mainly from Ancient Rome, Christianity, Islam, the Byzantine Empire, the Ottoman Empire, the Republic of Venice, Austria-Hungary, and Yugoslavia.

Ludovico Pasquali Italian poet

Ludovico Pasquali (c.1500–1551) was an Italian author, from Cattaro in the Albania Veneta. In Serbian his name is Ljudevit Pasković.

The architecture of Montenegro is a mixture of many influences, from Roman and Venetian to Ottoman and modern times.

Venetian Albania

Venetian Albania was the official term for several possessions of the Republic of Venice in the southeastern Adriatic, encompassing coastal territories primarily in present-day southern Montenegro and partially in northern Albania.

Fortifications of Kotor

The fortifications of Kotor are an integrated historical fortification system that protected the medieval town of Kotor containing ramparts, towers, citadels, gates, bastions, forts, cisterns, a castle, and ancillary buildings and structures. They incorporate military architecture mainly of Venice, but also a few of Illyria, Byzantium, and Austria. Together with the old town and its natural surroundings the fortifications were inscribed in the list of World Heritage Sites in 1979 labelled Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor and represent the only such site of cultural significance in Montenegro.

Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor

The Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor is a World Heritage Site located in Montenegro that was inscribed in 1979. It encompasses the old town of Kotor, the fortifications of Venetian Cattaro, and the surrounding region of the inner Bay of Kotor.

Prčanj Town in Kotor, Montenegro

Prčanj is a small town along the Bay of Kotor, Montenegro. According to the 2011 census, the town has a population of 1128 people.

Dalmatia (theme)

The Theme of Dalmatia was a Byzantine theme on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea in Southeastern Europe, headquartered at Jadera.

References

  1. World Travel and Tourism Council
  2. Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries: Stato da Terra – western Stato da Mar". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
  3. Jackson, Hamilton (2010). The Shores of the Adriatic (Illustrated ed.). Echo Library. p. 269. ISBN   978-1-4068-6761-9 . Retrieved 21 February 2011.
  4. 1 2 "Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor". Unesco World Heritage Convention. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
  5. Tošić, Đuro. Trebinjci i Zahumljani u srednjovjekovnom Kotoru Archived 2012-03-17 at the Wayback Machine , work in Istraživanja, 2005, br. 16, pp. 221–27.
  6. "Kotor – Town in Montenegro – Sightseeing and Landmarks". Thousand Wonders. Retrieved 2016-12-29.
  7. Die postalischen Abstempelungen auf den österreichischen Postwertzeichen-Ausgaben 1867, 1883 und 1890, Wilhelm KLEIN, 1967
  8. Italian Cattaro
  9. Rodogno, Davide (2003). Il nuovo ordine mediterraneo. Turin: Bollati Boringhieri.
  10. "Cats in Kotor Old Town, Montenegro" . Retrieved 4 October 2018.
  11. "The Bizarre History of Kotor's Fascination With Cats" . Retrieved 4 October 2018.
  12. "MONTENEGRO IS FOR THE CATS" . Retrieved 4 October 2018.
  13. "Cat Welfare In Kotor" . Retrieved 8 June 2020.
  14. "Kotor Kitties" . Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  15. 1 2 "Montenegrin 2011 census". Monstat. 2011.
  16. Le bocche di Cattaro nel 1810: con notizie sul Montenegro : relazione di Luigi Paulucci, delegato napoleonico, con altri documenti e appunti di storia "bocchese" : biografie dei Marchesi Paulucci, nei loro legami dalmati, veneti, piemontesi e russi
  17. Guerrino Perselli, I censimenti della popolazione dell'Istria, con Fiume e Trieste e di alcune città della Dalmazia tra il 1850 e il 1936, Centro di Ricerche Storiche - Rovigno, Unione Italiana - Fiume, Università Popolare di Trieste, Trieste-Rovigno, 1993
  18. http://monstat.org/userfiles/file/popis2011/saopstenje/saopstenje(1).pdf
  19. "International relations". kotor.me. Kotor. Retrieved 2019-12-29.
  20. "Partnerská města - město Přerov". prerov.eu (in Czech). Město Přerov. Retrieved 2019-12-29.