Kovel

Last updated
Kovel

Ковель

Kowel
Stara apteka ta budinok, de rozmishchuvavsia revkom.jpg
Square in Kovel, 2002
Flag of Kovel.svg
Flag
Coat of Arms of Kovel.svg
Coat of arms
Volyn Oblast location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Kovel
Ukraine adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Kovel
Coordinates: 51°13′0″N24°43′0″E / 51.21667°N 24.71667°E / 51.21667; 24.71667 Coordinates: 51°13′0″N24°43′0″E / 51.21667°N 24.71667°E / 51.21667; 24.71667
Country Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine
Oblast Flag of Volyn Oblast.svg  Volyn Oblast
Raion Kovel City Municipality
Founded13th century
Magdeburg law 1518
Government
  MayorIhor Chayka [1]
Area
  Total47.3 km2 (18.3 sq mi)
Population
 (2020)
  Total68,240 [2]
  Density1,400/km2 (4,000/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
45000
Area code(s) +380 3352
Website Municipal official site in Ukrainian

Kovel (Ukrainian : Ко́вель, romanized: Kovel’; Russian : Ковель, Polish: Kowel, Yiddish : קאָוועל) is a city in Volyn Oblast (province), in northwestern Ukraine. Serving as the administrative center of Kovel Raion (district), the town itself is designated as a town of oblast significance and is not part of the raion. Population: 68,240 (2020 est.) [2]

Contents

Kovel gives its name to one of the oldest runic inscriptions which were lost during World War II. The Kovel spearhead, unearthed near the town in 1858, contained text in Gothic (illustration).

History

The name Kovel comes from a Slavonic word for blacksmith hence the horseshoe on the town's coat of arms. The rune-inscribed Spearhead of Kovel was found near Kovel in 1858. It dates to the early 3rd century, when Gothic tribes lived in the area.

Kovel (Kowel) was first mentioned in 1310. [3] It received city rights from the Polish King Sigismund I the Old in 1518. [3] In 1547 the owner of Kowel became Bona Sforza, Polish queen. [3] In 1564 starost of Kowel became Kurbski (d. 1584). [3] From 1566 to 1795 it was part of the Volhynian Voivodeship. Kowel was a royal city of Poland.

Kowel, Second Polish Republic ca. 1918. BFC Kowel vokzalnaya 1918.jpg
Kowel, Second Polish Republic ca. 1918.
St. Anne's Church Kovel' - Kostel (der.) z s. Vishen'ki Rozhishchens'kogo raionu-1.jpg
St. Anne's Church

After the late 18th century Partitions of Poland the town fell into the Russian Empire for over a hundred years. During the First World War, the city was a site of the Battle of Kovel between the Central Powers and the Russian Empire. In the interwar period, Kovel served as the capital of Kovel County in Volhynian Voivodeship of the Polish Republic. It was an important garrison of the Polish Army, here the headquarters of the 27th Volhynian Infantry Division was located. Furthermore, at the village of Czerkasy, a large depot of the Polish Army was located. In 1924, construction of the St. Stanislaus Bishop and Martyr Roman Catholic church began.

In World War II, following the Nazi German invasion of Poland and subsequently, their Operation Barbarossa the Germans murdered 18,000 Jews in Kovel, mostly during August and September 1942.

About 8,000 Jews were murdered in the forest near Bakhiv on August 19, 1942 during the liquidation of the Kovel ghetto, established on May 25, 1942. Jewish victims were driven by train from Kovel to Bakhiv where pits were dug close to the railroads. Actually there were two ghettos, one within the city and another in the suburbs of Pyaski. Both ghettos had 24,000 Jews, including many refugees. The Jews from both ghettos were executed at different places and at different time. The Jewish community ceased to exist. [5] [6]

In March and April 1944, Kovel was a site of fierce fighting between the 5th SS Panzer Division Wiking and the Red Army.

During the Volhynian Genocide, the town was a shelter for ethnic Poles, escaping the genocide. In that period, Ukrainian nationalists murdered app. 3,700 Polish inhabitants of Kovel county. In early spring of 1944, the 27th Infantry Division of the Home Army operated in the area. Kovel was captured by the Red Army in July 1944. In 1945, the Big Three, Great Britain, the United States and the Soviet Union, established new borders for Poland; the Polish population was forcibly resettled and Kovel was incorporated into the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It has been a part of sovereign Ukraine since 1991.

Climate

Climate data for Kovel (1981–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)0.0
(32.0)
1.3
(34.3)
6.4
(43.5)
14.3
(57.7)
20.7
(69.3)
23.2
(73.8)
25.2
(77.4)
24.6
(76.3)
18.9
(66.0)
13.0
(55.4)
5.7
(42.3)
1.0
(33.8)
12.9
(55.2)
Daily mean °C (°F)−2.8
(27.0)
−2.1
(28.2)
2.1
(35.8)
8.6
(47.5)
14.3
(57.7)
17.1
(62.8)
19.1
(66.4)
18.1
(64.6)
13.1
(55.6)
8.0
(46.4)
2.5
(36.5)
−1.5
(29.3)
8.0
(46.4)
Average low °C (°F)−5.5
(22.1)
−5.1
(22.8)
−1.5
(29.3)
3.5
(38.3)
8.6
(47.5)
11.6
(52.9)
13.6
(56.5)
12.6
(54.7)
8.5
(47.3)
4.1
(39.4)
−0.1
(31.8)
−3.7
(25.3)
3.9
(39.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches)33.3
(1.31)
34.6
(1.36)
37.9
(1.49)
42.6
(1.68)
59.3
(2.33)
80.2
(3.16)
90.9
(3.58)
61.0
(2.40)
60.8
(2.39)
39.3
(1.55)
43.5
(1.71)
40.4
(1.59)
623.8
(24.56)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)8.89.29.18.19.010.59.58.08.67.710.110.0108.6
Average relative humidity (%)85.183.477.769.169.372.674.274.780.782.286.187.178.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 46.369.9132.2194.8260.1250.0263.8250.9163.8124.855.133.61,845.3
Source: World Meteorological Organization [7]

Transportation

Kovel's historic railway station Vokzal stantsiyi Kovel'.jpg
Kovel's historic railway station

Kovel is the north-western hub of the Ukrainian rail system, with six rail lines radiating outward from the city. The first of these was built in 1873, connecting the city with Brest-Litovsk and Rivne. In 1877 Kovel was first linked by rail with Lublin and Warsaw in Congress Poland.

Notable people

Twin towns – sister cities

Kovel is twinned with: [8]

Related Research Articles

Lutsk City and administrative center of Volyn Oblast, Ukraine

Lutsk is a city on the Styr River in northwestern Ukraine. It is the administrative center of the Volyn Oblast (province) and the administrative center of the surrounding Lutsk Raion (district) within the oblast, though it is not a part of the raion. Lutsk has the status of a city of oblast significance, equivalent to that of a raion, and a population of 217,315 .

Volodymyr-Volynskyi City in Volyn Oblast, Ukraine

Volodymyr-Volynskyi is a small city located in Volyn Oblast, in north-western Ukraine. Serving as the administrative centre of the Volodymyr-Volynskyi Raion, the city itself is also designated as a separate municipality within the oblast as the city of regional significance. The city is the historic centre of the region of Volhynia and the historic capital of the Principality of Volhynia. Population: 38,340

Rivne City and administrative center of Rivne Oblast, Ukraine

Rivne is a historic city in western Ukraine. Known prior to June 1991 as Rovno, the city is the administrative centre of Rivne Oblast (province), as well as the surrounding Rivne Raion (district) within the oblast. Administratively, Rivne is incorporated as a city of oblast significance and does not belong to the raion. Population: 246,003

Shatsk, Volyn Oblast Urban locality in Volyn Oblast, Ukraine

Shatsk is an urban-type settlement in Volyn Oblast, Ukraine, to the north-west of Kovel. It is the administrative center of Shatsk Raion. Population: 5,268

Olyka Urban locality in Volyn Oblast, Ukraine

Olyka is an urban-type settlement in Kivertsi Raion, Volyn Oblast, Ukraine. It is located east of Lutsk on the Putilovka Rriver. Its population is 3,046 .

Sarny City in Rivne Oblast, Ukraine

Sarny, translated as Does, is a small city in Rivne Oblast (province) of western Ukraine. It is the administrative center of Sarny Raion (district), and is a major railway node on the Sluch River. Population: 29,066

Zbarazh City in Ternopil Oblast, Ukraine

Zbarazh is a city in Ternopil Raion of Ternopil Oblast (province) of western Ukraine. It is located in the historic region of Galicia. Zbarazh hosts the administration of Zbarazh urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine. Population: 13,587

Kremenets City in Ternopil Oblast, Ukraine

Kremenets is a city in Ternopil Oblast (province) of western Ukraine. It is the administrative center of the Kremenets Raion (district), and lies 18 km north-east of the great Pochayiv Monastery. The city is situated in the historic region of Volhynia. It hosts the administration of Kremenets urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine. Population: 20,827

Dubno City in Rivne Oblast, Ukraine

Dubno is a city located on the Ikva River in Rivne Oblast (province) of western Ukraine. Serving as the administrative center of Dubno Raion (district), Dubno is incorporated as a city of oblast significance and does not belong to the raion. The city is located on intersection of two major European routes, E40 and E85. The city is estimated to have a population of 37,464 . It is located within the historic region of Volhynia.

Yavoriv City in Lviv Oblast, Ukraine

Yavoriv is a city located in Lviv Oblast (region) of western Ukraine near the Polish border. It is the administrative center of Yavoriv Raion and rests approximately 50 kilometres west of the oblast capital, Lviv. Its population is approximately 12,946 .

Berezne City in Rivne Oblast, Ukraine

Berézne is a city in Rivne Oblast, Ukraine, located on the Sluch River north of Rivne. It is the administrative centre of the Berezne Raion. Population: 13,285

Lanivtsi City in Ternopil Oblast, Ukraine

Lanivtsi, is a city in Kremenets Raion, Ternopil Oblast, Ukraine. The population is 8,680 as of 2001. It hosts the administration of Lanivtsi urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine. Current population: 8,401

Ustyluh City in Volyn Oblast, Ukraine

Ustylúh is a town in Volodymyr-Volynskyi Raion, Volyn Oblast, Ukraine. It is situated on the east side of the Ukrainian-Polish border, and 8 miles west of Volodymyr-Volynskyi. Population: 2,096

Kostopil City in Rivne Oblast, Ukraine

Kostopil is a small city, originally named Ostlec Wielki or Ostaltsi, on the Zamchysko river in Rivne Oblast of western Ukraine. It was the administrative center of the Kostopil Raion up to 2020, but is now within the Rivne Raion. Population: 31,215

Horodok, Lviv Oblast City in Lviv Oblast, Ukraine

Horodok is a city in Lviv Oblast (region) of Ukraine. Until July 2020 it was the administrative center of Horodok Raion, it belongs from then on to the reformed Lviv Raion. Population: 16,168 .

Wołyń Voivodeship (1921–1939)

Wołyń Voivodeship or Volhynian Voivodeship was an administrative region of interwar Poland (1918–1939) with an area of 35,754 km², 22 cities, and provincial capital in Łuck. The voivodeship was divided into 11 districts (powiaty). The area comprised part of the historical region of Volhynia. At the end of World War II, at the insistence of Joseph Stalin and the Soviet Union during the Tehran Conference of 1943, Poland's borders were redrawn by the Allies. The Polish population was forcibly resettled westward; and the Voivodeship territory was incorporated into the Ukrainian SSR of the Soviet Union. Since 1991 it has been divided between the Rivne and Volyn Oblasts of sovereign Ukraine.

Novohrad-Volynskyi City in Zhytomyr Oblast, Ukraine

Novohrad-Volynskyi is a city in the Zhytomyr Oblast (province) of northern Ukraine. Originally known as Zvyahel, the city was renamed in 1795 after annexation of territories of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth by the Russian Empire soon after the third Partition of Poland.

Katerynivka, Kremenets Raion, Ternopil Oblast village in Ternopil, Ukraine

Katerynivka until 1944 Katerburg is a village and a former town in Western Ukraine. Administratively part of Kremenets Raion of the Ternopil Oblast, the village has 391 inhabitants. Katerynivka belongs to Kremenets urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine.

Lokachi Urban locality in Volyn Oblast, Ukraine

Lokachi is an urban settlement (town) in Volyn Oblast (province), located in the historic region of the Volhynia. It is an administrative seat of the Lokachi Raion. Population: 3,775

Kolky (urban-type settlement) Urban locality in Volyn Oblast, Ukraine

Kolky, also Kolki is an urban-type settlement in the Volyn Oblast in Ukraine, located in the historic region of Volhynia. Kolky has a population of 4,004

References

  1. "Municipal official site in Ukrainian".
  2. 1 2 "Чисельність наявного населення України (Actual population of Ukraine)" (PDF) (in Ukrainian). State Statistics Service of Ukraine . Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Rąkowski, Grzegorz (2005). Wołyń. Pruszków: Oficyna Wydawnicza "Rewasz". p. 85. ISBN   83-89188-32-5.
  4. Photograph from the Boris Feldblyum Collection
  5. "Yahad - in Unum".
  6. "Bakhiv (Kovel)".
  7. "World Meteorological Organization Climate Normals for 1981–2010". World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 17 July 2021. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
  8. "Міста партнери". kovelrada.gov.ua (in Ukrainian). Kovel. Retrieved 2020-03-31.