|• Total||29 km2 (11 sq mi)|
|Elevation||2 m (7 ft)|
|• Rank||20 th|
|• Official||Malayalam, English|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-KL|
|Vehicle registration||KL 56|
Koyilandy (IPA: [kojilɐːɳɖi] ; formerly known in English as Quilandy, Malayalam as Pandalayani Kollam, Arabic as Fundriya, and Portuguese as Pandarani) is a municipality and a taluk in Kozhikode district, Kerala on the Malabar Coast. The historical town is located right in the middle of the coast of Kozhikode district, between Kozhikode (Calicut) and Kannur, on National Highway 66.
The freedom fighter K. Kelappan, popularly known as Kerala Gandhi, was born in a nearby village, Muchukunnu.
Pandalayani is described by different authors, all the way from Europe to Arabia to China, in different names. Some of the names are given here. Pliny the Elder the elder describes the place as Patale.The Odoric of Pordenone called Pandalayani as Flandarina. The medieval Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta called it Fandaraina. The Portuguese writers called Pandalayani as Pandarani. The medieval historic chronicle Tuhfat Ul Mujahideen written by the Zainuddin Makhdoom II of Ponnani calls the port town as Fundreeah.
"No one has tried to clear that misconception [that Vasco da Gama landed at Kappad]. The government has even installed a memorial stone at the Kappad beach. Actually [Vasco da] Gama landed at Koyilandy in the [Kozhikode] district because there was a port there and Kozhikode did not have one. It does not have a port even now."
Koyilandy, formerly known as Panthalayani Kollam, is one of the oldest ports in South India and is often identified with the port of Tyndis by some of the historians, which was a satellite feeding port to Muziris, according to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.Tyndis was a major center of trade, next only to Muziris, between the Cheras and the Roman Empire. Pliny the Elder (1st century CE) states that the port of Tyndis was located at the northwestern border of Keprobotos (Chera dynasty). The North Malabar region, which lies north of the port at Tyndis , was ruled by the kingdom of Ezhimala during Sangam period. According to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea , a region known as Limyrike began at Naura and Tyndis . However the Ptolemy mentions only Tyndis as the Limyrike's starting point. The region probably ended at Kanyakumari; it thus roughly corresponds to the present-day Malabar Coast. The value of Rome's annual trade with the region was estimated at around 50,000,000 sesterces. Pliny the Elder mentioned that Limyrike was prone by pirates. The Cosmas Indicopleustes mentioned that the Limyrike was a source of peppers. The medieval Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta describes Pandalayani Kollam as "A beautiful and large place, abounding with gardens and markets".
According to Kerala Muslim tradition, Koyilandy was home to one of the oldest mosques in the Indian subcontinent. According to the Legend of Cheraman Perumals, the first Indian mosque was built in 624 AD at Kodungallur with the mandate of the last the ruler (the Cheraman Perumal) of Chera dynasty, who left from Dharmadom to Mecca and converted to Islam during the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad (c. 570–632).According to the legend, the Masjid at Pandalayani (Koyilandy) was built by Malik Dinar, and he appointed one of his ten sons as the Quazi in the Masjid. According to Qissat Shakarwati Farmad , the Masjids at Kodungallur, Kollam, Madayi, Barkur, Mangalore, Kasaragod, Kannur, Dharmadam, Panthalayani (Koyilandy), and Chaliyam, were built during the era of Malik Dinar, and they are among the oldest Masjids in the Indian subcontinent. It is believed that Malik Dinar died at Thalangara in Kasaragod town. The Koyilandy Jumu'ah Mosque contains an Old Malayalam inscription written in a mixture of Vatteluttu and Grantha scripts which dates back to the 10th century CE. It is a rare surviving document recording patronage by a Hindu king (Bhaskara Ravi) to the Muslims of Kerala. Several Old Malayalam inscriptions, those date back to the 11th century CE, have found from Pandalayani Kollam.
Initially, Koyilandy was an important port town of Kolathunadu (Kingdom of Kannur) in the early medieval period. Later the Zamorin of Calicut annexed the port town to establish supremacy over the North Malabar region.The Kollam Raja of Payanad had made his capital at Pandalayani Kollam and the Zamorin, his conquerrer, had a palace here. The few remnants of the Chinese trade can be seen in and around the present city of Koyilandy. This include a Silk Street, Chinese Fort ("Chinakotta"), Chinese Settlement ("Chinachery" in Kappad), and Chinese Mosque ("Chinapalli" in Koyilandy). The Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama visited Koyilandy in 1498, opening the sailing route directly from Europe to South Asia, during the Age of Discovery. It eventually led to the European colonisation of Indian subcontinent. In March 1505, a large Muslim fleet at Koyilandy was destroyed by Portuguese. It had assembled there to take back a large number of Muslims to Arabia and Egypt, who were leaving the kingdom of Calicut disappointed at the trade losses caused to them recently. Duarte de Menezes captured 17 vessels and killed 2,000 men.
In February–March 1525, A Portuguese navy led by new Viceroy Henry Menezes raided Ponnani and Koyilandy, and burned both of the towns.Koyilandy was defended by a combined army of 20,000 Nairs and Muslims. On reaching Calicut, he earlier found that the place had been attacked by the Calicut forces. The Nairs of the chief of Kurumbranad and Calicut forces invested Fort Calicut (Siege of Calicut). They were helped by a band of Muslims under the command of a European engineer. The Kutti Ali's (Kunjali Marakkar) ships blockaded the port. Captain Lima, with 300 men, defended the fort. In 1550, the Portuguese made descents on the coastal towns of Calicut, particularly on Koyilandy, destroying mosques and houses, and killing one-third of the inhabitants. According to historian M. G. Raghava Varier, at the peak of their reign, the Zamorin of Calicut ruled over a region from Kollam in south to Koyilandy in north.
Koyilandy is located at 2 m (6.6 ft).at an average elevation of
As of 2011 India census,Koyilandy had a population of 71,873. Males constitute 46.78% of the population and females 53.22%. Literacy rate of Koyilandy is 95.11% (higher than Kerala average of 94.00%). Male literacy is around 97.38% while female literacy rate is 93.15%. In Koyilandy, around 10% of the population is under 6 years of age. Economy of Koyilandy revolves around fishing, local businesses and remittance from the Persian Gulf. Around 70% of population follows Hinduism, and around 30% follows Islam in Koyilandy.
Koyilandy is the largest Taluk in Kozhikode district.It administers a population of 645,979 within an area of 642 square kilometre, as of the Census 2011. The position of the Koyilandy Taluk in Kozhikode district is given below:
Koyilandy is the taluk headquarters of 34 Revenue Villages. They are Arikkulam, Atholy, Avitanallur, Balussery, Chakkittapara, Changaroth, Chemancheri, Chempanode, Chengottukavu, Cheruvannur, Eravattur, Iringal, Kayanna, Keezhariyur, Koorachundu, Koothali, Kottur, Kozhukkallur, Menhaniam, Meppayur, Moodadi, Naduvannur, Nochad, Palery, Panangad, Panthalayani, Payyoli, Perambra, Sivapuram, Thikkodi, Thurayur, Ulliyeri, Unnikulam, Uralloor, Viyyur and Muchukunnu.
Koyilandy has a wide variety of indigenous dishes. The centuries of maritime trade has given the Koyilandy a cosmopolitan cuisine. The cuisine is a blend of traditional Kerala, Persian, Yemenese and Arab food culture.One of the main elements of this cuisine is Pathiri , a pancake made of rice flour. Variants of Pathiri include Neypathiri (made with ghee), Poricha Pathiri (fried rather than baked), Meen Pathiri (stuffed with fish), and Irachi Pathiri (stuffed with beef). Spices like Black pepper, Cardamom, and Clove are widely used in the cuisine of Koyilandy. The main item used in the festivals is the Malabar style of Biryani. Sadhya is also seen in marriage and festival occasions. Snacks such as Arikadukka, Chattipathiri, Muttamala, Pazham Nirachathu, and Unnakkaya have their own style in Koyilandy. Besides these, other common food items of Kerala are also seen in the cuisine of Koyilandy. The Malabar version of Biryani, popularly known as Kuzhi Mandi in Malayalam is another popular item, which has an influence from Yemen.
The town is administered by Koyilandy Municipality, headed by a chairperson. For administrative purposes, the town is divided into 44 wards,from which the members of the municipal council are elected for a term of five years.
The wards are:
|Ward no.||Name||Ward no.||Name|
|7||Puliyanchery East||8||Kalathil Kadavu|
|11||Panthalayani North||12||Puthalath Kunnu|
|15||Panthalayani South||16||Peruvattur Central|
|21||Thetti Kunnu||22||Kavum Vattam|
|41||Civil Station||42||Ooraam Kunnu|
Kozhikode, also known in English as Calicut, is a city along the Malabar Coast in the state of Kerala in India. It has a corporation limit population of 609,224 and a metropolitan population of more than 2 million, making it the second largest metropolitan area in Kerala and the 19th largest in India. Kozhikode is classified as a Tier 2 city by the Government of India.
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The term Kerala was first epigraphically recorded as Keralaputra (Cheras) in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka of Magadha. It was mentioned as one of four independent kingdoms in southern India during Ashoka's time, the others being the Cholas, Pandyas and Satyaputras. The Cheras transformed Kerala into an international trade centre by establishing trade relations across the Arabian Sea with all major Mediterranean and Red Sea ports as well those of Eastern Africa and the Far East. The dominion of Cheras was located in one of the key routes of the ancient Indian Ocean trade. The early Cheras collapsed after repeated attacks from the neighboring Cholas and Rashtrakutas.
Tanur is a coastal town, a municipality, and a block located in Tirur Taluk, Malappuram district, Kerala, India. It is located on the Malabar Coast, 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) north of Tirur and 9 kilometres south of Parappanangadi. It is the 17th-most populated municipality in the state, the fourth-most populated municipality in the district, and the second-most densely populated municipality in Malappuram district, having about 3,568 residents per square kilometre as of the year 2011. Tanur town is located south of the estuary of Poorappuzha River, which is a tributary of Kadalundi River. Tanur was one of the major ports in the southwestern coast of India during the medieval period. It was ruled by the Kingdom of Tanur, also known as Vettathunadu, who were vassals to the Zamorin of Calicut. In the early medieval period, under the chiefs of Kozhikode and Tanur, Tanur developed as one of the important maritime trade centre on the Malabar Coast. Later it became a part of Vettathunadu Taluk in Malabar District under British Raj, which was merged with the Ponnani taluk in 1860-1861. Tanur railway station is a part of the oldest Railway line of Kerala laid in 1861 from Tirur to Chaliyam. Presently, the status of Tanur is reduced to a major fishing centre in Kerala.
The Samoothiri was the hereditary Nair monarch and ruler of the Kingdom of Kozhikode (Calicut) in the South Malabar region of India. Calicut was one of the most important trading ports on the southwest coast of India. At the peak of their reign, they ruled over a region extending from Kozhikode Kollam (Kollam) to the borders of Panthalayini Kollam (Koyilandy). The Zamorins belonged to the Eradi caste of the Samantan Nair community of medieval Kerala.
Vallikkunnu is a village in Tirurangadi Taluk of Malappuram district in the state of Kerala, India with an area of 25 km2. It is located 5 km north of Parappanangadi town and comes under the jurisdiction of Parappanangadi Police Station and Parappanangadi Judicial First Class Magistrate Court. Its latitude and longitude are 11'07" N and 7'51"E respectively. Vallikkunnu was awarded the best panchayath of Kerala in 1997. Vallikunnu is situated on Tirur-Kadalundi Road. Vallikkunnu is also a part of the Oldest Railway Line of Kerala laid in 1861 from Tirur to Chaliyam via Tanur, Parappanangadi, Vallikkunnu, and Kadalundi.
Kadalundi is a village in Kozhikode district, Kerala, India. It is a coastal village close to the Arabian Sea. Kadalundi is famous for its bird sanctuary, which is home to various migratory birds during certain seasons and has been recently declared as a bio-reserve. The Kadalundi-Vallikkunnu community reserve is the first community reserve in Kerala. The Kadalundi River and the Chaliyar river, two of the longest rivers of Kerala, merges with the Arabian Sea at Kadalundi. The first railway line in Kerala was laid in 1861 from Tirur to Chaliyam through Tanur, Parappanangadi, Vallikkunnu, and Kadalundi.
Eranad also known as Ernad refers to the erstwhile province in the midland area of Malabar, consisting of Malappuram and nearby regions such as Anakkayam, Manjeri, Kondotty, Nilambur, etc. Currently Eranad Taluk is a Taluk in Malappuram district. Eranad was ruled by a Samanthan Nair clan known as Eradis, similar to the Vellodis of neighbouring Valluvanad and Nedungadis of Nedunganad. The rulers of Eranad were known by the title Eralppad/Eradi. They also used the title Thirumulpad.
The Malabar Coast is the southwestern coast of the Indian subcontinent. Geographically, it comprises the wettest regions of southern India, as the Western Ghats intercept the moisture-laden monsoon rains, especially on their westward-facing mountain slopes. The term is used to refer to the entire Indian coast from the western coast of Konkan to the tip of India at Kanyakumari. The peak of Anamudi, which is also the point of highest altitude in India outside the Himalayas, and Kuttanad, which is the point of least elevation in India, lie on the Malabar Coast. Kuttanad, also known as The Rice Bowl of Kerala, has the lowest altitude in India, and is also one of the few places in the world where cultivation takes place below sea level.
Parappanad was a former feudal city-state in Malabar, India. The headquarters of Parappanad Royal family was at the town Parappanangadi in present-day Malappuram district. In 1425, the country divided into Northern Parappanad and Southern Parappanad. Southern Parappanad included parts of Tirurangadi Taluk and the town Parappanangadi. Northern Parappanad included Panniyankara, Beypore, and Cheruvannur of Kozhikkode Taluk. Parappanad royal family is a cousin dynasty of the Travancore royal family.
The Kozhikode, also known as Calicut, was the kingdom of the Zamorin of Calicut, in the present-day Indian state of Kerala. Present-day Kozhikode is the second largest city in Kerala, as well as the headquarters of Kozhikode district.
Chaliyam is a village situated at the estuary of Chaliyar in Kozhikode district of Kerala, India. Chaliyam forms an island, bounded by the Chaliyar in the north, and River Kadalundi in south, and the Conolly Canal in the east. It is located just opposite to Beypore port. Chaliyam was the former terminus of the South-West Line of the Madras Railway. Most popular singer ajmal Chaliyam old house is in Chaliyam town, Chaliyam is also famous for the Guinness World Records holder Muhammed Adil, a P.M who covered around seven km in the Chaliyar River with his hand and legs tied with ropes.
Malappuram is one of the 14 districts in the South Indian state of Kerala. The district has a unique and eventful history starting from pre-historic times. During the early medieval period, the district was the home to two of the four major kingdoms that ruled Kerala. Perumpadappu was the original hometown of the Kingdom of Cochin, which is also known as Perumbadappu Swaroopam, and Nediyiruppu was the original hometown of the Zamorin of Calicut, which is also known as Nediyiruppu Swaroopam. Besides, the original headquarters of the Palakkad Rajas were also at Athavanad in the district.
The Kozhikode Corporation, is the municipal corporation that administers the city of Kozhikode (Calicut), Kerala. Established in 1962, it is in the Kozhikode parliamentary constituency. The first mayor was H. Manjunatha Rao. Its four assembly constituencies are Kozhikode North, Kozhikode South, Beypore and Elathur. The Corporation is headed by a Mayor and council, and manages 118.58 km2 of the city of Kozhikode, with a population of about 609,224 within that area. Kozhikode Municipal Corporation has been formed with functions to improve the infrastructure of town.
South Malabar refers to a geographical area of the southwestern coast of India covering some parts of the present-day Kerala. South Malabar covers the regions included in present-day Kozhikode Taluk of Kozhikode district, whole area of Malappuram district, Chavakkad Taluk of Thrissur district, and Palakkad district excluding parts of Chittur Taluk. The Fort Kochi region of Kochi city also historically belongs to South Malabar. The term South Malabar refers to the region of the erstwhile Malabar District which lies south to the river Korapuzha and bears high cultural similarity with both the Cochin as well as the North Malabar region.