Last updated

Kozhikkod Beach! Early Morning!.jpg
Kakkayam hills.jpg
IIM Kozhikode Aerial View s.jpg
Calicut mini bypass.jpg
Ksrtc bus stand calicut.jpg
HiLITE City - Mixed Use Development Project in Calicut.jpg
Chaliyam Harbour, Calicut.jpg
Calicut beach skyline.jpg
From top: Kozhikode Beach, Kakkayam Valley, IIM Kozhikode, Calicut mini bypass, KSRTC bus stand complex, Hilite Mall, Chaliyam harbour, Calicut beach skyline.
City of Spices [1] (Other nicknames include City of Truth, [2] City of Sculptures, [3] City of Literature [4] )
India Kerala location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Kozhikode (Kerala)
India location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Kozhikode (India)
Asia laea location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Kozhikode (Asia)
World location map (equirectangular 180).svg
Red pog.svg
Kozhikode (Earth)
Coordinates: 11°15′31.7″N75°46′49.4″E / 11.258806°N 75.780389°E / 11.258806; 75.780389
Country Flag of India.svg  India
State Kerala
District Kozhikode
  Type Municipal corporation
  MayorBeena Philip (CPI (M))
   Collector Narasimhugari T L Reddy IAS [5]
   Member of Parliament M. K. Raghavan (Indian National Congress)
  City Police CommissionerA Akbar IPS [6]
   Metropolis 231 km2 (89 sq mi)
518 km2 (200 sq mi)
34.47 m (113.09 ft)
   Metropolis 1,808,056
  Density7,800/km2 (20,000/sq mi)
  Official Malayalam, English
Time zone UTC+5:30 (IST)
Telephone code+91495xxxxxxx,
Vehicle registration KL 11, KL 18, KL 56,
KL 57, KL 76, KL 77, KL 85, KLD & KLZ (Historical)
Sex ratio 1.093   / [9]
Literacy rate 96.8% [9]
International Airport Calicut International Airport
Website www.kozhikode.nic.in

Kozhikode (pronounced [koːɻikːoːɖɨ̆] ), also known in English as Calicut, is a city along the Malabar Coast in the state of Kerala in India. It has a corporation limit population of 609,224 [7] and a metropolitan population of more than 2 million, making it the second most populous metropolitan area in Kerala and the 19th largest in India. [10] Kozhikode is classified as a Tier 2 city by the Government of India. [11]


It is the largest city in the region known as the Malabar Coast and was the capital of the British-era Malabar district. In antiquity and the medieval period, Kozhikode was dubbed the City of Spices for its role as the major trading point for Indian spices. [1] It was the capital of an independent kingdom ruled by the Samoothiris (Zamorins). The port at Kozhikode acted as the gateway to medieval South Indian coast for the Chinese, the Persians, the Arabs, and finally the Europeans. [12] According to data compiled by economics research firm Indicus Analytics in 2009 on residences, earnings and investments, Kozhikode was ranked the second-best city in India to live in. [13] In 2023, Kozhikode was recognised by UNESCO as India's first City of Literature. [14]


The exact origin of the name Kozhikode is uncertain. According to many sources, the name Kozhikode is derived from Koyil-kota (fort), meaning "fortified palace". [15] Koil or Koyil or Kovil is the Malayalam/Tamil term for a Hindu temple, referring to the Tali Shiva Temple. [16] Both the terms kōyil and kōvil are used interchangeably. The Tamil name of the city is Kaḷḷikkōṭṭai. [17]

The name also got corrupted into Kolikod, or its Arab version Qāliqūṭ (IPA: qˠaːliqˠːuːtˤ) and later its anglicised version Calicut. [18] [19] Chinese merchants called it Kūlifo.

The city is officially named Kozhikode in Malayalam, and in English, it is known by its anglicised version, Calicut. [20] The word calico , a fine variety of hand-woven cotton cloth that was exported from the port of Kozhikode, is thought to have been derived from Calicut. [21] The term for tricolour cats, called calico cats, is as well derived from the fabric name. [22] [23]


Names, routes and locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (1st century CE) Periplous of the Erythraean Sea.svg
Names, routes and locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (1st century CE)

The ancient port of Tyndis which was located on the northern side of Muziris, as mentioned in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea , was somewhere around Kozhikode. [24] Its exact location is a matter of dispute. [24] The suggested locations are Ponnani, Tanur, Beypore-Chaliyam-Kadalundi-Vallikkunnu, and Koyilandy. [24] Tyndis was a major center of trade, second only to Muziris, between the Cheras and the Roman Empire. [25] Pliny the Elder (1st century CE) states that the port of Tyndis was located at the northwestern border of Keprobotos (Chera dynasty). [26] The North Malabar region, which lies north of the port at Tyndis , was ruled by the kingdom of Ezhimala during Sangam period. [24] According to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea , a region known as Limyrike began at Naura and Tyndis . However Ptolemy mentions only Tyndis as Limyrike's starting point. The region probably ended at Kanyakumari; it thus roughly corresponds to the present-day Malabar Coast. The value of Rome's annual trade with the region was estimated at around 50,000,000 sesterces. [27] [28] Pliny the Elder mentioned that Limyrike was prone by pirates. [29] The Cosmas Indicopleustes mentioned that the Limyrike was a source of peppers. [30] [31]

In the 14th century, Kozhikode conquered larger parts of central Kerala after the seize of Tirunavaya region from Valluvanad, which were under the control of the king of Perumbadappu Swaroopam (Cochin). The ruler of Perumpadappu was forced to shift his capital (c. CE 1405) further south from Kodungallur to Kochi. In the 15th century, the status of Cochin was reduced to a vassal state of Kozhikode, thus leading to the emergence of Kozhikode as the most powerful kingdom in medieval Malabar Coast. [12] During the 15th century Kalaripayat was important in the history of Malabar, some warriors lived, most notably puthooram veettil Aromal Chekavar and his sister Unniyarcha who were chieftains of martial arts. [32] [33] [34]

The port at Kozhikode held the superior economic and political position in medieval Kerala coast, while Kannur, Kollam, and Kochi, were commercially important secondary ports, where the traders from various parts of the world would gather. [35] Kozhikode was the capital of an independent kingdom ruled by the samoothiris (Zamorins) in the Middle Ages and later of the erstwhile Malabar District under British rule. Arab merchants traded with the region as early as 7th century, and Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama landed at Kozhikode on 20 May 1498, thus opening a trade route between Europe and India. A Portuguese factory and the fort was intact in Kozhikode for short period (1511–1525, until the Fall of Calicut). The English landed in 1615 (constructing a trading post in 1665), followed by the French (1698) and the Dutch (1752). In 1765, Mysore captured Kozhikode as part of its occupation of the Malabar Coast. Kozhikode, once a famous cotton-weaving centre, gave its name to the Calico cloth. [36]

Vasco da Gama's arrival in Calicut in 1498 ushered in five centuries of rule of the Portuguese Empire in India, lasting until 1961. Vascodagama.JPG
Vasco da Gama's arrival in Calicut in 1498 ushered in five centuries of rule of the Portuguese Empire in India, lasting until 1961.

It was ranked eleventh among Tier-II Indian cities in job creation by a study conducted by ASSOCHAM in 2007. [37]

Early Kozhikode in foreign accounts

Accounts of the city and the conditions prevailing then can be gleaned from the chronicles of travellers who visited the port city.

Uru, a type of ship that was historically used for maritime trade, built at Beypore, Kozhikode Uru.jpg
Uru , a type of ship that was historically used for maritime trade, built at Beypore, Kozhikode

Ibn Battuta (1342–1347), who visited six times, gives the earliest glimpses of life in the city. He describes Kozhikode as "one of the great ports of the district of Malabar" where "merchants of all parts of the world are found here". The king of this place, he says, "shaves his chin just as the Haidari Fakeers of Rome do... The greater part of the Muslim merchants of this place are so wealthy that one of them can purchase the whole freightage of such vessels put here and fit out others like them". [38]

Image of Kozhikode, India from Georg Braun and Frans Hogenberg's atlas Civitates Orbis terrarum, 1572 Calicut 1572.jpg
Image of Kozhikode, India from Georg Braun and Frans Hogenberg's atlas Civitates Orbis terrarum , 1572

Ma Huan (1403), the Chinese sailor part of the Imperial Chinese fleet under Cheng Ho (Zheng He) [39] lauds the city as a great emporium of trade frequented by merchants from around the world. He makes note of the 20 or 30 mosques built to cater to the religious needs of the Muslims, the unique system of calculation by the merchants using their fingers and toes (followed to this day) and the matrilineal system of succession.

Abdur Razzak (1442–1443) the ambassador of Persian Emperor Sha-Rohk finds the city harbour perfectly secured and notices precious articles from several maritime countries especially from Abyssinia, Zirbad and Zanzibar.

The Italian Niccolò de' Conti (1445), perhaps the first Christian traveller who noticed Kozhikode, describes the city as abounding in pepper, lac, ginger, a larger kind of cinnamon, myrobalans and zedoary. He calls it a noble emporium for all India, with a circumference of 13 kilometres (8 miles).

The Russian traveller Athanasius Nikitin or Afanasy Nikitin (1468–1474) calls 'Calecut' a port for the whole Indian sea and describes it as having a "big bazaar."

Other travellers who visited Kozhikode include the Italian Ludovico di Varthema [40] (1503–1508) and Duarte Barbosa. [41]

Zamorins of Calicut

The path Vasco da Gama took to reach Kozhikode (black line) in 1498, which was also the discovery of a sea route from Europe to India, and eventually paved way for the European colonisation of Indian subcontinent. Caminho maritimo para a India.png
The path Vasco da Gama took to reach Kozhikode (black line) in 1498, which was also the discovery of a sea route from Europe to India, and eventually paved way for the European colonisation of Indian subcontinent.
India in early 1320 CE. Most of the parts of present-day state of Kerala was under the influence of the Zamorin of Kozhikode. Map of Kampili kingdom.png
India in early 1320 CE. Most of the parts of present-day state of Kerala was under the influence of the Zamorin of Kozhikode.

Kozhikode and its suburbs formed part of the Polanad kingdom, which was a vassal state to the Kolathunadu of North Malabar, ruled by the Porlatiri. [42] The Eradis of Nediyiruppu at Kondotty in Eranad (Malappuram district) wanted an outlet to the sea, to initiate trade and commerce with the distant lands. [43] and after fighting with the king Polatthiri for 48 years conquered the area around Panniankara. After this, Menokki became the ruler of Polanad and came to terms with the troops and people. [44] After this, the town of Kozhikode was founded close to the palace at Tali. [45] Then, the Eradis shifted their headquarters from Nediyiruppu to Kozhikode. The Governor of Ernad built a fort at a place called Velapuram to safeguard his new interests. The fort most likely lent its name to Koyil Kotta the precursor to Kozhikode. Thus the city came into existence sometime in the 13th century.[ citation needed ] The status of Udaiyavar increased and he became known as Swami Nambiyathiri Thirumulpad, and eventually Samuri or Samoothiri (Zamorin). Europeans called him in a corrupt form as Zamorin.[ citation needed ]

At the peak of their reign, the Zamorins ruled over a region from Kollam (Quilon) to Panthalayini Kollam (Koyilandy). [46] [18] Following the discovery of the sea route from Europe to Kozhikode in 1498, the Portuguese began to expand their territories and ruled the seas between Ormus and the Malabar Coast and south to Ceylon. [47] [48] Kallingal Madathil Rarichan Moopan and Pullambil Moopan and Vamala Moopan families were very prominent among those who said that two centuries ago, some Jenmis in Kozhikode were engaged in sea trade and shipping. [49] [50]

According to K.V. Krishna Iyer, the rise of Kozhikode is at once a cause and a consequence of Zamorin's ascendancy in Kerala. By the end of the 15th century, the Zamorin was at the zenith of his powers with all princes and chieftains of Kerala north of Kochi acknowledging his suzerainty. [51] The Sweetmeat Street (Mittayi Theruvu) was an important trading street under Zamorin's rule.

The First Battle of Cannanore that occurred in January 1502 between the Third Portuguese Armada and Kingdom of Cochin under João da Nova and Zamorin of Calicut's navy marks the beginning of Portuguese conflicts in the Indian Ocean. [18] The defeat of the joint fleet of the Sultan of Gujarat Mahmud Begada, the Mamlûk Burji Sultanate of Egypt, and the Zamorin of Calicut with support from the Republic of Venice and the Ottoman Empire in the Battle of Diu in February 1509 marks the beginning of Portuguese dominance of the Spice trade and the Indian Ocean. [18] The continuous wars between the Zamorin navy under the Kunjali Marakkar (Fleet Admiral) and the Portuguese in the 16th century reduced the importance of Kozhikode as a centre of trade. The Kunjali Marakkars are credited with organizing the first naval defense of the Indian coast. [52]

At the beginning of the 17th century the Zamorin expelled the Portuguese with the help of the Dutch East India Company. In 1602, the Zamorin sent messages to Aceh promising the Dutch a fort at Kozhikode if they would come and trade there. Two factors, Hans de Wolff and Lafer, were sent on an Asian ship from Aceh, but the two were captured by the chief of Tanur, and handed over to the Portuguese. [53] A Dutch fleet under Admiral Steven van der Hagen arrived at Kozhikode in November 1604. It marked the beginning of the Dutch presence in Kerala and they concluded a treaty with Kozhikode on 11 November 1604, which was also the first treaty that the Dutch East India Company made with an Indian ruler. [12] By this time the kingdom and the port of Kozhikode was much reduced in importance. [53] The treaty provided for a mutual alliance between the two to expel the Portuguese from Malabar. In return the Dutch East India Company was given facilities for trade at Kozhikode and Ponnani, including spacious storehouses. [53]

British Rule

The arrival of British in Kerala documented in the year 1615, when a group under the leadership of Captain William Keeling arrived at Kozhikode, using three ships. [12] It was in these ships that Sir Thomas Roe went to visit Jahangir, the fourth Mughal emperor, as British envoy. [12] Travancore became the most dominant state in Kerala by defeating the Zamorin of Kozhikode in the battle of Purakkad in 1755. [54] Kozhikode came under British Rule after the Mysorean conquest of Malabar in the late 18th century. [12] The British later also formed a regiment called the Thiyyar Regiment to meet their military operations in Malabar. [55] [56] [57] [58]

Kozhikode was the capital city of Malabar District, one of the two districts on the western coast (Malabar Coast) of Madras presidency. During the British rule, Malabar's chief importance lay in producing pepper, coconut, tiles, and teak. [59] Kozhikode municipality was formed on 1 November 1866 according to the Madras Act 10 of 1865 (Amendment of the Improvements in Towns act 1850) [60] [61] [62] [63] of the British Indian Empire, making it the first modern municipality in the state.

Post Independence

Kozhikode Municipality was upgraded into Kozhikode Municipal Corporation in the year 1962, making it the second-oldest Municipal Corporation in the state.[ citation needed ]


Kozhikode has a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen climate classification Am). A brief spell of pre-monsoon Mango showers hits the city sometime during April. However, the primary source of rain is the South-west monsoon that sets in the first week of June and continues until September. The city receives significant precipitation from the North-East Monsoon that sets in from the second half of October through November. This city has winter (December-February) hotter than summer (June-August), while spring (March-May) is the hottest season.

Climate data for Kozhikode (1991–2020, extremes 1901–2020)
Record high °C (°F)36.5
Mean maximum °C (°F)33.4
Mean daily maximum °C (°F)32.2
Mean daily minimum °C (°F)22.8
Mean minimum °C (°F)20.6
Record low °C (°F)17.6
Average rainfall mm (inches)1.6
Average rainy days0.
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST)65666971758587868278736575
Source: India Meteorological Department [64] [65]


Religion in Kozhikode City (2011) [66]

   Hinduism (57.37%)
   Islam (37.66%)
   Christianity (4.60%)
  Other (0.37%)

Total Population under Municipal Corporation limits is 550,440. [67] Males form 47.7% and females 52.3%.

Kozhikode has been a multi-ethnic and multi-religious town since the early medieval period. The Hindus form the largest religious group, followed by Muslims and Christians. [68] Hindus form the majority at 57.37% of the population with 315807 members. [67] Muslims form 37.6% of the population with 207298 members. [67]

The corporation of Kozhikode has an average literacy rate of 96.8% [9] (national average is 74.85%). The male literacy rate is 97.93% and female literacy rate is 95.78%. [9]

Pre-modern Kozhikode was already teeming with people of several communities and regional groups. Most of these communities continued to follow their traditional occupations and customs till the 20th century. [69] Brahmins, too, lived in the city mostly around the Hindu temples. Regional groups like the Tamil Brahmins, Gujaratis and Marwari Jains became part of the city and lived around their shrines. [70]

The Nairs formed the rulers, warriors and landed gentry of Kozhikode. [71] The Thiyyas formed the vaidyars (Ayurveda Physicians), local militia and traders of Kozhikode. The Samoothiri had a ten thousand strong Nair bodyguard called the Kozhikkottu pathinaayiram (The 10,000 of Kozhikode) who defended the capital and supported the administration within the city. He had a larger force of 30,000 Nairs in his capacity as the Prince of Eranadu, called the Kozhikkottu Muppatinaayiram (The 30,000 of Kozhikode). [72] The Nairs also formed the members of the suicide squad (chaver). [73] The Muslims of Kozhikode are known as Mappilas, and according to the official Kozhikode website "the great majority of them are Sunnis following the Shafi school of thought. [68] There are some smaller communities among the Muslims such as Dawoodi Bohras of Gujarati origin. [74] Many of the Muslims living in the historic part of the city follow matrilineality and are noted for their piety. [75] Though Christianity is believed to have been introduced in Kerala in the 1st century CE, the size of community in Malabar (northern Kerala) began to rise only after the arrival of the Portuguese missionaries towards the close of the 15th century. A few Christians of Thiruvitankoor and Kochi have lately migrated to the hilly regions of the district and are settled there. [75]

The Tamil Brahmins are primarily settled around the Tali Siva temple. They arrived in Kozhikode as dependants of chieftains, working as cooks, cloth merchants and moneylenders. [76] They have retained their Tamil language and dialects as well as caste rituals. The Gujarati community is settled mostly around the Jain temple in and around the Valliyangadi. They owned many establishments, especially textile and sweet shops. They must have arrived in Kozhikode at least from the beginning of the 14th century. They belong to either the Hindu or the Jain community. A few Marwari families are also found in Kozhikode who was basically moneylenders.

Civic administration

The city is administered by the Kozhikode Corporation, headed by a mayor. For administrative purposes, the city is divided into 75 wards, [77] from which the members of the corporation council are elected for five years. Recently neighbouring suburbs Beypore, Elathur, Cheruvannur and Nallalam were merged within the municipal corporation.

Kozhikode Municipal Corporation
MayorBeena Philip
Deputy Mayor Musafar Ahmed
Member of Parliament M.K.Raghvan
District Collector Shri. Narasimhugari T L Reddy IAS
Police Commissioner Shri Rajpal Meena IPS

Kozhikode Corporation is the first City Corporation in Kerala after the creation of the state. Established in 1962, Kozhikode Corporation's first mayor was H Manjunatha Rao. Kozhikode corporation has four assembly constituencies – Kozhikode North, Kozhikode South, Beypore and Elathur – all of which are part of Kozhikode. [78]

Kozhikode Municipal Corporation Election 2020

S.No.Party NameParty symbolNumber of Corporators
01 LDF CPI(M) election symbol - Hammer Sickle and Star.svg 49
02 UDF 14
03 BJP BJP election symbol.svg -783x768.png 07
04Independents No flag.svg 05

Law and order

The Kozhikode City Police is headed by a commissioner, an Indian Police Service (IPS) officer. The city is divided into six zones each under a circle officer. Apart from regular law and order, the city police comprise the traffic police, bomb squad, dog squad, fingerprint bureau, women's cell, juvenile wing, narcotics cell, riot force, armed reserve camps, district crime records bureau and a women's station. [79] It operates 16 police stations functioning under the Home Ministry of Government of Kerala.



National highways

Ksrtc bus stand calicut.jpg
KSRTC bus terminal-cum-shopping complex in Kozhikode
Volvo 8400 at Calicut Bus Terminal.jpg
Volvo 8400 at Calicut Bus Terminal
View point of Thamarassery Churam.jpg
Thamarassery Churam is one of the popular tourist destinations in Kozhikode
Calicut mini bypass.jpg
Calicut Mini Bypass.
Kozhikode Railway Station.jpg
Kozhikode Railway Station is one of the busiest railway stations in South India

National Highway 66 connects Kozhikode to Mumbai via Mangaluru, Udupi and Goa to the north and Kochi and Kanyakumari near Thiruvananthapuram to the south along the west coast of India. This highway connects the city with the other important towns like, Kasaragod, Kanhangad, Kannur, Thalassery, Mahe, Vadakara, Koyilandy [80] Ramanattukara, Kottakkal, Valanchery, Kuttippuram, Ponnani, Kodungallur, North Paravur, Ernakulam, Edapally and proceeds to Alappuzha, Thiruvananthapuram and terminates at the southern tip of India, Kanyakumari.

National Highway 766 connects Kozhikode to Bangalore through Kollegal in Karnataka via Tirumakudal Narsipur, Mysore, Nanjangud, Gundlupet, Sulthan Bathery, Kalpetta and Thamarassery.

National Highway 966 connects Kozhikode to Palakkad through Malappuram,Perinthalmanna. It covers a distance of 125 kilometres (78 mi). At Ramanattukara, a suburb of Kozhikode, it joins NH 66. It passes through major towns like Kondotty, Perinthalmanna, and Mannarkkad and Malappuram. This stretch connects the city and Calicut International Airport.

State Highways

SH 29 passes through the city. It connects NH 766, Malabar Christian College, civil station, Kunnamangalam, koduvally,Thamarassery,Chellot, Chitragiri and Road to Gudallor from Kerala border.

State highway 38 starts from Pavangad near passes through Ulliyeri, Perambra, Kuttiady, Nadapuram, Panoor & Koothuparamba and ends at Chovva in Kannur. The highway is107;km long. It is one of the busiest route in the district.

SH 54 connects the city to Kalpetta. The highway is 99.0 kilometres (61.5 mi) long. The highway passes through Pavangad, Kozhikode, Ulliyeri, Perambra, Poozhithodu, Peruvannamuzhi and Padinjarethara. SH 68 starts from Kappad and ends in Adivaram. The highway is 68.11 kilometres (42.32 mi) long.

SH 34 starts from Koyilandy and ends in Edavanna which is 44.0 km long. This highway passes through Koyilandi, Ulliyeri, Balussery, Thamarassery, Omassery, Mukkam.


Buses, predominantly run by individual owners, ply on the routes within the city and to nearby locations. City buses are painted green. Kerala State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) runs regular services to many destinations in the state and to the neighboring states. The city has three bus stands. All private buses to the suburban and nearby towns ply from the Palayam Bus Stand. Private buses to adjoining districts start from the Mofussil Bus Stand on Indira Gandhi Road (Mavoor Road). Buses operated by the KSRTC drive from the KSRTC bus stand on Indira Gandhi Road. KSRTC Bus Stand Kozhikode is the largest bus stand in Kerala having a size of 36,036.47 meter square. [81] There are also KSRTC depots in Thamarassery, Thottilpalam, Thiruvambady and Vatakara. There are three routes available to Bangalore. Kozhikode–Sulthan Bathery-GundlupetMysoreBangalore is the preferred one and is very busy. Another route, is Kozhikode-Manathavady-Kutta-Mysore-Bangalore. The third one, less used, is Kozhikode–Gundlupet–ChamarajanagarKollegal–Bangalore.

Private tour operators maintain regular luxury bus services to Mumbai, Bangalore, Coimbatore, Chennai, Vellore, Ernakulam, Trivandrum, Ooty, Mysore. etc. and mainly operate from the Palayam area. These are usually night services.


Kozhikode has a main railway station, where all passing trains stops. There are other railway stations within the City limits. They are Elathur, West Hill, Vellayil and Kallai. Only local passenger trains stops in these stations. One can travel to almost all destinations within the country from Kozhikode. The history of railways in Kerala dates to 1861 when the first tracks were laid between Tirur and Beypore. [82]


Calicut International Airport is 26 kilometres (16 mi) from the city at Karipur in Kondotty, which is in the Malappuram district. It began operations in 1988. Domestic services are operated to major Indian cities. It received the status of an international airport in 2006. [83]


KLF 2020 Sunset.jpg

Calicut is one of the biggest economic hubs in Kerala. Service sector dominates the economy followed by industries. Nedungadi Bank, the first and oldest bank in the modern state of Kerala, was established by Appu Nedungadi at Kozhikode in the year 1899. [84] Cyberpark, a Government of Kerala organisation, plans to build, operate and manage IT parks for the promotion and development of investment in IT and ITES industries in the Malabar region of Kerala. It would be the third IT hub in the state of Kerala. The two IT parks might create a total 100,000 direct job opportunities. The first project is the development of Cyberpark hub in Kozhikode with its spokes at Kannur and Kazargode IT parks. [85] [86] Other planned projects include the Birla IT park (at Mavoor) and Malaysian satellite city (at Kinaloor) where KINFRA has plans to set up a 160-hectare (400-acre) industrial park. In 2012, Kozhikode was given the tag of "City of Sculptures" (Shilpa Nagaram) because of the architectural sculptures around the city. [87] [88] Currently there are many IT companies running in UL Cyberpark, Government Cyberpark and Hilite Business Park.


The Focus Mall, the first shopping mall of its kind in the State Focus mall calicut.jpg
The Focus Mall, the first shopping mall of its kind in the State

The city has a strong mercantile aspect. The main area of business was once Valiyangadi (Big Bazaar) near the railway station. As time progressed, it shifted to other parts of the city. The commercial heart has moved to Mittai Theruvu (Sweetmeat Street or S. M. Street), a long street crammed with shops that sell everything from saris to cosmetics. It also houses restaurants and sweetmeat shops. Today, the city has multiple shopping malls. Focus Mall (First mall of Kerala ), HiLITE Mall, [89] Gokulam Mall, Address Mall and RP Mall are a few among them. [90] LuLu Group International's Lulu Mall is under construction in the areas of Mankavu.


In addition to the Malabar Mahotsavam, the annual cultural fest of Kozhikode, [91] every year since 1981 the Tyagaraja Aradhana Trust has been conducting a five-day music festival in honour of Tyagaraja. The festival is complete with the Uncchavritti, rendering of Divyanama kritis, Pancharatna Kritis, concerts by professional artistes and students of music from morning to late in the evening. [92]

Kozhikode has a tradition of Ghazal and Hindustani music appreciation. There are many Malayalam Ghazals. The late film director and play back singer M. S. Baburaj, from Kozhikode was influenced by Ghazal and Hindustani. [93]



Newspaper publishing started in Kozhikode with the launch of the English weekly West Coast Spectator in 1879. Edited by Dr. Keys and printed by Vakil Poovadan Raman from the Spectator Press, it was rechristened the Malabar Spectator in later years. The first Malayalam newspaper in Kozhikode was Kerala Pathrika established by Chengalathu Kunhirama Menon in 1884. Keralam, Kerala Sanchari and Bharathivasam were among the other newspapers published in Kozhikode in the 19th century. Some of the major newspapers that contributed to the Indian independence movement Mathrubhumi and Mithavadi , were based in Kozhikode. [94] [95] Now almost all the major newspapers in Malayalam have editions in Kozhikode. English newspapers such as The Hindu and The New Indian Express also have Kozhikode editions.


The Kozhikode radio station of All India Radio has two transmitters: Kozhikode AM (100 kilowatts) and Kozhikode FM [Vividh Bharathi] (10 kilowatts). Private FM radio stations are Radio Mango 91.9 operated by Malayala Manorama Co. Ltd. Radio Mirchi operated by Entertainment Network India Ltd. and Club FM 104.8 operated by Mathrubhumi group and Red FM 93.5 of the SUN Network. AIR FM radio stations are Kozhikode – 103.6 MHz; AIR MW radio station is Kozhikode – 684 kHz.


MediaOne TV Headquarters And Studio MediaOne TV Headquarters And Studio.jpg
MediaOne TV Headquarters And Studio

A television transmitter has been functioning in Kozhikode since 3 July 1984, relaying programmes from Delhi and Thiruvananthapuram Doordarshan. Doordarshan has its broadcasting centre in Kozhikode at Medical College. The Malayalam channels based on Kozhikode are the Shalom Television, Darshana TV and Media One TV. All major channels in Malayalam viz. Manorama News, Asianet, Surya TV, Kairali TV, Amrita TV, Jeevan TV, and Jaihind have their studios and news bureaus in the city.

Satellite television services are available through DD Direct+, Dish TV, Sun Direct DTH and Tata Sky. Asianet Digital TV is popularly known as ACV telecasts daily city news. Spidernet is another local channel. Other local operators include KCL and Citinet.

The Calicut Press Club came into existence in 1970. It is the nerve centre of all media activities, both print and electronic. Begun with around 70 members in the roll, this Press Club, became a prestigious and alert media centre in the state with a present membership of over 280. [96] [ better source needed ]


There are 1,237 schools in Kozhikode district including 191 highschools. [97]

Kozhikode is home to two premier educational institutions of national importance: the Indian Institute of Management Kozhikode (IIMK), and the National Institute of Technology Calicut (NITC). Other research institutions located in Kozhikode include National Institute for Research and Development in Defence Shipbuilding (NIRDESH), [98] Indian Institute of Spices Research (IISR), [99] Centre for Water Resources Development and Management (CWRDM) and National Institute of Electronics and Information Technology (NIELIT). [100]

The University of Calicut is the largest university in Kerala and is located in Thenjipalam, about 24 kilometres (15 mi) south of Calicut. This university was established in 1968 and was the second university set up in Kerala. Most of the colleges offering tertiary education in the region are affiliated to this university. [101] The Calicut Medical College was established in 1957 as the second medical college in Kerala. Since then, the institution has grown into a premier centre of medical education in the state. Presently it is the largest medical institute in the state with a yearly intake of 250 candidates for the undergraduate programme.

The Government Law College, Kozhikode situated in Vellimadukunnu on the out skirts of kozhikode town, is owned by the Government of Kerala and affiliated to the University of Calicut. The college caters to the needs of the north Malabar region of Kerala it is the third law college in kerala state founded in 1970.

Main colleges in calicut city: Zamurians Guruvayoorappan College, Malabar Christian college, Farook College, Devagiri College, Providence college for women, Govt. Arts & science college, Meenchantha, Kerala Government Polytechnic College, West Hill, Government Engineering College Kozhikode.

In 1876, a school for young Rajas was started in Kozhikode. This was later thrown open to all caste Hindu boys. In 1879, it was affiliated to the University of Madras as a second-grade college and with this, collegiate education in the district received a fillip. Secondary education recorded appreciable progress since 1915. The erstwhile Malabar district, of which the present Kozhikode district formed a part, holds a high rank among the districts of Madras Presidency in secondary education. [102]



Kozhikode is home to I-League club Gokulam Kerala, they won 2 titles and Durand Cup.


Calicut Heroes Playing in top flight league Prime Volleyball League

Twin/sister cities

Calicut's sister city or twin city is

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of South India</span>

The history of southern India covers a span of over four thousand years during which the region saw the rise and fall of a number of dynasties and empires.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kannur</span> City in India

Kannur, formerly known in English as Cannanore, is a city and a municipal corporation in the state of Kerala, India. It is the administrative headquarters of the Kannur district and situated 274 kilometres (170 mi) north of the major port city and commercial hub Kochi and 137 kilometres (85 mi) south of the major port city and a commercial hub, Mangalore. During the period of British colonial rule in India, when Kannur was a part of the Malabar District, the city was known as Cannanore. Kannur is the sixth largest urban agglomeration in Kerala. As of 2011 census, Kannur Municipal Corporation, the local body which administers mainland area of city, had a population of 232,486.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ponnani</span> Municipality in Kerala, India +91

Ponnani is a municipality in Ponnani Taluk, Malappuram District, in the state of Kerala, India. It serves as the administrative center of the Taluk and Block Panchayat of the same name. It is situated at the estuary of Bharatappuzha, on its southern bank, and is bounded by the Arabian Sea on the west and a series of brackish lagoons in the south.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Malabar District</span> Administrative district of Bombay and later Madras from 1792 to 1956

Malabar District, also known as Malayalam District, was an administrative district on the southwestern Malabar Coast of Bombay Presidency (1792–1800), Madras Presidency (1800–1937), Madras Province (1937–1950) and finally, Madras State (1950–1956) in India. It was the most populous and the third-largest district in the erstwhile Madras State. The historic town of Calicut was the admisnitrative headquarters of this district.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kozhikode district</span> District of Kerala state, India

Kozhikode, or Calicut district, is one of the 14 districts in the Indian state of Kerala, along its southwestern Malabar Coast. The city of Kozhikode, also known as Calicut, is the district headquarters. The district is 67.15% urbanised.

The term Kerala was first epigraphically recorded as Cheras (Keralaputra) in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka of Magadha. It was mentioned as one of four independent kingdoms in southern India during Ashoka's time, the others being the Cholas, Pandyas and Satyaputras. The Cheras transformed Kerala into an international trade centre by establishing trade relations across the Arabian Sea with all major Mediterranean and Red Sea ports as well those of Eastern Africa and the Far East. The dominion of Cheras was located in one of the key routes of the ancient Indian Ocean trade. The early Cheras collapsed after repeated attacks from the neighboring Cholas and Rashtrakutas.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Koyilandy</span> Town in Kerala, India

Koyilandy is a major town municipality and a taluk in Kozhikode district, Kerala on the Malabar Coast. The historical town is located right in the middle of the coast of Kozhikode district, between Kozhikode (Calicut) and Kannur, on National Highway 66.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tanur, Malappuram</span> Municipality in Kerala, India

Tanur is a coastal town, a municipality, and a block located in Tirur Taluk, Malappuram district, Kerala, India. It is located on the Malabar Coast, 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) north of Tirur and 9 kilometres south of Parappanangadi. It is the 17th-most populated municipality in the state, the fourth-most populated municipality in the district, and the second-most densely populated municipality in Malappuram district, having about 3,568 residents per square kilometre as of the year 2011.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of Kochi</span>

Kochi is an ancient city located in the Ernakulam District in the Indian state of Kerala about 200 km from Trivandrum, the capital of Kerala.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zamorin</span> Hereditary monarch of historical kingdom in present-day Kerala, India (1124–1806)

The Samoothiri was the title of the erstwhile ruler and monarch of the Kingdom of Kozhikode (Calicut) in the South Malabar region of India. Originating from the former feudal kingdom of Nediyiruppu Swaroopam, the Samoothiris and their vassal kings from Nilambur Kovilakam established Calicut as one of the most important trading ports on the southwest coast of India. At the peak of their reign, they ruled over a region extending from Kozhikode Kollam to the forested borders of Panthalayini Kollam (Koyilandy). The Samoothiris belonged to the Eradi subcaste of the Samantan community of colonial Kerala, and were originally the ruling chiefs of Eranad. The final Zamorin of Calicut committed suicide by setting fire to his palace and burning himself alive inside it, upon learning that Hyder Ali had captured the neighboring country of Chirackal in Kannur.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Parappanangadi</span> Municipality in Kerala, India

Parappanangadi is a major town and a municipality in Tirurangadi taluk of Malappuram district, Kerala, India. It is a coastal town located close to the Arabian Sea.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kadalundi</span> Village in Kerala, India

Kadalundi is a village in Kozhikode district, Kerala, India. It is a coastal village close to the Arabian Sea. Kadalundi is famous for its bird sanctuary, which is home to various migratory birds during certain seasons and has been recently declared as a bio-reserve. The Kadalundi–Vallikkunnu Community Reserve is the first community reserve in Kerala. The Kadalundi River and the Chaliyar river, two of the longest rivers of Kerala, merges with the Arabian Sea at Kadalundi. The first railway line in Kerala was laid in 1861 from Tirur to Chaliyam through Tanur, Parappanangadi, Vallikkunnu, and Kadalundi.

The Kingdom of Tanur was one of the numerous feudal principalities on the Malabar Coast of the Indian subcontinent during the Middle Ages. It was ruled by a Hindu dynasty, claiming kshatriya status, known as the Tanur dynasty. The kingdom comprised parts of the coastal Taluks of Tirurangadi, Tirur, and Ponnani taluks in present-day Malappuram district and included places such as Tanur, Tirur (Trikkandiyur) and Chaliyam. The coastal villages of Kadalundi and Chaliyam in the southernmost area of Kozhikode district was also under Tanur Swaroopam.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Eranad</span> Erstwhile Province in Kerala, India

Eranad also known as Ernad refers to the erstwhile province in the midland area of Malabar, consisting of Malappuram and nearby regions such as Anakkayam, Manjeri, Kondotty, Nilambur, etc. Currently Eranad Taluk is a Taluk in Malappuram district. Eranad was ruled by a Samanthan Nair clan known as Eradis, similar to the Vellodis of neighbouring Valluvanad and Nedungadis of Nedunganad. The rulers of Eranad were known by the title Eralppad/Eradi. They also used the title Thirumulpad.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Malabar Coast</span> Southwestern coast of the India

The Malabar Coast is the southwestern region of the Indian subcontinent. It generally refers to the western coastline of India stretching from Konkan to Kanyakumari. Geographically, it comprises one of the wettest regions of the subcontinent, which includes the Kanara region of Karnataka and all of Kerala.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Calicut (kingdom)</span> Historical kingdom in the region of Kerala

The Kingdom of Kozhikode, also known as Calicut, was the kingdom of the Zamorin of Calicut, in the present-day Indian state of Kerala. Present-day Kozhikode is the second largest city in Kerala, as well as the headquarters of Kozhikode district.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chaliyam</span> Village in Kerala, India

Chaliyam is a village situated at the estuary of Chaliyar in Kozhikode district of Kerala, India. Chaliyam forms an island, bounded by the Chaliyar in the north, and River Kadalundi in south, and the Conolly Canal in the east. It is located just opposite to Beypore port. Chaliyam was the former terminus of the South-West Line of the Madras Railway. Chaliyam is also famous for the Guinness World Records holder Muhammed Adil, a P.M who covered around seven km in the Chaliyar River with his hand and legs tied with ropes.

Malappuram is one of the 14 districts in the South Indian state of Kerala. The district has a unique and eventful history starting from pre-historic times. During the early medieval period, the district was the home to two of the four major kingdoms that ruled Kerala. Perumpadappu was the original hometown of the Kingdom of Cochin, which is also known as Perumbadappu Swaroopam, and Nediyiruppu was the original hometown of the Zamorin of Calicut, which is also known as Nediyiruppu Swaroopam. Besides, the original headquarters of the Palakkad Rajas were also at Athavanad in the district.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kozhikode Municipal Corporation</span> Local civic body in Kozhikode, Kerala, India

Kozhikode Corporation is the municipal corporation that administers the city of Kozhikode (Calicut), Kerala. Established in 1962, it is in the Kozhikode parliamentary constituency. The first mayor was H. Manjunatha Rao. Its four assembly constituencies are Kozhikode North, Kozhikode South, Beypore and Elathur. The Corporation is headed by a Mayor and council, and manages 118.58 km2 of the city of Kozhikode, with a population of about 609,224 within that area. Kozhikode Municipal Corporation has been formed with functions to improve the infrastructure of town.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">South Malabar</span> Geographical / Historical Area in Kerala, India

South Malabar refers to a geographical area of the southwestern coast of India covering some parts of the present-day Kerala state. South Malabar covers the regions included in present-day Kozhikode taluk of Kozhikode district, the whole area of Malappuram district, Chavakkad taluk of Thrissur district, and Palakkad district, excluding parts of Chittur taluk. The Fort Kochi region of Kochi city also historically belongs to South Malabar. The term South Malabar refers to the region of the erstwhile Malabar District south to the river Korapuzha, and bears a high cultural similarity to both the Cochin and the North Malabar regions.


  1. 1 2 "Lectures 26-27". 16 July 2009. Archived from the original on 16 July 2009. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
  2. M. G. S. Narayanan (2006). The City of Truth Revisited. University of Calicut. p. 350. ISBN   978-8177481044.
  3. "Kozhikode to be 'city of sculptures'". The Hindu . 6 June 2012. Archived from the original on 1 January 2020. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
  4. Bureau, The Hindu (31 October 2023). "Kozhikode is the first City of Literature in India". The Hindu via www.thehindu.com.
  5. "Kozhikode District Website". Kozhikode Corporation. Archived from the original on 1 May 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
  6. "A Akbar to be new Kozhikode city police commissioner". April 2022. Archived from the original on 1 April 2022. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  7. 1 2 "ആമുഖം | കോഴിക്കോട് മുനിസിപ്പല്‍ കോര്‍പ്പറേഷന്‍". kozhikodecorporation.lsgkerala.gov.in. Archived from the original on 3 August 2020. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  8. "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 million and above" (PDF). The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 November 2011. Retrieved 19 November 2011.
  9. 1 2 3 4 "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011; Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 May 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2012.
  10. "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 million and above" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 December 2011.
  11. "Tier I and Tier II Cities of India, Classification of Indian Cities". Mapsofindia.com. Archived from the original on 7 April 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Sreedhara Menon, A. (January 2007). Kerala Charitram (2007 ed.). Kottayam: DC Books. ISBN   978-81-264-1588-5. Archived from the original on 13 November 2021. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  13. "Best cities to live, invest and earn in". Ibnlive.com. Archived from the original on 24 June 2008. Retrieved 23 September 2009. Indicus considered six parameters: health, education, environment, safety, public facilities and entertainment
  14. "Kerala's Kozhikode included in UNESCO Creative Cities Network". OnManorama.
  15. Menon, A. Sreedhara (1965). Kerala District Gazetteers: Kozhikode - Gazetteer of India, Volume 5 of Kerala District Gazetteers, Kerala (India). Superintendent of Govt. Presses.
  16. Menon, A. Sreedhara (2011). Kerala History and Its Makers. DC Books. p. 252. ISBN   9788126437825.
  17. Chandran 2018, p. 366.
  18. 1 2 3 4 Ayyar, K. V. Krishna (1938). The Zamorins of Calicut: From the Earliest Times Down to A.D. 1806. Publication Division, University of Calicut; University of Michigan.
  19. Hermann Kulke, Dietmar Rothermund (2010). "18. Ibn Battuta: International Trade at the Malabar Coast". A History of India. Routledge. ISBN   9780415485432. Archived from the original on 27 October 2015. Retrieved 4 September 2015. Thence we travelled to the town of Qāliqūṭ. [Calicut], which is one of the chief ports in Mulaibār.
  20. M.G.S. Narayanan, Calicut: The City of Truth (2006) Calicut University Press, Kozhikode.
  21. Encyclopædia Britannica (2008). calico
  22. "You searched for calico, Muslin, gauze". Archived from the original on 10 April 2023. Retrieved 11 June 2023.
  23. "Calico definition and meaning". Collins English Dictionary. Archived from the original on 1 May 2021. Retrieved 10 February 2023.
  24. 1 2 3 4 Menon, A. Sreedhara (2007). A Survey of Kerala History. DC Books. ISBN   9788126415786.
  25. Coastal Histories: Society and Ecology in Pre-modern India, Yogesh Sharma, Primus Books 2010
  26. Gurukkal, R., & Whittaker, D. (2001). In search of Muziris. Journal of Roman Archaeology,14, 334-350.
  27. According to Pliny the Elder, goods from India were sold in the Empire at 100 times their original purchase price
  28. "Ancient History Sourcebook: Pliny: Natural History 6.96-111. (On India)". 6 November 2013. Archived from the original on 6 November 2013. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  29. Bostock, John (1855). "26 (Voyages to India)". Pliny the Elder, The Natural History. London: Taylor and Francis.
  30. Indicopleustes, Cosmas (1897). Christian Topography. 11. United Kingdom: The Tertullian Project. pp. 358–373.
  31. Das, Santosh Kumar (2006). The Economic History of Ancient India. Genesis Publishing Pvt Ltd. p. 301.
  32. Ayyappa Paniker, K. (1997). Medieval Indian Literature: Surveys and selections. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN   9788126003655.
  33. Menon, A. Sreedhara (4 March 2011). Kerala History and its Makers. D C Books. pp. 82–86. ISBN   978-81-264-3782-5 . Retrieved 10 October 2021.
  34. Nisha, P. R. (12 June 2020). Jumbos and Jumping Devils: A Social History of Indian Circus. Oxford University Press. ISBN   9780190992071.
  35. The Portuguese, Indian Ocean and European Bridgeheads 1500–1800. Festschrift in Honour of Prof. K. S. Mathew (2001). Edited by: Pius Malekandathil and T. Jamal Mohammed. Fundacoa Oriente. Institute for Research in Social Sciences and Humanities of MESHAR (Kerala)
  36. "Kozhikode." Encyclopædia Britannica. 18 November 2011.
  37. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2010.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  38. Ibn Battuta, H. A. R. Gibb (1994). The Travels of Ibn Battuta A.D 1325-1354. Vol. IV. London.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  39. Ma Huan: Ying Yai Sheng Lan, The Overall Survey of the Ocean's Shores, translated by J.V.G. Mills, 1970 Hakluyt Society, reprint 1997 White Lotus Press. ISBN   974-8496-78-3
  40. Varthema, Ludovico di, The Travels of Ludovico di Varthema, A.D.1503–08, translated from the original 1510 Italian ed. by John Winter Jones, Hakluyt Society, London
  41. Gangadharan. M., The Land of Malabar: The Book of Barbosa (2000), Vol II, M.G University, Kottayam.
  42. Sreedhara Menon.A, A Survey of Kerala History(1967), p.152. D.C.Books Kottayam
  43. Bhāratīya sthalanāma patrikā (page 44) published by Place Names Society of India
  44. Sewell, Robert (1884). Lists of inscriptions, and sketch of the dynasties of southern India. E. Keys at the Government Press. p.  197. The Samoothiri made Menokki ruler of Porallatiri and came to terms with the troops and people. After this follows an account of the founding of the town of Kozhikode, close to the Samoothiri's palace at Tali
  45. K. V. Krishna Ayyar; University of Calicut. Publication Division (1938). The Samorins of Calicut: from the earliest times down to A.D. 1806. Publication Division, University of Calicut. p. 82. ISBN   978-81-7748-000-9. Archived from the original on 14 April 2023. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
  46. Varier, M. R. Raghava. "Documents of Investiture Ceremonies" in K. K. N. Kurup, Edit., "India's Naval Traditions". Northern Book Centre, New Delhi, 1997
  47. Sanjay Subrahmanyam, The Career and Legend of Vasco da Gama, Cambridge University Press, 1997, 288
  48. Knox, Robert (1681). An Historical Relation of the Island Ceylon. London: Reprint. Asian Educational Services. pp. 19–47.
  49. S.N.Sadasivan (2000). A Social History of India. APH. p. 353. ISBN   9788176481700.
  50. കോളേജ്, എം സി വസിഷ്ഠ് അസോസിയേറ്റ് പ്രൊഫസർ ചരിത്രവിഭാഗം മലബാർ ക്രിസ്ത്യൻ. "കോഴിക്കോട്ടുകാർ മറന്നുപോയ രാരിച്ചൻ മൂപ്പൻ". Mathrubhumi. Archived from the original on 9 July 2021. Retrieved 15 September 2022.
  51. "Kozhikode (Calicut), Kerala, India - Kozhikode (Calicut) Hotels, Kozhikode (Calicut) resorts, Kozhikode (Calicut) tourism, Kozhikode (Calicut) real estate and Kozhikode (Calicut) businesses". Kozhikode.com. Archived from the original on 22 June 2019. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
  52. Singh, Arun Kumar (11 February 2017). "Give Indian Navy its due". The Asian Age . Archived from the original on 25 September 2021. Retrieved 23 January 2021.
  53. 1 2 3 Sanjay Subrahmanyam. "The Political Economy of Commerce: Southern India 1500–1650". Cambridge University Press, 2002
  54. Shungoony Menon, P. (1878). A History of Travancore from the Earliest Times (pdf). Madras: Higgin Botham & Co. pp.  162–164. Retrieved 5 May 2016.
  55. L.K.A.Iyer, The Mysore Tribes and caste Archived 11 April 2023 at the Wayback Machine . Vol.III, A Mittal Publish. Page.279, Google Books
  56. Nagendra k.r.singh Global Encyclopedia of the South India Dalit's Ethnography Archived 3 February 2023 at the Wayback Machine (2006) page.230, Google Books
  57. L.Krishna Anandha Krishna Iyer(Divan Bahadur) The Cochin Tribes and Caste Archived 7 April 2023 at the Wayback Machine Vol.1. Johnson Reprint Corporation, 1962. Page. 278, Google Books
  58. Iyer, L. K. Anantha Krishna (1909). The Cochin tribes and castes vol.I. Higginbotham, Madras.
  59. Pamela Nightingale, ‘Jonathan Duncan (bap. 1756, d. 1811)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, May 2009
  60. "CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF CENTRAL ACTS (Updated up to 17-10-2014)". Lawmin.nic.in. Archived from the original on 7 January 2018. Retrieved 7 August 2016.
  61. Lewis McIver, G. Stokes (1883). Imperial Census of 1881 Operations and Results in the Presidency of Madras ((Vol II) ed.). Madras: E.Keys at the Government Press. p. 444. Archived from the original on 27 March 2023. Retrieved 5 December 2020.
  62. Presidency, Madras (India (1915). Madras District Gazetteers, Statistical Appendix For Malabar District (Vol.2 ed.). Madras: The Superintendent, Government Press. p. 20. Archived from the original on 27 March 2023. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
  63. HENRY FROWDE, M.A., Imperial Gazetteer of India (1908–1909). Imperial Gazetteer of India (New ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press. Archived from the original on 16 December 2008. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
  64. "Station: Calikote / Kozhicode Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 165–166. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
  65. "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M108. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
  66. "Religion – Kerala, Districts and Sub-districts". Census of India 2011. Office of the Registrar General. Archived from the original on 19 October 2020. Retrieved 1 August 2020.
  67. 1 2 3 "C -1 POPULATION BY RELIGIOUS COMMUNITY - 2011" (XLS). Censusindia.gov.in. Archived from the original on 8 December 2017. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
  68. 1 2 "Official Website of Kozhikode". Kkd.kerala.gov.in. 26 December 1975. Archived from the original on 12 October 2009. Retrieved 23 September 2009.
  69. "Official website of kozhikode". 12 October 2009. Archived from the original on 12 October 2009.
  70. Narayanan M.G.S., Calicut: The City of Truth, Calicut University Press (2006)
  71. Nossiter, Thomas Johnson (1 January 1982). Communism in Kerala: A Study in Political Adaptation. University of California Press. p. 25. ISBN   978-0-520-04667-2.
  72. Narayanan, M. G. S. (2006). Calicut: The City of Truth Revisited. University of Calicut. p. 112. ISBN   978-81-7748-104-4.
  73. Prange, Sebastian R. (3 May 2018). Monsoon Islam: Trade and Faith on the Medieval Malabar Coast. Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-1-108-42438-7.
  74. "Bohras in Calicut". Hinduonnet.com. 19 May 2006. Archived from the original on 3 July 2009. Retrieved 23 September 2009.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  75. 1 2 "Official website of Kozhikode, Govt. of Kerala". Kkd.kerala.gov.in. 26 December 1975. Archived from the original on 12 October 2009. Retrieved 23 September 2009.
  76. Narayanan.M.G.S., Calicut: The City of Truth(2006) Calicut University Publications
  77. "Kozhikode Corporation, Councillors" (PDF). Kozhikodecorporation.org. Retrieved 27 November 2011.[ permanent dead link ]
  78. Kozhikode Lok Sabha constituency redrawn Delimitation impact, The Hindu 5 February 2008
  79. "Kozhikode City Police". Kozhikode City Police. Archived from the original on 8 February 2012. Retrieved 27 November 2011.
  80. "Deadlock on Pooladikunnu-Vengalam stretch over". The New Indian Express . Archived from the original on 22 June 2019. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
  81. "Kozhikode Bus Stand : KSRTC Bus Station and Shopping Complex Calicut | Kozhikode". Archived from the original on 18 June 2018. Retrieved 18 June 2018.
  82. "Central station completes 75 years". The Hindu . Chennai, India. 5 November 2006. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011.
  83. "International status for Calicut airport". The Hindu. 2 February 2006. ISSN   0971-751X. Archived from the original on 13 November 2020. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  84. Chandran 2018, p. 386.
  85. "Kozhikode - Cyber Park Kerala". Cyberparkkerala.org. Archived from the original on 22 June 2019. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
  86. "Kozhikode Cyberpark to take off next year". Archived from the original on 12 February 2010.
  87. "'Shilpa Nagaram' on June 7". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 4 June 2012. Archived from the original on 1 October 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
  88. "Kozhikode is 'Shilpa Nagaram'". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 8 June 2012. Archived from the original on 17 December 2017. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
  89. "Hilite Mall in Kozhikode, Complete Shopping Guide at Hilite Mall Kozhikode - Yatra.com". Archived from the original on 18 June 2018. Retrieved 18 June 2018.
  90. "HiLITE City, One of India's Largest Mixed-Use Development Project Enters the Limelight" Archived 13 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine . Business Wire. 9 March 2015. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
  91. "Malabar Mahotsavam set for a comeback". The Hindu. 1 January 2010. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
  92. "Paying tribute to Sathguru Sri Tyagaraja" Archived 11 June 2017 at the Wayback Machine . Tyagaraja Aradhana Trust. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
  93. Ramin Raveendran (20 October 2013). "Keeping the harmonium close to his heart" Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine . The New Indian Express. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
  94. History of Mass Media (PDF). University of Calicut. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 October 2016. Retrieved 11 February 2023.
  95. "History of Media in Kerala" Archived 12 February 2023 at the Wayback Machine . Kerala Media Academy. Retrieved 12 February 2023.
  96. "Calicut press club". Archived from the original on 23 June 2003.
  97. List of High Schools in Kozhikode Archived 23 September 2022 at the Wayback Machine , Verfasor 28 December 2017
  98. Biju Govind (1 May 2016). "Nirdesh to design ships for Navy". The Hindu . Calicut, India. Archived from the original on 13 December 2019. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
  99. "History". Indian Institute of Spices Research. 12 March 2018. Archived from the original on 11 April 2019. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
  100. "Introduction". National Institute of Electronics and Information Technology. 21 October 2015. Archived from the original on 16 July 2019. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
  101. "About". University of Calicut. Archived from the original on 3 August 2020. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
  102. "Kozhikode Education". Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  103. "Celebrating Kozhikode's links with a Russian city". The Hindu. 13 April 2022. Archived from the original on 27 April 2022. Retrieved 27 April 2022.


Further reading

Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg Kozhikode travel guide from Wikivoyage