Krajina

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Krajina (pronounced  [krâjina] ) is a Slavic toponym, meaning 'frontier' or 'march'. The term is related with kraj or krai , originally meaning "edge" [1] and today denoting a region or province, usually distant from the metropole.

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Etymology

The Serbo-Croatian word krajina derives from Proto-Slavic *krajina, derived from *krajь, meaning "edge", related to *krojiti, "to cut"; [1] [2] the original meaning of krajina thus seems to have been "place at an edge, fringe, borderland", as reflected in the meanings of Church Slavonic краина, kraina, [2] and Old East Slavic окраина, okraina. [3]

In some South Slavic languages, including Serbo-Croatian and Slovene, the word krajina or its cognate still refers primarily to a border, fringe, or borderland of a country (sometimes with an established military defense), and secondarily to a region, area, or landscape. [2] [4] The word kraj can today mean an end or extremity, or region or area. Archaically extrapolated, it could mean "army" or "war"; [4] this meaning developed from the earlier meaning of "borderland" in a manner analogous to the French word campagne. [2] The term is equal to German Mark and French marche. [5] In the Habsburg Empire, a large region in modern Croatia was referred to as a Military Frontier (Militärgrenze; Vojna krajina).

In other Slavic languages (including the Chakavian and Kajkavian dialects of Serbo-Croatian), the term has other meanings, either a territorial name (cf. Krajna in Poland, from Old Polish kraina, meaning region, borderland, extremity [2] ) or word with meaning "a land, landscape" (e.g. in Polish, Slovak, Czech or Sorbian). In Slovenian, the word means both "landscape" and march.

Geographical regions

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia shared

Croatia

Montenegro

Poland

Serbia

Slovenia

Political regions

Subdivisions of Austria-Hungary:

Political units formed by rebel Serbs at the beginning of the Croatian War of Independence (1991–95):

Political unit formed by Serbs in the prelude (1991) of the Bosnian War (1992–95):

Where the term "Serbian Krajina" or "Krajina" alone is used, it most often refers to the former Republic of Serbian Krajina.

In Russia:

In Slovakia:

In Czech Republic:

In Ukraine:

People

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 Rick Derksen (2008), Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon, Brill: Leiden-Boston, page 244
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 “*krajina” in Oleg Trubačóv (ed.) (1974–), Этимологический словарь славянских языков [Etymological dictionary of Slavic languages], Moscow: Nauka, volume 12, pages 87-88
  3. Max Vasmer (1986), Etimologičeskij slovarʹ russkogo jazyka [Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language], in 4 vols (second edition), Moscow: Progress — Translated from German and supplemented by O. N. Trubačóv
  4. 1 2 Group of authors (1969). "Кра̏јина". Речник српскохрватскога књижевног језика, vol. 3 (in Serbo-Croatian). Novi Sad/Zagreb: Matica srpska/Matica hrvatska. p. 30.
  5. Group of authors (1972). "Krajina". In colonel-general Nikola Gažević (ed.). Vojna enciklopedija, vol. 4 (in Serbo-Croatian). Belgrade. p. 681.
  6. (in Croatian) Excerpt from the book I. Marinović, B. Šutić, M. Viskić: Baćina: Prošlost Baćine, Udruga Pagania, Ploče, 2005, ISBN   953-95132-0-0