Krajina (pronounced [krâjina] ) is a Slavic toponym, meaning 'frontier' or 'march'. The term is related with kraj or krai , originally meaning "edge" and today denoting a region or province, usually distant from the metropole.
The Serbo-Croatian word krajina derives from Proto-Slavic *krajina, derived from *krajь, meaning "edge", related to *krojiti, "to cut"; краина, kraina, and Old East Slavic окраина, okraina.the original meaning of krajina thus seems to have been "place at an edge, fringe, borderland", as reflected in the meanings of Church Slavonic
In some South Slavic languages, including Serbo-Croatian and Slovene, the word krajina or its cognate still refers primarily to a border, fringe, or borderland of a country (sometimes with an established military defense), and secondarily to a region, area, or landscape.The word kraj can today mean an end or extremity, or region or area. Archaically extrapolated, it could mean "army" or "war"; this meaning developed from the earlier meaning of "borderland" in a manner analogous to the French word campagne. The term is equal to German Mark and French marche. In the Habsburg Empire, a large region in modern Croatia was referred to as a Military Frontier (Militärgrenze; Vojna krajina).
In other Slavic languages (including the Chakavian and Kajkavian dialects of Serbo-Croatian), the term has other meanings, either a territorial name (cf. Krajna in Poland, from Old Polish kraina, meaning region, borderland, extremity) or word with meaning "a land, landscape" (e.g. in Polish, Slovak, Czech or Sorbian). In Slovenian, the word means both "landscape" and march.
Subdivisions of Austria-Hungary:
Political units formed by rebel Serbs at the beginning of the Croatian War of Independence (1991–95):
Political unit formed by Serbs in the prelude (1991) of the Bosnian War (1992–95):
Where the term "Serbian Krajina" or "Krajina" alone is used, it most often refers to the former Republic of Serbian Krajina.
In Czech Republic:
Bosnia and Herzegovina is located in Southeastern Europe, in the western Balkans. It has a 932 km (579 mi) border with Croatia to the north and southwest, a 357 km (222 mi) border with Serbia to the east, and a 249 km (155 mi) border with Montenegro to the southeast. It borders the Adriatic Sea along its 20 km (12.42 mi) coastline.
The Military Frontier was a borderland of the Habsburg Monarchy and later the Austrian and Austro-Hungarian Empire. It acted as the cordon sanitaire against incursions from the Ottoman Empire.
The Timok Valley is a geographical region in east-central Serbia around the Timok River. The Timok Valley corresponds to parts of two Serbian districts, with a total 2002 census population of 284,112.
Shtokavian or Štokavian is the prestige dialect of the pluricentric Serbo-Croatian language and the basis of its Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian and Montenegrin standards. It is a part of the South Slavic dialect continuum. Its name comes from the form for the interrogatory pronoun for "what" in Western Shtokavian, što. This is in contrast to Kajkavian and Chakavian.
Bosanska Krajina is a geographical region, a subregion of Bosnia, in western Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is enclosed by a number of rivers, namely the Sava (north), Glina (northwest), Vrbanja and Vrbas. The region is also a historic, economic and cultural entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina, famous for its natural beauties and wildlife diversity.
Čapljina is a city located in Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located on the border with Croatia a mere 20 kilometres (12 mi) from the Adriatic Sea.
The Serbian Autonomous Oblast of Krajina or SAO Krajina was a self-proclaimed Serbian autonomous region (oblast) within modern-day Croatia. The territory consisted of majority-Serbian municipalities of the Republic of Croatia that declared autonomy in October 1990. It was formed as the SAO Kninska Krajina, but, upon inclusion of additional Serb-populated areas, changed its name simply to SAO Krajina. In 1991 the SAO Krajina declared itself the Republic of Serbian Krajina, and subsequently included the other two Serbian SAOs in Croatia, the SAO Western Slavonia and the SAO Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia.
The Serbian Autonomous Oblast of Bosanska Krajina was a self-proclaimed Serbian Autonomous Oblast within today's Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was sometimes called the Autonomous Oblast of Krajina, or the Autonomous Region of Krajina (ARK). SAO Bosanska Krajina was located in the geographical region named Bosanska Krajina. Its capital was Banja Luka. The region was subsequently included into Republika Srpska.
Ravno is a village and municipality located in Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Ravno was a separate county until 1963, when it became a part of the Trebinje municipality. In 1994, the border changed and Ravno became a municipality again. This time however, part of the frontier lands of Trebinje municipality were added as part of Ravno. When Ravno inherited part of the former Trebinje municipality it had an area of 447 km2 (173 sq mi). These added borderlands went under the title Travunian Marches and were mostly inhabited by Serbs. The settlement of Ivanica has an unobstructed view of the Adriatic sea.
Kninska Krajina is a geographical and historical region in modern-day Croatia, part of the larger Zagora (hinterland) region. It is located around the town of Knin.
Dalmatian Hinterland is the southern inland hinterland in the historical Croatian region of Dalmatia. The name zagora means "beyond (the) hills", which is a reference to the fact that it is the part of Dalmatia that is not coastal.
Stećak or Stećci in plural form is the name for monumental medieval tombstones, that lie scattered across Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the border parts of Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia. An estimated 60,000 are found within the borders of modern Bosnia and Herzegovina and the rest of 10,000 are found in what are today Croatia (4,400), Montenegro (3,500), and Serbia (2,100), at more than 3,300 odd sites with over 90% in poor condition.
Gabela is a village in southern Bosnia and Herzegovina, 5 kilometres south of Čapljina and 4 kilometers from Metković, in Croatia. It is situated in the navigable lower course of the Neretva, off the major road linking the coast with the mountainous hinterland. The word Gabela comes from Arabic word for tax (al-qabala).
Herzegovina is the southern and smaller of two main geographical regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being Bosnia. It has never had strictly defined geographical or cultural-historical borders, nor has it ever been defined as an administrative whole in the geopolitical and economic subdivision of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Eastern Herzegovinian dialect is the most widespread subdialect of the Shtokavian dialect of Serbo-Croatian, both by territory and the number of speakers. It is the dialectal basis for all modern literary Serbo-Croatian standards: Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, and Montenegrin.
From August 1990 to November 1991, during the breakup of Yugoslavia, several Serb Autonomous Regions, or Districts were proclaimed in the Yugoslav republics of SR Croatia and SR Bosnia and Herzegovina in light of the possible secession of the republics from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. These were autonomous Serb-inhabited entities that subsequently united in their respective republic to form the Republic of Serbian Krajina in Croatia and the Republika Srpska in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Operation Jackal, also known as Operation June Dawns, was an offensive of the Bosnian War fought between a combined Croatian Army (HV) and Croatian Defence Council (HVO) army against the Army of Republika Srpska (VRS) from 7–26 June 1992. The offensive was a Croatian pre-emptive strike against the VRS, a Bosnian Serb military formed in May 1992 from Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) units that were stationed in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The HV concluded that the JNA offensive operations of April and May 1992, resulting in the capture of Kupres and much of the Neretva River valley south of Mostar, were aimed at capturing or threatening the Croatian Port of Ploče and possibly Split. To counter this threat, the Croatian leadership deployed the HV, under the command of General Janko Bobetko, to the "Southern Front" including the area in which Operation Jackal was to be conducted.
The Croatian Vilayet was a temporary borderland entity in Dalmatia in the 16th century. Its capital was Sinj.
Vlachs in Bosnia and Herzegovina are a Balkan population who descend from Romanized Illyrians and Thraco-Romans, and other pre-Slavic Romance-speaking peoples. They were semi-nomadic herdsmen, shepherds and farmers. They lived in tents or huts and traded livestock products. Vlach cheese was reputable because of its fat content and fetched high prices. With their caravans, Vlach carried out much of the traffic between inland and coastal cities such as Dubrovnik. Marko Vego argued that Vlach autochthony with Vlach settlements named after Vlach tribes, Vojnići and Hardomilje, are found near Roman forts and monuments. Bogumil Hrabak supported Vego's assertion that the Vlachs preceded both Turks and Bosnian Slavs in Zachlumia. Dominik Mandić argued that some Vlachs from Herzegovina migrated there from Thessaly, Epirus and Macedonia before the Ottoman invasion into Southern Europe. It is argued that some also arrived from the East during the Ottoman wars.
Bosnia, in the Early Middle Ages to early High Middle Ages was territorially and politically defined entity, governed at first by knyaz and then by a ruler with the ban title, from at least 838 AD. Situated, broadly, around upper and middle course of the Bosna river, between valleys of the Drina river on the east and the Vrbas river on the west, which comprise a wider area of central and eastern modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina. The earliest description sets Bosnia as an independent entity in 838 AD, with a knyaz Ratimir as country's ruler.