|Anthem: Anthem of Krasnodar Krai|
|Economic region||North Caucasus|
|Established||September 13, 1937|
|• Body||Legislative Assembly|
|• Governor||Veniamin Kondratev|
|• Total||76,000 km2 (29,000 sq mi)|
|• Estimate||5,603,420 (+7.2%)|
|• Density||69/km2 (180/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+3 (MSK )|
|ISO 3166 code||RU-KDA|
|License plates||23, 93, 123, 193|
Krasnodar Krai (Russian:Краснода́рский край, tr. Krasnodarsky kray,IPA: [krəsnɐˈdarskʲɪj kraj] ) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai), located in the North Caucasus region in Southern Russia and administratively a part of the Southern Federal District. Its administrative center is the city of Krasnodar. The third most populous federal subject, the krai had a population of 5,226,647 as of the 2010 Census.
Krasnodar Krai is formally and informally referred to as Kuban ( Russian : Кубань), a term denoting former Kuban People's Republic and historic region of Kuban situated between the Sea of Azov and the Kuban River which is mostly composed of the krai's territory. It is bordered by Rostov Oblast to the north, Stavropol Krai to the east, Karachay-Cherkessia to the south-east, and Adygea is an enclave entirely within the krai. Krasnodar Krai shares an international border with Abkhazia to the south, and borders the disputed territory of Crimea to the west, across the Kerch Strait.
The northern part of the krai belongs to the Don Steppe, while the southern region's Mediterranean climate has made it a popular tourist location. Novorossiysk is Russia's main port on the Black Sea, one of the few cities awarded the title of the Hero City, and Sochi was host of the XXII Olympic Winter Games in 2014. Krasnodar Krai is home to significant infrastructure of the Russian Navy's Black Sea Fleet.
Krasnodar Krai is located in the southwestern part of the North Caucasus and borders with Rostov Oblast in the northeast, Stavropol Krai and Karachay-Cherkessia in the east, and with the Abkhazia region (internationally recognized as part of Georgia) in the south. 327 kilometers (203 mi) from north to south and for 360 kilometers (220 mi) from east to west.The Republic of Adygea is completely encircled by the krai territory. The krai's Taman Peninsula is situated between the Sea of Azov in the north and the Black Sea in the south. In the west, the Kerch Strait separates the krai from the contested Crimean Peninsula, internationally recognised as part of Ukraine but under de facto Russian control. At its widest extent, the krai stretches for
The krai is split into two distinct parts by the Kuban River, which gave its name to this entire geographic region.The southern, seaward part is the western extremity of the Caucasus range, lying within the Crimean Submediterranean forest complex ecoregion; the climate is Mediterranean or, in the southeast, subtropical. Historically it is known as Circassia. The northern part is a steppe zone which shares continental climate patterns. It is also known as Kuban region.
The height of the mountains exceeds 3,000 meters (9,800 ft), with Mount Tsakhvoa being the highest at 3,346 meters (10,978 ft). Mount Fisht, at 2,867 meters (9,406 ft), is the Great Caucasus' westernmost peak with a glacier.
The Black Sea coast stretches from the Kerch Strait to Adler and is shielded by Caucasus Mountains from the cold northern winds.Numerous small mountain rivers flow in the coastal areas, often creating picturesque waterfalls.
Lake Abrau, located in the wine-making region of Abrau-Dyurso, is the largest lake in the northeastern Caucasus region. 884 meters (2,900 ft) above sea level.Lake Ritsa is considered to be one of the most picturesque lakes in the region and "the diamond of Caucasus"; it is located in an intermountain basin at the height of
The region's earliest known inhabitants are referred to, generically, as the Maiōtai (after the Greek name for the Sea of Azov). During the 6th century BC, Pontic Greeks founded the area's first cities, such as Phanagoria (near modern Sennoy) and Hermonassa (on the Taman Peninsula), who traded with nomadic tribes including the Skuthai (Scythians) and Sindi.
From the 8th to the 10th centuries, the area was dominated by the Khazars, a Turkic people who had earlier migrated from the east onto the Pontic-Caspian Steppe, where they reputedly converted to Judaism. After the defeat of the Khazar Khanate in 965 Kievan prince Svyatoslav conquered the area, it came under the rule of Kievan Rus', and it then formed the Tmutarakan principality. Later, due to the increasing claims of Byzantium at the end of the 11th century, the Tmutarakan principality came under the authority of the Byzantine emperors (until 1204).[ citation needed ]
In that period of history, the Circassians were first mentioned, under the ethnonym Kasogs. For example, Rededi Prince Kasozhsky was mentioned in The Tale of Igor's Campaign .[ citation needed ]
In 1243–1438 the current territory of the Kuban was part of the Golden Horde. After the collapse of the latter, parts of Kuban were held under the Crimean Khanate, Circassia, and the Ottoman Empire, which dominated the region. The Tsardom of Russia began to challenge the protectorate of the Ottoman Empire in the area during the Russian-Turkish wars.
In April 1783, after the liquidation of the Crimean Khanate, right-bank Kuban and Taman Peninsula were annexed to the Russian Empire by decree of Catherine II. In 1792–1794 Cossacks moved there from Zaporizhzhia, now located in Ukraine, and formed the Black Sea Area troops, with the creation of a solid cordon line for the Kuban River and the marginalization of the neighboring Circassians. The administrative region was accorded the status of "Land of Black Sea Cossack Army".
In 1900, the region's population numbered around two million people. In 1913, the gross grain harvest Kuban region entered the 2nd place in Russia, for the production of marketable grain – in the 1st place.[ clarification needed ] Krasnodar Krai was founded on 13 September 1937, when Azov-Black Sea Krai of the Russian SFSR was split up in Krasnodar Krai and Rostov Oblast. On 30 January 1996 Krasnodar Krai signed a power-sharing agreement with the federal government, granting it autonomy. This agreement would be abolished on 12 April 2002.
During the Soviet period, the high authority in the krai was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Krasnodar CPSU Committee (who in reality had the greatest authority), the chairman of the Krai Soviet (legislative power), and the chairman of the Krai Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the krai administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.
The Charter of Krasnodar Krai is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Krasnodar Krai is the province's standing legislative (representative) body. The assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the krai government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The krai administration supports the activities of the governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the Krai Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.
Krasnodar Krai is administratively divided into thirty-eight districts (raions) and fifteen cities of district equivalence. The districts and cities are further subdivided into eleven towns, plus urban-type settlements, and rural okrugs and stanitsa okrugs.
As a result of 2014 Winter Olympics, Krasnodar Krai has seen significant infrastructure spending. billion has been spend on various infrastructure projects including a bullet train.Over $50
Large companies in the region include Tander, Novorossmetal, Autonomous Heat Energy Company, Gazprom gas distribution Krasnodar, Evrokhim Chemical Fertilizers.
Several lines of Russian Railways cross the region and link it with Abkhazia, Ukraine, and neighboring Russian regions. There are direct trains from resort cities like Sochi and Anapa to Moscow, via Krasnodar, which become very popular during the summer vacation season. There are also suburb train connections. The Apsheronsk narrow-gauge railway, the longest mountain narrow-gauge railway in Russia, runs through Krasnodar Krai.
There are several airports in the region, including Krasnodar International Airport, Sochi International Airport, Anapa Airport, and Gelendzhik Airport.
The biggest ports are Novorossiysk and Tuapse. Others are Eisk and Temryuk on the Azov Sea, and Port Kavkaz, Taman, Anapa, Gelendzhik, and Sochi on the Black Sea. There is a Kerch Strait ferry line which connects Krasnodar Krai and Crimea.
Population: 5,404,300 (2014 est.); 5,226,647 (2010 Census); 5,125,221 (2002 Census); 5,113,148 (1989 Census).
Largest cities or towns in Krasnodar Krai
2010 Russian Census
|1||Krasnodar||City of krai significance of Krasnodar||744,995|| |
|2||Sochi||City of krai significance of Sochi||343,334|
|3||Novorossiysk||City of krai significance of Novorossiysk||241,952|
|4||Armavir||City of krai significance of Armavir||188,832|
|5||Yeysk||Town of krai significance of Yeysk||87,769|
|6||Kropotkin||Town of krai significance of Kropotkin||80,765|
|7||Slavyansk-na-Kubani||Town of krai significance of Slavyansk-na-Kubani||63,842|
|8||Tuapse||Town of krai significance of Tuapse||63,292|
|9||Labinsk||Town of krai significance of Labinsk||62,864|
|10||Tikhoretsk||Town of krai significance of Tikhoretsk||61,823|
The population of Krasnodar Krai is concentrated in the Kuban River drainage basin, which was traditionally Cossack land (see History of Cossacks ). The Kuban Cossacks are now generally considered to be ethnic Russians, even though they are still an important minority in their own right in the area. Historically, they were considered to be ethnic Ukrainian[ citation needed ], and reported their language as Ukrainian in censuses well into the 20th century; this change in identity is due to assimilation and historical persecution of the Kuban Cossacks[ citation needed ], which was particularly prominent due to questions of their loyalty[ citation needed ] to Moscow and the Communist state during the Russian Revolution and First World War[ citation needed ]. Other notable ethnic groups are the Adyghe, who have lived in the Kuban area for thousands of years, and the Armenians (including Christian Hamsheni and Cherkesogai), who have lived in the region since at least the 18th century.
Ethnic groups: the 2010 Census identified ethnic groups, as shown in the following table:
According to a 2012 survey52.2% of the population of Krasnodar Krai adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 3% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% are either Orthodox Christian believers who don't belong to church or members of non-Russian Orthodox churches, and 1% are Muslims. In addition, 22% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 13% is atheist, and 7.8% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.
On July 7, 2012, at least 171 people died in Krasnodar Krai, after torrential rains overnight caused the worst flooding and landslides in more than seventy years. Over 280 millimeters (11 in) of rain – the typical amount for a four- or five-month period – was reported to have fallen within forty-eight hours. A local police spokesman stated that most of the dead were in Krymsky District, where at least 159 died when a wave of water 5 meters (16 ft) high swept through the town of Krymsk in the middle of the night. Ten more deaths occurred in Gelendzhik, including five electrocuted when a transformer fell into the floodwater, and two in Novorossiysk. Authorities stated that 17 people had been officially reported missing, and there were fears the death toll would rise further, while medics had hospitalized 210 people, including 16 children.[ citation needed ]
The regional government claimed that over 24,000 people were affected by the floods, with more than 3,000 evacuated, and that more than 10,000 rescuers and 140 helicopters were searching for victims and evacuating survivors. [ citation needed ] The transport system in the region was said to have collapsed, while oil shipments from Novorossiysk were halted when the port, located in the lower part of the city, was threatened by landslides. Russia's President Vladimir Putin flew to the area to hold emergency talks with officials in Krymsk, while authorities in Perm Krai dispatched a rescue team to evacuate dozens of children from the region, who had been staying at summer camps on the Black Sea coast.In Krymsk, 14 temporary shelters were set up to house around 2,000 evacuees.
Residents of Krymsk claimed the wave of water that hit the town resulted from the sluice gates of a nearby reservoir being opened, although this was denied by the prosecutor general's investigative committee. Local prosecutors had earlier confirmed that the gates were opened, but stated that it was too early to determine whether this was the cause of the flooding.
Krasnodar is the largest city and the administrative centre of Krasnodar Krai. The city stands on the Kuban River in Southern Russia, with a population of 932,629 residents, up to 1 million residents in the urban agglomeration. Krasnodar is the sixteenth-largest city in Russia, and the second-largest city in Southern Russia, as well as the Southern Federal District.
Anapa is a town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the northern coast of the Black Sea near the Sea of Azov. Population: 88,879, 58,990 (2010 Census); 53,493 (2002 Census); 54,796 (1989 Census).
Yeysk is a port and a resort town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, situated on the shore of the Taganrog Gulf of the Sea of Azov. The town is built primarily on the Yeya Spit, which separates the Yeya River from the Sea of Azov. The estimated population of Yeysk in 2020 was 83,094.
Temryuk is a town and the administrative center of Temryuksky District in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Taman Peninsula on the right bank of the Kuban River not far from its entry into the Temryuk Bay, amid a field of mud volcanoes. The seaport of Temryuk is situated 4 kilometers (2.5 mi) from the town itself. Population: 41,413 (2020), 38,046 (2010 Census); 36,118 (2002 Census); 33,163 (1989 Census); 26,600 (1975).
Labinsk is a town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Bolshaya Laba River 145 kilometers (90 mi) southeast of Krasnodar and 50 kilometers (31 mi) southwest of Armavir. Population: 59,330 (2020), 62,864 (2010 Census); 61,446 (2002 Census); 57,958 (1989 Census); 53,000 (1972).
Abinsk is a town and the administrative center of Abinsky District of Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located 75 kilometers (47 mi) southwest of Krasnodar, the administrative center of the krai. Population: 39,058 (2020), 34,928 (2010 Census); 33,734 (2002 Census); 29,182 (1989 Census); 23,000 (1968).
Ust-Labinsk is a town and the administrative center of Ust-Labinsky District of Krasnodar Krai, Russia.
Novokubansky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the thirty-eight in Krasnodar Krai, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Novokubansky Municipal District. It is located in the east of the krai. The area of the district is 1,823 square kilometers (704 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Novokubansk. Population: 86,311 (2010 Census); 87,478 (2002 Census); 76,275 (1989 Census). The population of Novokubansk accounts for 40.4% of the district's total population.
Krymsk is a town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia. Population: 57,927 (2020), 57,382 (2010 Census); 56,623 (2002 Census); 50,893 (1989 Census).
Kurganinsk is a town and the administrative center of Kurganinsky District of Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the right bank of the Bolshaya Laba River 248 kilometers (154 mi) east of Krasnodar, the administrative center of the krai. Population: 48,194 people (2020), 47,970 (2010 Census); 46,618 (2002 Census); 40,763 (1989 Census).
Gulkevichi is a town and the administrative center of Gulkevichsky District of Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located 150 kilometers (93 mi) northeast of Krasnodar. Population: 34,272 people (2020), 35,244 (2010 Census); 35,141 (2002 Census); 31,668 (1989 Census).
Gulkevichsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the thirty-eight in Krasnodar Krai, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Gulkevichsky Municipal District. It is located in the east of the krai. The area of the district is 1,395.6 square kilometers (538.8 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Gulkevichi. Population: 101,521 (2010 Census); 102,632 (2002 Census); 91,201 (1989 Census). The population of Gulkevichi accounts for 34.7% of the district's total population.
Kanevskoy District, known as Kanevsky District before March 2009, is an administrative district (raion), one of the thirty-eight in Krasnodar Krai, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Kanevskoy Municipal District. It is located in the north of the krai. The area of the district is 2,483 square kilometers (959 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Kanevskaya. Population: 102,624 (2010 Census); 102,245 (2002 Census); 88,415 (1989 Census). The population of Kanevskaya accounts for 43.3% of the district's total population.
Krymsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the thirty-eight in Krasnodar Krai, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Krymsky Municipal District. It is located in the west of the krai. The area of the district is 1,601 square kilometers (618 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Krymsk. Population: 74,761 (2010 Census); 70,576 (2002 Census); 62,859 (1989 Census).
Kurganinsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the thirty-eight in Krasnodar Krai, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Kurganinsky Municipal District. It is located in the east of the krai. The area of the district is 1,590 square kilometers (610 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Kurganinsk.
Timashyovsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the thirty-eight in Krasnodar Krai, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Timashyovsky Municipal District. It is located in the center of the krai. The area of the district is 1,506.4 square kilometers (581.6 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Timashyovsk. Population: 106,130 (2010 Census); 107,189 (2002 Census); 91,851 (1989 Census). The population of Timashyovsk accounts for 50.8% of the district's total population.
Uspensky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the thirty-eight in Krasnodar Krai, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Uspensky Municipal District. It is located in the east of the krai. The area of the district is 1,229.98 square kilometers (474.90 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Uspenskoye. Population: 41,273 (2010 Census); 40,873 (2002 Census); 36,697 (1989 Census). The population of Uspenskoye accounts for 30.1% of the district's total population.
Khostinsky City District is one of four city districts of the city of Sochi in Krasnodar Krai, Russia. The city district borders Maykopsky District of the Republic of Adygea in the northeast, Adlersky City District in the southeast, Tsentralny City District in the west, and Lazarevsky City District in the northwest. In the southwest, it is bordered by the Black Sea. Population: 65,229 (2010 Census); 62,515 (2002 Census); 65,713 (1989 Census).
Lazarevsky City District is one of four city districts of the city of Sochi in Krasnodar Krai, Russia. The city district borders Tuapsinsky District in the northwest, Apsheronsky District in the north, Maykopsky District of the Republic of Adygea in the northeast, Khostinsky City District in the east, and Tsentralny City District in the south. The administration of the district is located in Lazarevskoye Microdistrict. In the southwest, it is bordered by the Black Sea. Population: 63,894 (2010 Census); 63,239 (2002 Census); 64,006 (1989 Census).
Timashyovsk is a town and the administrative center of Timashyovsky District of Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Kirpili River 73 kilometers (45 mi) north of Krasnodar, the administrative center of the krai. As of 2020, the city has a population of 50,792.
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