Krasnoperekopsk

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Krasnoperekopsk

Красноперекопск, Яни Капу

Yañı Qapı
Krasnoperekopsk railway station.jpg
Krasnoperekopsk railway station
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Coat of arms
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Krasnoperekopsk
Location of Krasnoperekopsk within Crimea
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Krasnoperekopsk
Krasnoperekopsk (Ukraine)
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Krasnoperekopsk
Krasnoperekopsk (European Russia)
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Krasnoperekopsk
Krasnoperekopsk (Black Sea)
Coordinates: 45°58′3″N33°48′1″E / 45.96750°N 33.80028°E / 45.96750; 33.80028 Coordinates: 45°58′3″N33°48′1″E / 45.96750°N 33.80028°E / 45.96750; 33.80028
Country Disputed:
Republic Crimea
Area
  Total22 km2 (8 sq mi)
Elevation
5 m (16 ft)
Population
 (2014)
  Total26 268
  Density1,395.45/km2 (3,614.2/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+3 (MSK)
Postal code
96000 — 96005
Area code(s) +7-36565

Krasnoperekopsk (Russian : Краснопереко́пск, Ukrainian : Яни Капу, Краснопереко́пськ, Crimean Tatar : Yañı Qapı, Krasnoperekopsk) is a town of regional significance that was following the 2014 annexation of Crimea incorporated into Russia's Republic of Crimea, though the territory is recognised by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine within the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. It also serves as the administrative center of Krasnoperekopsk Raion, although it is not a part of the raion (district). Population: 26,268 (2014 Census). [1]

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.

Ukrainian language language member of the East Slavic subgroup of the Slavic languages

Ukrainian is an East Slavic language. It is the official state language of Ukraine and one of the three official languages in the unrecognized state of Transnistria, the other two being Romanian and Russian. Written Ukrainian uses a variant of the Cyrillic script.

Crimean Tatar language Turkic language spoken in Crimea, Central Asia (mainly in Uzbekistan), and the Crimean Tatar diasporas in Turkey, Romania, Bulgaria

Crimean Tatar, sometimes also called Crimean Turkic or simply Crimean, is a Kipchak Turkic language spoken in Crimea and the Crimean Tatar diasporas of Uzbekistan, Turkey, Romania and Bulgaria, as well as small communities in the United States and Canada. It should not be confused with Tatar proper, spoken in Tatarstan and adjacent regions in Russia; the languages are related, but belong to two different subgroups of the Kipchak languages and thus are not mutually intelligible. Crimean Tatar arrived in the 13th century with the Mongol Golden Horde, succeeding the Crimean Greek and Crimean Gothic Principality of Theodoro, and continued through the 15th–18th century Crimean Khanate period. Though only distantly related, it has been extensively influenced by nearby Oghuz Turkic languages such as Azerbaijani, Turkish and Turkmen.

Contents

It is located on the southern part of the Perekop Isthmus, on the shore of the Stare lake, and about 124 kilometres (77 mi) from the Crimean capital, Simferopol. It lies on the Dzhankoy-Kherson railroad line (one of the two railroad lines connecting the Crimea and the rest of the continent).

Simferopol City on the Crimean Peninsula

Simferopol is a city on the Crimean Peninsula which is, since the 2014 annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, the de facto capital city of the Republic of Crimea within the Russian Federation. De jure, it remains the capital city of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea within Ukraine. The status of Crimea is disputed between Russia and Ukraine as a result of the 2014 vote to join Russia, which was held during Russian military intervention, and the subsequent annexation. Simferopol is an important political, economic and transport hub of the peninsula, and serves as the administrative centre of both Simferopol Municipality and Simferopol District, though it does not belong to the district. Population: 332,317 .

Dzhankoy City in Crimea, Disputed:

Dzhankoy or Jankoy is a town of regional significance in the north of the Crimea. It also serves as administrative center of Dzhankoy Raion although it is not a part of the raion (district). Population: 38,622 .

Kherson City of regional significance in Kherson Oblast, Ukraine

Kherson is a city in southern Ukraine. It functions as the administrative center of Kherson Oblast (province). Designated as a city of oblast significance. Kherson is an important port on the Black Sea and on the Dnieper River, and the home of a major ship-building industry. As of 2015 it had a population of 294,941 (2015 est.).

History

The city of Krasnoperekopsk should not be confused with the historic Crimean city of Perekop, which was destroyed in November 1920 during the Russian Civil War, and which is located in a 25 kilometres (16 mi) range to the north of Krasnoperekopsk. Perekop was depopulated and destroyed as the Crimean Peninsula was invaded by the Soviet Red Army.

Russian Civil War multi-party war in the former Russian Empire, November 1917-October 1922

The Russian Civil War was a multi-party civil war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the two Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future. The two largest combatant groups were the Red Army, fighting for the Bolshevik form of socialism led by Vladimir Lenin, and the loosely allied forces known as the White Army, which included diverse interests favouring political monarchism, economic capitalism and alternative forms of socialism, each with democratic and anti-democratic variants. In addition, rival militant socialists and non-ideological Green armies fought against both the Bolsheviks and the Whites. Eight foreign nations intervened against the Red Army, notably the former Allied military forces from the World War and the pro-German armies. The Red Army eventually defeated the White Armed Forces of South Russia in Ukraine and the army led by Admiral Aleksandr Kolchak to the east in Siberia in 1919. The remains of the White forces commanded by Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel were beaten in Crimea and evacuated in late 1920. Lesser battles of the war continued on the periphery for two more years, and minor skirmishes with the remnants of the White forces in the Far East continued well into 1923. The war ended in 1923 in the sense that Bolshevik communist control of the newly formed Soviet Union was now assured, although armed national resistance in Central Asia was not completely crushed until 1934. There were an estimated 7,000,000–12,000,000 casualties during the war, mostly civilians.

Red Army Soviet army and air force from 1917–1946

The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army was established immediately after the 1917 October Revolution. The Bolsheviks raised an army to oppose the military confederations of their adversaries during the Russian Civil War. Beginning in February 1946, the Red Army, along with the Soviet Navy, embodied the main component of the Soviet Armed Forces; taking the official name of "Soviet Army", until its dissolution in December 1991. The former official name Red Army continued to be used as a nickname by both sides throughout the Cold War.

The city was founded as Bromzavod (Russian : Бромзавод) in 1932 as an industrial settlement for a bromine factory located near the Staroe Lake  [ ru ] (Lake Tuzla). In 1936, the settlement became known as Krasno-Perekopsk (Красно-Перекопск) in honor of the Red Army men who stormed Perekop in 1920. In 1964, the name was changed again to Krasnoperekopsk, and in 1966, it received the status of a city.

Bromine Chemical element with atomic number 35

Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35. It is the third-lightest halogen, and is a fuming red-brown liquid at room temperature that evaporates readily to form a similarly coloured gas. Its properties are thus intermediate between those of chlorine and iodine. Isolated independently by two chemists, Carl Jacob Löwig and Antoine Jérôme Balard, its name was derived from the Ancient Greek βρῶμος ("stench"), referencing its sharp and disagreeable smell.

Siege of Perekop (1920)

The Siege of Perekop, also known as the Perekop-Chongar Operation, was the final battle of the Southern Front in the Russian Civil War from 7 to 17 November 1920. The White Army stronghold on the Crimean Peninsula was protected by the Chongar fortification system along the strategic Perekop Isthmus and the Syvash, from which the Crimean Corps under General Yakov Slashchov repelled several Red Army invasion attempts in early 1920. The Red Army in South Russia and the Black Army, under the command of Mikhail Frunze, launched an offensive on Crimea with an invasion force four-times larger than the defenders, the Army of Wrangel under the command of General Pyotr Wrangel. Despite suffering heavy losses, the Reds broke through the fortifications, and the Whites were forced into retreat southwards. Following their defeat at the Siege of Perekop, the Whites evacuated from the Crimea, dissolving the Army of Wrangel and ending the Southern Front in Bolshevik victory.

City status Wikimedia disambiguation page

City status is a symbolic and legal designation given by a national or subnational government. A municipality may receive city status because it already has the qualities of a city, or because it has some special purpose.

On 12 May 2016, Ukrainian authorities [nb 1] rechristened the city Yany Kapu (Ukrainian : Яни Капу; Crimean Tatar : Yañı Qapı) [5] as part of its decommunization efforts, but this decision does not take effect until the return of Crimea to the jurisdiction of Ukraine.

Decommunization in Ukraine

In April 2015, a formal decommunization process started in Ukraine after laws were approved which, among other acts, outlawed communist symbols.

Economy and Industry

Demographics

2001 Census
Nationality#Inhabitants
Russians 16,561
Ukrainians 13,602
Crimean Tatars 1,121
Total:31,284

Climate

Krasnoperekopsk's climate is mostly dry and hot in the summer, and mild in the winter. The average temperature ranges from −2.4 °C (27.7 °F) in January, to 23.3 °C (73.9 °F) in July. The average precipitation is 336 mm (13.2 in) per year.

International relations

Twin towns – Sister cities

Krasnoperekopsk is twinned with:

Notes

  1. Since the 2014 Crimean crisis, the status of the Crimea and of the city of Sevastopol is under dispute between Russia and Ukraine; Ukraine and the majority of the international community considers the Crimea and Sevastopol an integral part of Ukraine, while Russia, on the other hand, considers the Crimea and Sevastopol an integral part of Russia, with Sevastopol functioning as a federal city within the Crimean Federal District. [2] [3] [4]

Related Research Articles

Perekop Urban-type settlement in Crimea

Perekop is an urban-type settlement located on the Perekop Isthmus connecting the Crimean peninsula to the Ukrainian mainland. It is known for the fortress Or Qapi that served as the gateway to Crimea. The village currently is part of Armyansk Municipality. Population: 919 .

Isthmus of Perekop isthmus

The Isthmus of Perekop is the narrow, 5–7 kilometres (3.1–4.3 mi) wide strip of land that connects the Crimean Peninsula to the mainland of Ukraine. The isthmus projects between the Black Sea to the west and the Sivash to the east. The isthmus takes its name of "Perekop" from the Tatar fortress of Or Qapi.

Bilohirsk City in Bilohirsk Raion, Disputed between Russia and Ukraine

Bilohirsk or Belogorsk is a town and the administrative center in Bilohirsk Raion, one of the raions (districts) of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine and annexed by Russia. Population: 16,354 .

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Armyansk Place in Crimea, Disputed:

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Armyansk City Municipality is an administrative territorial entity of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. Population: 24,415 .

Saky Place in Crimea, Disputed:

Saky or Saki is a town of regional significance in the Crimean peninsula, currently subject to a territorial dispute between the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Although it is the administrative centre of the Saky Raion, it does not belong to the raion (district), serving instead as the center and the only locality of Saky municipality. Population: 25,146 .

Krasnoperekopsk Raion Raion in Crimea, Disputed:

Krasnoperekopsk Raion is one of the 25 regions of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine and incorporated by Russia as the Republic of Crimea. It is situated in the northern part of the republic. The administrative center of the raion is the town of Krasnoperekopsk, though it is not a part of the district and is incorporated separately. Population: 24,738 .

Hvardiiske, Simferopol Raion Urban-type settlement in Crimea

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Parkove Urban-type settlement in Crimea, Disputed between Russia and Ukraine

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Danylivka Rural settlement in Crimea, Disputed between Russia and Ukraine

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Kuibysheve, Yalta Rural settlement in Crimea, Disputed between Russia and Ukraine

Kuibysheve is a rural settlement in the Yalta Municipality of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine and annexed by Russia as the Republic of Crimea.

Soniachna Dolyna Village in Crimea, Disputed between Russia and Ukraine

Soniachna Dolyna is a village in the Sudak Municipality of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine and annexed by Russia as the Republic of Crimea.

Myndalne Village in Crimea, Disputed between Russia and Ukraine

Myndalne is a village in the Sudak Municipality of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine and annexed by Russia as the Republic of Crimea.

Vesele, Sudak Municipality Village in Crimea, Disputed between Russia and Ukraine

Vesele is a village in the Sudak Municipality of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine and annexed by Russia as the Republic of Crimea.

Bahativka, Crimea Village in Crimea, Disputed between Russia and Ukraine

Bahativka is a village in the Sudak Municipality of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine and annexed by Russia as the Republic of Crimea.

Dachne, Sudak Municipality Village in Crimea, Disputed between Russia and Ukraine

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Hrushivka, Crimea Village in Crimea, Disputed between Russia and Ukraine

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Kholodivka, Crimea Village in Crimea, Disputed between Russia and Ukraine

Kholodivka is a village in the Sudak Municipality of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine and annexed by Russia as the Republic of Crimea.

Perevalivka Village in Crimea, Disputed between Russia and Ukraine

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References

  1. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2014). "Таблица 1.3. Численность населения Крымского федерального округа, городских округов, муниципальных районов, городских и сельских поселений" [Table 1.3. Population of Crimean Federal District, Its Urban Okrugs, Municipal Districts, Urban and Rural Settlements]. Федеральное статистическое наблюдение «Перепись населения в Крымском федеральном округе». ("Population Census in Crimean Federal District" Federal Statistical Examination) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service . Retrieved January 4, 2016.
  2. Gutterman, Steve. "Putin signs Crimea treaty, will not seize other Ukraine regions". Reuters.com. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
  3. "Ukraine crisis timeline". BBC News.
  4. UN General Assembly adopts resolution affirming Ukraine's territorial integrity, China Central Television (28 March 2014)
  5. Верховна Рада України; Постанова від 12.05.2016 № 1352-VIII Про перейменування окремих населених пунктів та районів Автономної Республіки Крим та міста Севастополя ‹See Tfd› (in Ukrainian)
  6. "Дзержинский О городе" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2018-10-09. Retrieved 2019-06-04.