Kristianstad

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Kristianstad
Kristianstad 070628-1.JPG
Kristianstad
Kristianstad vapen.svg
Coat of arms
Sweden Scania location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Kristianstad
Sweden location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Kristianstad
Coordinates: 56°01′46″N14°09′24″E / 56.02944°N 14.15667°E / 56.02944; 14.15667 Coordinates: 56°01′46″N14°09′24″E / 56.02944°N 14.15667°E / 56.02944; 14.15667
Country Sweden
Province Skåne
County Skåne County
Municipality Kristianstad Municipality
Area
[1]
  Total21.4 km2 (8.3 sq mi)
Population
 (31 December 2016) [1]
  Total40,145
  Density1,876/km2 (4,860/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Website Official website

Kristianstad ( UK: /ˈkrɪsənstɑːd/ , [2] Swedish:  [krɪˈɧǎnːsta, -ɑːd]; [3] older spelling from Danish Christianstad) is a city and the seat of Kristianstad Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden with 40,145 inhabitants in 2016. [1] During the last 15 years, it has gone from a garrison town to a developed commercial city, today attracting visitors in the summertime mainly from Germany, Denmark and The Netherlands. [ citation needed ]

Contents

History

Trinity Church (Heliga Trefaldighetskyrkan) Heliga Trefaldighetskyrkan exterior cropped.jpg
Trinity Church (Heliga Trefaldighetskyrkan)

The city was founded in 1614 by King Christian IV of Denmark, the city's name literally means 'Town of Christian', as a planned city after the burning of the nearby town of and moving the city rights of the neighbouring town of Sölvesborg and Åhus to the new town. The purpose of the town was to safeguard the eastern half of the Danish province of Scania against any future raids from Sweden in the north, but also as a symbol of the power of Christian himself. One of these raids had sacked the nearby town of Vä in 1612. Vä then lost its charter and the people were moved to the new, better fortified city. The king also founded the town of Christianopel in eastern Blekinge to serve a similar purpose.

Construction of the towns was a great prestige project for the king, and Kristianstad's church (Danish : Trefoldighedskirken; Swedish : Heliga Trefaldighetskyrkan) is considered by many to be one of the most beautiful buildings constructed by King Christian IV, or even northern Europe's most beautiful Renaissance church. This meant that the church was built considerably larger than there was initially use for. The king also wanted castle or fortress constructed inside the town but shortage of funds made this impossible, of the intended castle only an arsenal was constructed which today serves as the main building of the local museum. Also in Christianstad the town planning of the Renaissance could be laid down for the first time at the foundation of the town. This makes the Kristianstad town centre of today exceptionally well-kept and easy to get around in.

Short-lived Danish capture of Kristianstad during the Scanian War (1676), painting by Claus Moinichen. Capture of christianstad-claus moinichen 1686.jpg
Short-lived Danish capture of Kristianstad during the Scanian War (1676), painting by Claus Møinichen.

The city's coat of arms depicts two lions holding the King Christian IV's crowned insignia, the monogram C4. The coat of arms was only slightly modified after the Swedish takeover following the 1658 Treaty of Roskilde in which the eastern third of Denmark was ceded to Sweden. The coat of arms is very similar to the coat of arms of the former town of Christianopel in eastern Blekinge, a town also founded by Christian IV. Since 1971, the coat of arms is used by Kristianstad Municipality. Kristianstad's coat of arms is one of the few coat of arms in the world depicting a foreign king's or queen's coat of arms. A reason for the Swedes to continue using the old coat of arms could be its colours – blue and yellow, but Denmark is also held in high regard locally in Scania.

Pylyp Orlyk was after 1709 chosen as a Hetman in exile by the cossacks and the Swedish king Charles XII. While in Bender Orlyk wrote one of the first state constitutions in Europe. This Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk was confirmed by Charles XII and it also names him as the protector of Ukraine. After 1714 Orlyk now together with several other cossacks followed the Swedish king Charles XII to Sweden. Orlyk with his family and about 40 other Cossacks arrived in Ystad, Sweden in late November 1715. After some months in Ystad they lived in the city of Kristianstad for some years. [4] Orlyk wrote numerous proclamations and essays about Ukraine including the 1710 Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk. [5]

Kristianstad served as capital of Kristianstad County between 1719 and 1997. It now houses the administration and the regional parliament of the Skåne Regional Council. For a long time Kristianstad also was a very important garrison town, the A3 Wendes Artillery Regiment and the P6 South Scanian Infantry Regiment being the towns most prominent military units. Also the town housed for many years the so-called Scanian Fortification Brigade. The Wendes Artillery Regiment served with distinction in the Napoleonic Wars. One of Sweden's higher courts of appeal was located in Kristianstad before being moved to Malmö in 1917.

Geography

Sweden's lowest point, at 2.41 meters below mean sea level, is located in Kristianstad. Because of this, parts of the city have to be protected from flooding by a system of levees and water pumps. To expand the city, large areas of low-lying wetlands have had to be walled in, especially to the east. To prevent future flooding of the city center, the existing levees are in the process of being reinforced and new levees against both Helge å and Hammarsjön are under construction. An extensive system of ponds and dams is also under construction. The threat of flooding became substantial during late winter 2002, when the greater part of the public park Tivoliparken was under water. [6] However, the wetlands around the city are starting to be regarded more as an asset, not least thanks to the creation of Kristianstads Vattenrike Biosphere Reserve. [7] Today the Vattenriket is a Unesco biosphere reserve.

Climate

Kristianstad has a humid continental climate but with the updated mean annual temperature can qualify for a humid subtropical climate which is very unusual for a city this far north. The city being lowest point in Sweden might explain the hot climate. Summers are warm and comparatively long by Swedish standards.

Climate data for Kristianstad, 2002–2016; extremes since 1901, precipitation 1961–1990
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)11.6
(52.9)
15.3
(59.5)
20.4
(68.7)
25.6
(78.1)
29.5
(85.1)
32.9
(91.2)
32.9
(91.2)
33.6
(92.5)
27.5
(81.5)
23.5
(74.3)
17.7
(63.9)
13.0
(55.4)
32.4
(90.3)
Average high °C (°F)3.3
(37.9)
4.5
(40.1)
9.9
(49.8)
12.4
(54.3)
18.8
(65.8)
24.3
(75.7)
26.8
(80.2)
25.9
(78.6)
18.8
(65.8)
13.9
(57.0)
10.8
(51.4)
9.1
(48.4)
14.9
(58.7)
Daily mean °C (°F)1.5
(34.7)
2.0
(35.6)
5.8
(42.4)
10.5
(50.9)
16.8
(62.2)
19.5
(67.1)
21.9
(71.4)
21.0
(69.8)
17.7
(63.9)
13.9
(57.0)
9.9
(49.8)
3.8
(38.8)
12.0
(53.6)
Average low °C (°F)0.6
(33.1)
0.1
(32.2)
1.9
(35.4)
2.1
(35.8)
9.7
(49.5)
16.1
(61.0)
18.5
(65.3)
17.9
(64.2)
13.2
(55.8)
9.5
(49.1)
7.5
(45.5)
3.0
(37.4)
8.3
(47.0)
Record low °C (°F)−27.8
(−18.0)
−23.4
(−10.1)
−22.8
(−9.0)
−8.5
(16.7)
−3.8
(25.2)
0.2
(32.4)
4.5
(40.1)
2.2
(36.0)
−2.0
(28.4)
−9.9
(14.2)
−15.0
(5.0)
−24.6
(−12.3)
−27.8
(−18.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches)47.7
(1.88)
33.0
(1.30)
36.2
(1.43)
36.1
(1.42)
42.4
(1.67)
47.4
(1.87)
64.0
(2.52)
50.1
(1.97)
54.8
(2.16)
50.6
(1.99)
53.7
(2.11)
50.7
(2.00)
561.8
(22.12)
Source 1: SMHI Average Precipitation 1961-1990 [8]
Source 2: SMHI Average Data 2002-2016 [9]

Environmental

Kristianstad has by now crossed a vital threshold, as the city and adjacent municipality, with a population of 80,000, in essence use no oil, natural gas or coal to warm homes and businesses, even throughout the extensive chilly winters. It is an absolute turnaround from 20 years ago, when all of its heating came from fossil fuels. [10]

Industry

Absolut Vodka, owned by Pernod Ricard, is produced by the town of Åhus located within the municipality. Kristianstad was the main military seat in Scania for a long time, boosting military camps and trainings. After the reforms and military cutbacks of the 1990s all of these have been closed, although a new military presence is being established in nearby Rinkaby which holds an old military training ground. Also in and around Kristianstad are numerous enterprises concerned with agriculture and it is usually said that every Swede everyday eats something produced from Kristianstad. At the old garrison ground for the P6 South Scanian Infantry Regiment (later mechanized) there is today the local Kristianstad University which is specialized in educating teachers and nurses.

Culture

The Swedish Film industry (Svensk Filmindustri) commenced its activities in Kristianstad in the 1910s, [ citation needed ] before moving to Stockholm in 1920. Today the old studio is a museum.

Events

The 2011 World Scout Jamboree was held near Rinkaby, in Kristianstad municipality. Also every summer there is a huge beachhandboll tournament in Åhus.

Notable natives

Sister cities

Kristianstad has eight sister cities: [11]

Sights

See also

Related Research Articles

Skåne County County (län) of Sweden

Skåne County, sometimes referred to as Scania County in English, is the southernmost county, or län, of Sweden, basically corresponding to the traditional province Skåne. It borders the counties of Halland, Kronoberg and Blekinge and connects to Capital Region, Denmark by the Öresund Bridge. The seat of residence for the Skåne Governor is the city of Malmö. The headquarters of Skåne Regional Council are located both in Kristianstad and Malmö.

Skåneland

Skåneland or Skånelandene (Danish) is a region on the southern Scandinavian peninsula. It includes the Swedish provinces of Blekinge, Halland and Scania. The Danish island of Bornholm is sometimes also included. Skåneland has no official recognition or function and the term is not in common usage. Equivalent terms in English and Latin are "the Scanian provinces" and "Terrae Scaniae" respectively. The term is mostly used in historical contexts and not in daily speech. In Danish, Skånelandene is used more often. The terms have no political implications as the region is not a geopolitical entity but a cultural region, without officially established political borders.

Åhus Place in Skåne, Sweden

Åhus is the second largest locality in Kristianstad Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden with 9,423 inhabitants in 2010, but the number triples during the summer due to tourists who come seeking the beaches and nature of the Helgeå and Hanöbukten area. Åhus is also famous for hosting one of the largest beach handball tournaments in the world with approximately 20,000 participants. In 2011, in the village of Rinkaby near Åhus, the World Scout Meeting also known as the Jamboree was held.

The history of the province of Scania was for many hundred years, up until the 18th century, marked by the struggle between the two Scandinavian kingdoms of Denmark and Sweden over the hegemony in the Baltic area.

Ronneby Place in Blekinge, Sweden

Ronneby is a locality and the seat of Ronneby Municipality in Blekinge County, Sweden with 12,029 inhabitants in 2010.

Skanör med Falsterbo Place in Scania, Sweden

Skanör med Falsterbo is a statistical locality, situated in Vellinge Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden with 6,937 inhabitants in 2010. It consists of the two old towns of Skanör and Falsterbo which have grown together, but are still regarded as different communities by locals. The preposition med means with. Thanks to its southerly and maritime position, the locality is the mildest in Sweden, with winter lows barely averaging frosts.

The Skåne Market or Scania market was a major fish market for herring which took place annually in Scania during the Middle Ages. From around 1200, it became one of the most important events for trade around the Baltic Sea and made Scania into a major distribution center for West-European goods bound for eastern Scandinavia. The Scania Market continued to be an important trade center for 250 years and was a cornerstone of the Hanseatic League's wealth.

Scanian War part of the Northern Wars involving the union of Denmark-Norway, Brandenburg and Sweden

The Scanian War was a part of the Northern Wars involving the union of Denmark–Norway, Brandenburg and Sweden. It was fought from 1675 to 1679 mainly on Scanian soil, in the former Danish provinces along the border with Sweden, and in Northern Germany. While the latter battles are regarded as a theater of the Scanian war in English, Danish and Swedish historiography, they are seen as a separate war in German historiography, called the Swedish-Brandenburgian War.

Pylyp Orlyk Hetman of Ukrainian Cossacks

Pylyp Stepanovych Orlyk (born on October 11, 1672 in Kosuta, Ashmyany county, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, died on May 26, 1742 in Jassy, Principality of Moldavia was a Zaporozhian Cossack starshyna, Hetman of Ukraine in exile, diplomat, secretary and close associate of Hetman Ivan Mazepa. Founder of the first Constitution in Europe.

Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk

The Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk was a 1710 constitutional document written by Hetman Pylyp Orlyk, a Cossack of Ukraine.

Southern Military District, originally I Military District was a Swedish military district, a command of the Swedish Armed Forces that had operational control over Southern Sweden, for most time of its existence corresponding to the area covered by the counties of Malmöhus, Kristianstad, Blekinge, Kronoberg, Jönköping and Kalmar. The headquarters of Milo S were located in Kristianstad.

Sweden–Ukraine relations Diplomatic relations between the Kingdom of Sweden and Ukraine

Sweden–Ukraine relations are foreign relations between Sweden and Ukraine. Diplomatic relations between the two countries were established on 13 January 1992. Sweden has an embassy in Kiev and an honorary consulate in Kakhovka. Ukraine has an embassy in Stockholm.

Scania province in Sweden

Scania (Swedish: Skåne, is the southernmost province of Sweden. Within Scania, there are 33 municipalities that are autonomous within the Scania Regional Council. Scania's largest city is Malmö, which is also the third largest in Sweden, as well as the fifth largest in Scandinavia.

Grégoire Orlyk, also Hryhor Orlyk, was a French military commander, special envoy and member of Louis XV's secret intelligence service. Grégoire Orlyk was born in Ukraine, the son of Ukrainian hetman in exile Pylyp Orlyk and Hanna Hertsyk, received good education in Sweden, served in Poland and Saxony, participated in secret efforts of France to restore on the Polish throne Stanisław Leszczyński. He later commanded the king's regiment of Royal suedois. For his intelligence work and military exploits was given the title of a comte and promoted to the general's rank of Maréchal de camp. Grégoire Orlyk was an acquaintance of French philosopher Voltaire, championed Ukrainian cause in France and other countries.

Siege of Malmö

The Siege of Malmö was an unsuccessful Danish siege on the Swedish-held city of Malmö, fought between June 11 and July 5, 1677. Fought towards the end of the Scanian War, the siege was one in a string of Danish losses that saw Swedish forces under King Charles XI of Sweden establish control over the southern region of Sweden.

Denmark–Sweden relations Diplomatic relations between the Kingdom of Denmark and the Kingdom of Sweden

Denmark–Sweden relations relate to Denmark and Sweden. Both of these countries have a very long history together. These countries were part of the Kalmar Union between 1397 and 1523, although, there exists an inherited cultural competition between Sweden and Denmark. From 1448 to 1790 the two kingdoms were at war nearly at every chance, in more than one case a new king trying to prove his worth by waging war on the other country for little or no political reason. There have been 11 Dano-Swedish wars between 1521 and 1814.

Vä part of Kristianstad, Sweden

is a former town in Scania, now a village in the municipality of Kristianstad in Sweden, ca 5 km south west of the town of Kristianstad.

Blekinge Historical province of Sweden

Blekinge is one of the traditional provinces of Sweden, situated in the south of the country. It borders Småland, Scania and the Baltic Sea. It is the country's second-smallest province by area, and the smallest province located on the mainland.

Trinity Church, Kristianstad Church in Kristianstad, Sweden

Trinity Church is a church building in Kristianstad, Sweden, built between 1617 and 1628 by Christian IV of Denmark. He had founded the city of Kristianstad in 1614 at a time when Scania was part of the Kingdom of Denmark. The church's large size and style reveal the king's ambitions for his new city.

North Scanian Regiment

North Scanian Regiment, designation P 6/Fo 14, was a Swedish Army armoured regiment that operated from 1963 to 1994. The unit was based in the Kristianstad Garrison in Kristianstad. The unit was formed in 1963 when North Scanian Infantry Regiment was converted from an infantry regiment to and armoured regiment.

References

Brew, Margit Scandinavian footprints: a history of Scandinavians settling in New Zealand Auckland, NZ: M.Brew, c2007.

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 "Tätorter 2016; befolkning, landareal, andel som överlappas av fritidshusområden" (in Swedish). Statistics Sweden. 5 April 2017. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  2. "Kristianstad". Collins English Dictionary . HarperCollins . Retrieved 24 April 2019.
  3. Jöran Sahlgren; Gösta Bergman (1979). Svenska ortnamn med uttalsuppgifter (in Swedish). p. 14.
  4. Alfred Jensen: Mazepa, p.174–194. Lund 1909.
  5. 300th anniversary of first Ukrainian constitution written by Pylyp Orlyk being celebrated, Kyiv Post (April 5, 2010)
  6. "Skydd mot översvämningar (Protection from flooding)" . Retrieved 2016-08-16.
  7. "Summary". www.vattenriket.kristianstad.se. Retrieved 2016-08-15.
  8. "Precipitation Averages 1961-90 (Kristianstad code 6403)". SMHI. March 2016. Archived from the original on 28 September 2018. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
  9. "Statistics from Weather Stations" (in Swedish). SMHI. June 2017. Retrieved 13 June 2017.
  10. "Using Waste, Swedish City Cuts Its Fossil Fuel Use". New York Times . December 10, 2010.
  11. "Twin Cities". Kristianstad. Archived from the original on 6 April 2016. Retrieved 29 April 2014.