A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.
Kuban (Russian : Кубань; Adyghe : Пшызэ; Ukrainian : Кубань) is a geographic region of Southern Russia surrounding the Kuban River, on the Black Sea between the Don Steppe, the Volga Delta and the Caucasus, and separated from the Crimean Peninsula to the west by the Kerch Strait. Krasnodar Krai is often referred to as "Kuban", both officially and unofficially, although the term is not exclusive to the krai and accommodates the republics of Adygea, Karachay-Cherkessia, and parts of Stavropol Krai.
Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.
Adyghe, also known as West Circassian, is one of the two official languages of the Republic of Adygea in the Russian Federation, the other being Russian. It is spoken by various tribes of the Adyghe people: Abzekh, Adamey, Bzhedug, Hatuqwai, Temirgoy, Mamkhegh, Natekuay, Shapsug, Zhaney and Yegerikuay, each with its own dialect. The language is referred to by its speakers as Adygebze or Adəgăbză, and alternatively transliterated in English as Adygean, Adygeyan or Adygei. The literary language is based on the Temirgoy dialect.
Ukrainian is an East Slavic language. It is the official state language of Ukraine, one of the three official languages in the unrecognized state of Transnistria, the other two being Romanian and Russian. Written Ukrainian uses a variant of the Cyrillic script.
The settlement of Kuban and of the adjacent Black Sea region occurred gradually for over a century, and was heavily influenced by the outcomes of the conflicts between Russia and Turkey.In the mid-18th century, the area was predominantly settled by the mountainous Adyghe tribes. After the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774, the population of the area started to show more pro-Russian tendencies.
Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located mainly in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Istanbul is the largest city, but more central Ankara is the capital. Approximately 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority; the size of the Kurdish population is a subject of dispute with estimates placing the figure at anywhere from 12 to 25 per cent of the population.
The ethnonym "Adyghe" is used as an endonym by the Caucasian-speaking Circassians of the North Caucasus and as a demonym for the inhabitants of the Republic of Adygea, a federal subject of Russia located in the southwestern part of European Russia, enclaved within Krasnodar Krai, where it is also rendered as Adygeans. The Adygeans speak the Adyghe language.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 was an armed conflict that brought Kabardia, the part of the Yedisan between the rivers Bug and Dnieper, and Crimea into the Russian sphere of influence. Though the victories accrued by the Russian Empire were substantial, they gained far less territory than otherwise would be expected. The reason for this was the complex struggle within the European diplomatic system for a balance of power that was acceptable to other European leading states, rather than Russian hegemony. Russia was able to take advantage of the weakened Ottoman Empire, the end of the Seven Years' War, and the withdrawal of France as the continent's primary military power. This left the Russian Empire in a strengthened position to expand its territory but also lose temporary hegemony over the decentralized Poland. The greater Turkish losses were diplomatic in nature seeing its full decline as a threat to Christian Europe, and the beginning of the Eastern Question that would plague the continent until the end of the Ottoman Empire in the early 20th century.
In order to stop Turkish ambitions to use Kuban region to facilitate the return of the Crimea, Russia started to establish a network of fortifications along the Kuban River in the 1770s.After the Russian annexation of the Crimea, right-bank Kuban, and Taman in 1783, the Kuban River became the border of the Russian Empire. New fortresses were built on the Kuban in the 1780s–1790s.
Crimea is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast. It is located south of the Ukrainian region of Kherson, to which it is connected by the Isthmus of Perekop, and west of the Russian region of Kuban, from which it is separated by the Strait of Kerch though linked by the Crimean Bridge. The Arabat Spit is located to the northeast, a narrow strip of land that separates a system of lagoons named Sivash from the Sea of Azov. Across the Black Sea to its west is Romania and to its south Turkey.
The Taman Peninsula is a peninsula in the present-day Krasnodar Krai of Russia, which borders the Sea of Azov to the North, the Strait of Kerch to the West and the Black Sea to the South.
Until the 1790s, these fortresses and the abandoned Cossack settlements on the Laba River and in Taman remained the only indication of Russian presence in the area.More intensive settlement started in 1792–1794, when Black Sea Cossack Host and Don Cossacks were re-settled to this area by the Russian government in order to strengthen the southern borders.
Cossacks were a group of predominantly East Slavic-speaking people who became known as members of democratic, self-governing, semi-military communities, predominantly located in Eastern and Southern Ukraine and in Southern Russia. They inhabited sparsely populated areas and islands in the lower Dnieper, Don, Terek and Ural river basins and played an important role in the historical and cultural development of both Ukraine and Russia.
The Laba is a river in Krasnodar Krai and Adygea of European Russia. It is a tributary of the Kuban River, which it joins at Ust-Labinsk. It is formed by the confluence of the Bolshaya Laba River and the Malaya Laba River. It is used for irrigation and log driving. It is also suitable for rafting.
Black Sea Cossack Host, also known as Chernomoriya, was a Cossack host of the Russian Empire created in 1787 in southern Ukraine from former Zaporozhian Cossacks. In the 1790s, the host was re-settled to the Kuban River. It comprised the Caucasus Fortified Defence Line from the mouth of the Kuban River to the mouth of the Bolshaya Laba River.
In the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th centuries, the right bank of the Kuban River was settled.At the same time, first settlements appear on the coast of the Black Sea and on the plain between the Kuban and Bolshaya Laba Rivers. During the second half of the 19th century, the settlement rate intensified, and the territory was administratively organized into Kuban Oblast and Black Sea Okrug (which later became Black Sea Governorate).
The Kuban River is a river in the Northwest Caucasus region of European Russia. It flows mostly through Krasnodar Krai for 660 kilometres (410 mi) but also in the Karachay–Cherkess Republic, Stavropol Krai and the Republic of Adygea.
In geography, a plain is a flat, sweeping landmass that generally does not change much in elevation. Plains occur as lowlands along the bottoms of valleys or on the doorsteps of mountains, as coastal plains, and as plateaus or uplands.
The Bolshaya Laba River, or Great Laba River, is a 133-kilometer (83 mi) long river in the Karachay-Cherkess Republic, Russia. From the confluence with the Malaya Laba River it carries on as the Laba River.
The location of the territory along the border had a significant effect on its administrative division, which incorporated the elements of civil and military governments.
The Republic of Adygea, also known as the Adyghe Republic, is a federal subject of Russia. It is geographically located in the North Caucasus region of European Russia, and is part of the Southern Federal District. Adygea covers an area of 7,600 square kilometers (2,900 sq mi), the fifth-smallest Russian federal subject by area, with its territory an enclave within Krasnodar Krai. Adygea has a population of 439,996.
Krasnodar Krai is a federal subject of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region in Southern Russia and administratively a part of the Southern Federal District. Its administrative center is the city of Krasnodar. The third most-populous federal subject, the krai had a population of 5,226,647 as of the 2010 Census.
Krasnodar is a city and the administrative center of Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Kuban River, approximately 148 kilometers (92 mi) northeast of the Black Sea port of Novorossiysk. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 774,234. According to the Federal Statistics Service of Russia, Krasnodar officially reached a population of 1,000,007 on September 22, 2018, thus the city is the 16th most populated city in Russia, and also the country’s 16th city with at least a million inhabitants.
Kuban Cossacks or Kubanians, are Cossacks who live in the Kuban region of Russia. Most of the Kuban Cossacks are descendants of different major groups of Cossacks who were re-settled to the western Northern Caucasus in the late 18th century. The western part of the host was settled by the Black Sea Cossack Host who were originally the Zaporozhian Cossacks of Ukraine, from 1792. The eastern and southeastern part of the host was previously administered by the Khopyour and Kuban regiments of the Caucasus Line Cossack Host and Don Cossacks, who were re-settled from the Don from 1777.
Temryuk is a town and the administrative center of Temryuksky District in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Taman Peninsula on the right bank of the Kuban River not far from its entry into the Temryuk Bay, amid a field of mud volcanoes. The seaport of Temryuk is situated 4 kilometers (2.5 mi) from the town itself. Population: 38,046 (2010 Census); 36,118 (2002 Census); 33,163 (1989 Census); 26,600 (1975).
Slavyansk-na-Kubani is a town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located in the Kuban River delta. Population: 63,842 (2010 Census); 64,136 (2002 Census); 57,790 (1989 Census); 56,000 (1975).
Labinsk is a town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Bolshaya Laba River 145 kilometers (90 mi) southeast of Krasnodar and 50 kilometers (31 mi) southwest of Armavir. Population: 62,864 (2010 Census); 61,446 (2002 Census); 57,958 (1989 Census); 53,000 (1972).
Adyghe Autonomous Oblast was an autonomous oblast within Krasnodar Krai, Soviet Union. It existed from 1922 to 1991.
Ust-Labinsk is a town and the administrative center of Ust-Labinsky District of Krasnodar Krai, Russia.
Maykopsky District is an administrative and a municipal district (raion), one of the seven in the Republic of Adygea, Russia. It is located in the south of the republic and borders with Giaginsky District in the north, Mostovsky District of Krasnodar Krai in the east, the territory of the City of Sochi in Krasnodar Krai in the south, Apsheronsky District of Krasnodar Krai in the west and southwest, and with Belorechensky District of Krasnodar Krai in the northwest. The area of the district is 3,667.43 square kilometers (1,416.00 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Tulsky. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 58,439, with the population of Tulsky accounting for 18.4% of that number.
The Kuban People's Republic was an anti-Bolshevik state during the Russian Civil War, comprising the territory of the modern-day Kuban region in Russia.
The Ukrainians in Kuban in southern Russia constitute a national minority. The region as a whole shares many linguistic, cultural and historic ties with Ukraine.
Taman is a rural locality in Temryuksky District of Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the coast of the Taman Bay. Population: 10,027 (2010 Census); 9,297 (2002 Census).
Khanskaya is a rural locality under the administrative jurisdiction of Maykop Republican Urban Okrug in the Republic of Adygea, Russia, located on the Belaya River 13 kilometers (8.1 mi) northwest of Maykop. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 11,245.
The Black Sea-Caspian Steppe is an informal name for that part of the Eurasian Steppe that extends south between the Black and Caspian Seas. It is usually treated as part of the Pontic-Caspian steppe which includes the area north of the Black and Caspian Seas, but there is some reason to treat it as a distinct place. Its natural boundaries are the Sea of Azov and Black Sea on the west, the Caucasus Mountains on the south and the Caspian Sea on the east. Its northern boundary may be taken as the triangle formed by the lower Don River and Volga River which are about 60 km apart to the west of Volgograd. This article excludes the north slope of the Caucasus which is not steppe and has a distinct geography and history.