The Kulm Cross (German : Kulmer Kreuz; Russian : Күльмcкиӣ кpecт) was a Prussian award. It was a version of the badge of the Iron Cross. It was created on 4 December 1813 by Frederick William III of Prussia after the battle of Kulm. It was not awarded for any special act of courage or merit. Officers wore it in silver and NCOs and other ranks in metal. It was worn on the tunic, with no ribbon.
A Russian version of the order was completely identical in size and shape to the Prussian Order of the Iron Cross, differing only in that it had no date and monogram of the king. By awarding this cross 12,066 people were represented, but the reward could only be obtained by 7,131 soldiers who survived to 1816.
The Iron Cross is a former military decoration in the Kingdom of Prussia, and later in the German Empire (1871–1918) and Nazi Germany (1933–1945). It was established by King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia on 17 March 1813 during the Napoleonic Wars. The award was backdated to the birthday of his late wife Queen Louise. Louise was the first person to receive this decoration (posthumously). The recommissioned Iron Cross was also awarded during the Franco-Prussian War, World War I, and World War II. The Iron Cross awarded during World War II has a swastika in the center. The Iron Cross was normally a military decoration only, though there were instances of it being awarded to civilians for performing military functions. Two such examples were Hanna Reitsch, who received the Iron Cross 2nd Class and Iron Cross 1st Class, and Melitta Schenk Gräfin von Stauffenberg, who received the Iron Cross 2nd Class. Both were civilian test pilots during World War II.
The Battle of Leipzig or Battle of the Nations was fought from 16 to 19 October 1813, at Leipzig, Saxony. The Coalition armies of Austria, Prussia, Sweden, and Russia, led by Emperor Alexander I and Karl von Schwarzenberg, decisively defeated the Grande Armée of French Emperor Napoleon I. Napoleon's army also contained Polish and Italian troops, as well as Germans from the Confederation of the Rhine. The battle was the culmination of the German Campaign of 1813 and involved 500,000 soldiers, 2,200 artillery pieces, the expenditure of 200,000 rounds of artillery ammunition, and 127,000 casualties, making it the largest battle in Europe prior to World War I.
The Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany is the only federal decoration of Germany. It was created by the first President of the Federal Republic of Germany, Theodor Heuss, on 7 September 1951, and has been awarded to over 200,000 individuals in total, both Germans and foreigners. Since the 1990s, the number of annual awards has declined from over 4,000, first to around 2,300–2,500 per year, and now under 2,000, with a low of 1752 in 2011. In recent years, women have made up a steady 30–31% of recipients. Colloquially, the decorations of the different classes of the Order are also known as the Federal Cross of Merit (Bundesverdienstkreuz).
The name Kulm is a German language toponym which is derived from the Latin culmen, meaning hill. It may refer to:
The Battle of Kulm was fought near the town Kulm and the village Přestanov in northern Bohemia. It was fought on 29–30 August 1813, during the War of the Sixth Coalition. 32,000 French troops under General Dominique Vandamme attacked an army of about 50-60,000 Austrians, Prussians, and Russians under General Alexander Ostermann-Tolstoy, but were defeated with heavy losses on both sides.
The Grand Cross of the Iron Cross was a decoration intended for victorious generals of the Prussian Army and its allies. It was the second highest class of the Iron Cross, following the Star of the Grand Cross of the Iron Cross which was given only twice. Along with the Iron Cross 1st and 2nd Class, the Grand Cross was founded on 10 March 1813, during the Napoleonic Wars. It was renewed in 1870 for the Franco-Prussian War and again in 1914 for World War I. In 1939, when Adolf Hitler renewed the Iron Cross as a German decoration, he also renewed the Grand Cross.
Aleksey Petrovich Yermolov was a Russian Imperial general of the 19th century who commanded Russian troops in the Caucasian War. He served in all the Russian campaigns against the French, except for the 1799 campaigns of Alexander Suvorov in northern Italy and Switzerland. During this time he was accused of conspiracy against Paul I and sentenced to exile. Two years later he was pardoned and brought back into service by Alexander I. Yermolov distinguished himself during the Napoleonic Wars at the Battles of Austerlitz, Eylau, Borodino, Kulm, and Paris. Afterwards he led the Russian conquest of the Caucasus.
Count Władysław Grzegorz Branicki was a Polish nobleman, senator and general in the Russian military. He was a putative grandson of Catherine the Great, through his maternal line.
The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross, or simply the Knight's Cross, and its variants were the highest awards in the military and paramilitary forces of Nazi Germany during World War II.
The House Order of Hohenzollern was a dynastic order of knighthood of the House of Hohenzollern awarded to military commissioned officers and civilians of comparable status. Associated with the various versions of the order were crosses and medals which could be awarded to lower-ranking soldiers and civilians.
The Military Merit Cross (Militär-Verdienstkreuz) was the highest bravery award of the Kingdom of Prussia for non-commissioned officers and enlisted soldiers. It was also known as the Golden Military Merit Cross to distinguish it from the Military Decoration 1st Class, a lesser Prussian enlisted bravery decoration which was an identical cross but in silver. The Military Merit Cross came to also be known as the "Pour le Mérite for non-commissioned officers and enlisted men", after the Pour le Mérite, Prussia's highest military decoration for officers.
Karl Friedrich von dem Knesebeck was a Prussian field marshal and military adviser in the Napoleonic Wars, best known for designing the campaign plan of the Battle of the Nations and the subsequent invasion of France. As aide-de-camp to the king from 1813, and thereby his closest military advisor, he was a key figure in Prussia's military policy throughout the War of the Sixth Coalition and the subsequent Congress of Vienna.
Chlumec is a town in Ústí nad Labem District in the Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 4,300 inhabitants.
Karl August Ferdinand von Borcke was a Prussian general and the first recipient of the Iron Cross.
The Gesetz über Titel, Orden und Ehrenzeichen, often shortened to Ordensgesetz, is a federal law of Germany detailing the treatment and handling procedures for civilian and military decorations. The law was put into effect on July 26, 1957, and fulfilled two primary purposes. First, it stipulated how medals and military decorations from before 1945 should be handled. Second, it was intended to describe treatment and procedures for medals in the Federal Republic of Germany.
Alexander Bogdanovich Engelhardt (1795–1859) was a Russian baron, lieutenant general, and chief of Russian southern military settlements.
The Red Cross Medal was a German medal set up on 1 October 1898 by Wilhelm II. It had three classes and could be awarded to all those who carried out great service to the sick in peace or wartime, or for special achievement in the service of the German Red Cross. Though service to the sick during times or war had been recognized with prior awards of the Order of the Crown and General Honor Decorations with the Red Geneva Cross, Empress Augusta Victoria the royal patroness of the organization wanted an award to recognize work in peacetime as well.
Peter A Dannenberg was a Russian general, particularly notable for his command during the Crimean War.
Georg Dubislav Ludwig von Pirch was a Prussian lieutenant general who fought in the Napoleonic Wars, participating in the battles of Leipzig and Waterloo. He is sometimes referred as Pirch I to distinguish him from his younger brother, Otto Karl Lorenz von Pirch, referred as Pirch II.
Fedor Sergeyevich Panyutin was a Russian general, Warsaw military governor, and member of the State Council.