Kumamoto

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Kumamoto

熊本市
Kumamoto City
Kumamoto montage.jpg
From top left:Central Kumamoto view from Kumamoto Castle, Kumamoto Castle, Kumamoto City Tramway, Fujisaki hachimangu shrine, Suizenji Park
Flag of Kumamoto, Kumamoto.svg
Flag
Emblem of Kumamoto, Kumamoto.svg
Emblem
Kumamoto in Kumamoto Prefecture Ja.svg
Japan location map with side map of the Ryukyu Islands.svg
Red pog.svg
Kumamoto
Location in Japan
Coordinates: 32°47′N130°44′E / 32.783°N 130.733°E / 32.783; 130.733 Coordinates: 32°47′N130°44′E / 32.783°N 130.733°E / 32.783; 130.733
CountryJapan
Region Kyushu
Prefecture Kumamoto Prefecture
Government
  MayorKazufumi Ōnishi [1] [2]
Area
  Total390.32 km2 (150.70 sq mi)
Population
 (June 1, 2019)
  Total738,907
  Density1,900/km2 (4,900/sq mi)
Symbols
  Tree Ginkgo
  Flower Camellia
  Bird Great tit
Time zone UTC+9 (JST)
City hall address1-1 Tetori-honchō, Chūō-ku, Kumamoto-shi, Kumamoto-ken
860-8601
Website www.city.kumamoto.jp
A map showing Kumamoto Metropolitan Employment Area. Kumamoto Metropolitan Employment Area 2010.svg
A map showing Kumamoto Metropolitan Employment Area.

Kumamoto(熊本市,Kumamoto-shi) is the capital city of Kumamoto Prefecture on the island of Kyushu, Japan.

Cities of Japan administrative division of Japan

A city is a local administrative unit in Japan. Cities are ranked on the same level as towns and villages, with the difference that they are not a component of districts. Like other contemporary administrative units, they are defined by the Local Autonomy Law of 1947.

Kumamoto Prefecture Prefecture of Japan

Kumamoto Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan located on the island of Kyushu. The capital is the city of Kumamoto.

Kyushu Third largest island of Japan

Kyushu is the third largest island of Japan's five main islands. Its alternative ancient names include Kyūkoku(九国, "Nine Countries"), Chinzei(鎮西, "West of the Pacified Area"), and Tsukushi-no-shima(筑紫島, "Island of Tsukushi"). The historical regional name Saikaidō referred to Kyushu and its surrounding islands.

Contents

As of June 1,2019, the city has an estimated population of 738,907 and a population density of 1,893 persons per km². The total area is 390.32 km².

Population All the organisms of a given species that live in the specified region

In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding. The area of a sexual population is the area where inter-breeding is potentially possible between any pair within the area, and where the probability of interbreeding is greater than the probability of cross-breeding with individuals from other areas.

Population density A measurement of population numbers per unit area or volume

Population density is a measurement of population per unit area, or exceptionally unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and most of the time to humans. It is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square.

Greater Kumamoto(熊本都市圏) had a population of 1,461,000, as of the 2000 census. As of 2010, Kumamoto Metropolitan Employment Area has a GDP of US$39.8 billion. [3] [4] It is not considered part of the Fukuoka–Kitakyushu metropolitan area, despite their shared border. The city was designated on April 1, 2012 by government ordinance.

Urban Employment Area Definition of metropolitan areas

Urban Employment Area is a definition of metropolitan areas, defined by the Center for Spatial Information Service of the University of Tokyo. Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry defined 233 areas for the UEAs of Japan. It is different from the definition of metropolitan areas defined in census by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. For the latter scheme, see the List of metropolitan areas in Japan article.

Fukuoka–Kitakyushu Urban Employment Area in Fukuoka Prefecture

Fukuoka-Kitakyushu Greater Metropolitan Region is the most common name given to the region comprising the metropolitan areas of the cities of Fukuoka and Kitakyushu in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan and in between. Alternate names are many, including Kitakyushu-Fukuoka Greater Metropolitan Region (北九州・福岡大都市圏), Northern Part of Kyushu Greater Metropolitan Region (北部九州大都市圏)

History

Katō Kiyomasa, a contemporary of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, was made daimyō of half of the (old) administrative region of Higo in 1588. After that, Kiyomasa built Kumamoto Castle. Due to its many innovative defensive designs, Kumamoto Castle was considered impregnable, and Kiyomasa enjoyed a reputation as one of the finest castle-builders in Japanese history. After Kiyomasa died in 1611, his son, Tadahiro, succeeded him. Tadahiro was removed by Tokugawa Iemitsu in 1632, replacing him with the Hosokawa clan. The current administrative body of the City of Kumamoto was founded on April 1, 1889.

Katō Kiyomasa daimyo

Katō Kiyomasa was a Japanese daimyō of the Azuchi–Momoyama and Edo periods. His court title was Higo-no-kami. His child name was Yashamaru, and first name was Toranosuke.

Toyotomi Hideyoshi Japanese daimyo, warrior, general and politician

Toyotomi Hideyoshi was a preeminent daimyō, warrior, general, samurai, and politician of the Sengoku period who is regarded as Japan's second "great unifier". He succeeded his former liege lord, Oda Nobunaga, and brought an end to the Sengoku period. The period of his rule is often called the Momoyama period, named after Hideyoshi's castle. After his death, his young son Hideyori was displaced by Tokugawa Ieyasu.

<i>Daimyō</i> powerful territorial lord in pre-modern Japan

The daimyō were powerful Japanese feudal lords who—until their decline in the early Meiji period—ruled most of Japan from their vast, hereditary land holdings. Subordinate to the shōgun, and nominally to the Emperor and the kuge, daimyō were powerful feudal rulers from the 10th century to the middle 19th century in Japan. In the term, dai (大) means "large", and myō stands for myōden(名田), meaning private land.

Near the end of World War II, on July 1, 1945, Kumamoto was bombed in an Allied air raid, which destroyed a square mile, 20% of the city's area. [5] After the war, the Japanese Buddhist monk Nichidatsu Fujii decided to construct a Peace Pagoda atop Mount Hanaoka in the city to commemorate all those lost in war and to promote peace. [6] Inaugurated in 1954, it was the first of over 80 built by Fujii and his followers all over the world. [7]

Air raids on Japan aerial bombing of Japan during the Pacific War

Allied forces conducted many air raids on Japan during World War II, causing extensive destruction to the country's cities and killing between 241,000 and 900,000 people. During the first years of the Pacific War these attacks were limited to the Doolittle Raid in April 1942 and small-scale raids on military positions in the Kuril Islands from mid-1943. Strategic bombing raids began in June 1944 and continued until the end of the war in August 1945. Allied naval and land-based tactical air units also attacked Japan during 1945.

Nichidatsu Fujii Japanese Buddhist monk

Nichidatsu Fujii was a Japanese Buddhist monk, and founder of the Nipponzan-Myōhōji order of Buddhism. He is best known world-wide for his decision in 1947 to begin constructing Peace Pagodas in many locations around the world as shrines to world peace.

Peace Pagoda

A Peace Pagoda is a Buddhist stupa; a monument to inspire peace, designed to provide a focus for people of all races and creeds, and to help unite them in their search for world peace. Most peace pagodas built since World War II have been built under the guidance of Nichidatsu Fujii (1885–1985), a Buddhist monk from Japan and founder of the Nipponzan-Myōhōji Buddhist Order. Fujii was greatly inspired by his meeting with Mahatma Gandhi in 1931 and decided to devote his life to promoting non-violence. In 1947, he began constructing Peace Pagodas as shrines to world peace. The first was inaugurated at Kumamoto in 1954.

On February 1, 1991, the towns of Akita, Kawachi, Tenmei and Hokubu (all from Hōtaku District) were merged into Kumamoto. On October 6, 2008, the town of Tomiai (from Shimomashiki District) was merged into Kumamoto. On March 23, 2010, the town of Jōnan (also from Shimomashiki District) and the town of Ueki (from Kamoto District) were merged into Kumamoto. [8]

Akita was a town located in Hōtaku District, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan.

Kawachi was a town located in Hōtaku District, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan.

Tenmei was a town located in Hōtaku District, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan.

A series of earthquakes struck the area beginning April 14, 2016, including a tremor with moment magnitude 7.1 early in the morning of April 16, 2016, local time. [9]

Geography

Climate

Kumamoto has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) with hot summers and cold winters. Precipitation is significant throughout the year, but is much heavier around the summer, especially the months of June and July.

Climate data for Kumamoto, Kumamoto (1981–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)22.5
(72.5)
26.4
(79.5)
27.4
(81.3)
30.7
(87.3)
34.4
(93.9)
36.1
(97.0)
38.8
(101.8)
38.5
(101.3)
37.0
(98.6)
33.7
(92.7)
28.9
(84.0)
24.6
(76.3)
38.8
(101.8)
Average high °C (°F)10.5
(50.9)
12.1
(53.8)
15.7
(60.3)
21.3
(70.3)
25.6
(78.1)
28.2
(82.8)
31.7
(89.1)
33.2
(91.8)
29.9
(85.8)
24.6
(76.3)
18.5
(65.3)
13.0
(55.4)
22.0
(71.6)
Daily mean °C (°F)5.7
(42.3)
7.1
(44.8)
10.6
(51.1)
15.7
(60.3)
20.2
(68.4)
23.6
(74.5)
27.3
(81.1)
28.2
(82.8)
24.9
(76.8)
19.1
(66.4)
13.1
(55.6)
7.8
(46.0)
16.9
(62.4)
Average low °C (°F)1.2
(34.2)
2.3
(36.1)
5.6
(42.1)
10.3
(50.5)
15.2
(59.4)
19.8
(67.6)
24.0
(75.2)
24.4
(75.9)
20.8
(69.4)
14.2
(57.6)
8.3
(46.9)
3.1
(37.6)
12.5
(54.5)
Record low °C (°F)−9.2
(15.4)
−9.2
(15.4)
−6.9
(19.6)
−2.5
(27.5)
1.3
(34.3)
7.1
(44.8)
14.3
(57.7)
15.3
(59.5)
6.7
(44.1)
0.5
(32.9)
−3.8
(25.2)
−7.9
(17.8)
−9.2
(15.4)
Average rainfall mm (inches)60.1
(2.37)
83.3
(3.28)
137.9
(5.43)
145.9
(5.74)
195.5
(7.70)
404.9
(15.94)
400.8
(15.78)
173.5
(6.83)
170.4
(6.71)
79.4
(3.13)
80.6
(3.17)
53.6
(2.11)
1,985.9
(78.19)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.5 mm)8.69.012.410.911.114.413.510.710.66.97.98.2124.2
Average relative humidity (%)70676766687577737269727171
Mean monthly sunshine hours 132.6139.5158.5181.4187.2141.0184.5211.0175.9189.7153.0147.52,001.8
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency [10] [11]

Landmarks

Kumamoto Castle Kumamoto Castle 02n3200.jpg
Kumamoto Castle

The city's most famous landmark is Kumamoto Castle, a large and, in its day, extremely well fortified Japanese castle. The donjon (castle central keep) is a concrete reconstruction built in the 1970s, but several ancillary wooden buildings remain of the original castle, which was assaulted during the Satsuma Rebellion and sacked and burned after a 53-day siege. It was during this time that the tradition of eating basashi (raw horse meat) originated. Basashi remains popular in Kumamoto and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere in Japan, though these days it is usually considered a delicacy.

Within the outer walls of Kumamoto Castle is the Hosokawa Gyobu-tei, the former residence of the Higo daimyō . This traditional wooden mansion has a fine Japanese garden located on its grounds.

Miyamoto Musashi lived the last part of his life in Kumamoto. His tomb and the cave where he resided during his final years (known as Reigandō, or "spirit rock cave") is situated close by. He penned the famous Go Rin no Sho ( The Book of Five Rings ) whilst living here.

Kumamoto is also home to Suizen-ji Jōju-en, a formal garden neighboring Suizenji Temple approximately 3 kilometers southeast of Kumamoto Castle.

A notable shrines are Takahashi Inari Shrine, Fujisaki Hachimangū.

Suizenji Park is also home to the Suizenji Municipal Stadium, where the city's football team, Roasso Kumamoto used to play regularly, but nowadays they use the larger KKWing Stadium in Higashi Ward.

The downtown area has a commercial district centred on two shopping arcades, the Shimotori and Kamitori, which extend for several city blocks. The main department stores are located here along with a vast number of smaller retailers, restaurants, and bars. Many local festivals are held in or near the arcades.

Cultural venues include the Kumamoto Prefectural Museum of Art and Kumamoto Prefectural Theater.

Kumamoto has a prefectural mascot, "Kumamon". Kumamon is a black bear with red cheeks. [12]

The first of many peace pagodas around the world was erected by Japanese Buddhist monk Nichidatsu Fujii atop Mount Hanaoka beginning 1947. [13] Inaugurated in 1954, it was the first of over 80 built by Fujii and his followers all over the world. [14]

Government

Kazufumi Ōnishi has been the city's mayor since December 2014. [15]

Wards

Map of Kumamoto's wards Wards of Kumamoto city.png
Map of Kumamoto's wards

Since April 1, 2012, Kumamoto has five wards (ku):

Working mother incident

In November 2017, Kumamoto politician Yuka Ogata was forced to leave the Kumamoto municipal assembly because she had brought her baby. [16] The incident was reported by international media as an example of the challenges facing women in Japan. [17]

Transport

Kumamoto city tram KumamotoCityTram.jpg
Kumamoto city tram

Local public transport is provided by the Kumamoto City Transportation Bureau. Trams run to a few suburbs near the downtown area. A large bus terminus, called the Kotsu Centre, provides access to both local and intercity destinations. JR Kumamoto station provides rail links to Japan's extensive rail network. On March 12, 2011, work on the shinkansen (high-speed bullet train) network was completed, establishing a direct high-speed rail link to Tokyo via Fukuoka's Hakata station. Several local taxi companies serve the Kumamoto metropolitan area and are the only 24-hour public transport in the city.

Kumamoto Airport is located in nearby Mashiki.

Sports

There is a local football club Roasso Kumamoto in J.League. Kumamoto Volters of the basketball B.League are based in Kumamoto.

Sporting events

The Kumamoto Castle Marathon is a yearly event in Kumamoto City. It was established in commemoration of Kumamoto becoming a designated city in 2012. [18] The 1997 World Men's Handball Championship was also played in town.

Education

Notable people

Sister cities

Kumamoto City is twinned with the following cities.

Related Research Articles

Kumamoto Castle castle

Kumamoto Castle is a hilltop Japanese castle located in Chūō-ku, Kumamoto, in Kumamoto Prefecture. It was a large and well fortified castle. The castle keep is a concrete reconstruction built in 1960, but several ancillary wooden buildings remain of the original castle. Kumamoto Castle is considered one of the three premier castles in Japan, along with Himeji Castle and Matsumoto Castle. Thirteen structures in the castle complex are designated Important Cultural Property.

Higo Province Province of Japan

Higo Province was an old province of Japan in the area that is today Kumamoto Prefecture on the island of Kyūshū. It was sometimes called Hishū (肥州), with Hizen Province. Higo bordered on Chikugo, Bungo, Hyūga, Ōsumi, and Satsuma Provinces.

Jōnan, Kumamoto human settlement in Japan

Jōnan was a town located in Shimomashiki District, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan.

Tomiai was a town located in Shimomashiki District, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan.

Shimomashiki District, Kumamoto district of Japan

Shimomashiki is a district located in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan.

Ueki, Kumamoto human settlement

Ueki was a town located in Kamoto District, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan.

Nakamura-ku, Nagoya Ward in Japan

Nakamura is one of the 16 wards of Nagoya, Japan.

Nipponzan-Myōhōji-Daisanga A Japanese new religious movement and activist group founded in 1917 by Nichidatsu Fujii

Nipponzan-Myōhōji-Daisanga (日本山妙法寺大僧伽), often referred to as just Nipponzan Myohoji or the Japan Buddha Sangha, is a Japanese new religious movement and activist group founded in 1917 by Nichidatsu Fujii, emerging from Nichiren Buddhism. "Nipponzan Myōhōji is a small Nichiren Buddhist order of about 1500 persons, including both monastics and lay persons." The community reveres the Lotus Sutra as the highest expression of the Buddhist message.

Saitama (city) Designated city in Kantō, Japan

Saitama is the capital and the most populous city of Saitama Prefecture, Japan. Its area incorporates the former cities of Urawa, Ōmiya, Yono and Iwatsuki. It is a city designated by government ordinance. Being in the Greater Tokyo Area and lying 15 to 30 kilometres north of central Tokyo, many of its residents commute into Tokyo. As of 1 February 2016, the city had an estimated population of 1,226,656, and a population density of 5830 persons per km². Its total area is 217.43 square kilometres (83.95 sq mi).

Aizuwakamatsu City in Tōhoku, Japan

Aizuwakamatsu is a city in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 November 2018, the city had an estimated population of 120,733 in 49,942 households, and a population density of 320 persons per km². The total area of the city was 382.97 square kilometres (147.87 sq mi).

Yatsushiro, Kumamoto City in Kyushu, Japan

Yatsushiro is a city located in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan.

Shin-Suizenji Station railway station and tram station in Kumamoto, Kumamoto prefecture, Japan

Shin-Suizenji Station is a railway station on the Hohi Main Line, operated by JR Kyushu in Chūō-ku, Kumamoto, Japan.

Honmyō-ji Buddhist temple in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan

Honmyō-ji (本妙寺) is a Buddhist temple of the Nichiren sect, Rokujōmon-ryū (六条門流), in Nishi-ku, Kumamoto, Japan. It is the most high-ranking temple of the sect in Kyushu. In Honmyō-ji is the grave of Katō Kiyomasa, (1562–1611), a Japanese daimyō, builder of Kumamoto Castle and a dedicated buddhist of Nichiren Buddhism.

Katō Shrine Shinto shrines in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan

Katō Shrine is a shrine in Kumamoto Castle, Chūō-ku, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan, in which daimyō or powerful territorial lord Katō Kiyomasa (1562–1611) is enshrined. Alongside Ōki Kaneyoshi and Kin Kan, who made junshi, are enshrined.

History of Kumamoto Prefecture Prefecture in Kyūshū, Japan

The history of Kumamoto Prefecture has been documented from paleolithic times to the present. Kumamoto Prefecture is the eastern half of Hinokuni, and corresponds to what was once called Higo Province. Exceptions are the part of Kuma District, which had once been part of Sagara Domain, and Nagashima which was included in Kagoshima Prefecture.

The Bungo Kaidō (豊後街道) was a route built during the Edo period in Japan. It started in Kumamoto, Higo Province, and stretched to Ōita, Bungo Province. There were six post stations along the route connecting to two cities.

References

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  2. 市長名の検索結果 (in Japanese). Japan Association of City Mayors. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
  3. Yoshitsugu Kanemoto. "Metropolitan Employment Area (MEA) Data". Center for Spatial Information Science, The University of Tokyo.
  4. Conversion rates - Exchange rates - OECD Data
  5. Craven, Wesley; Cate, James (editors) (1953). The Pacific: Matterhorn to Nagasaki. The Army Air Forces in World War II. Volume V. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. p. 664. OCLC   256469807.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  6. Kisala, Robert (1999). Prophets of Peace: Pacifism and Cultural Identity in Japan's New Religions. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 52–53. ISBN   9780824822675.
  7. Stone, Jacqueline I. (2003). Queen, Christopher S.; Prebish, Charles S.; Keown, Damien (eds.). Action Dharma: New Studies in Engaged Buddhism. Psychology Press. p. 81. ISBN   9780700715947.
  8. "都道府県別市町村変更情報:福岡 Archived 2010-04-06 at the Wayback Machine ." kokudo.or.jp. Retrieved on November 22, 2008. (in Japanese)
  9. "Japan earthquake: Powerful new tremor in Kumamoto". BBC News. 2016-04-15. Retrieved 2016-04-15.
  10. 平年値(年・月ごとの値). Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
  11. 観測史上1~10位の値(年間を通じての値). Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
  12. The Life and Times of Japan's Mascots
  13. Kisala, Robert (1999). Prophets of Peace: Pacifism and Cultural Identity in Japan's New Religions. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 52–53. ISBN   9780824822675.
  14. Stone, Jacqueline I. (2003). Queen, Christopher S.; Prebish, Charles S.; Keown, Damien (eds.). Action Dharma: New Studies in Engaged Buddhism. Psychology Press. p. 81. ISBN   9780700715947.
  15. 市長のプロフィール (in Japanese). Kumamoto City. 3 December 2014. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
  16. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/nov/24/japanese-politicians-force-colleague-baby-leave-chamber-women
  17. https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/a-japanese-politician-took-her-baby-to-work-the-patriarchy-was-not-impressed/2017/11/24/e5bb695c-d0fc-11e7-8447-3d80b84bebad_story.html
  18. Kumamoto Castle Marathon website Information on 2013 Kumamoto Castle Marathon Archived 2012-11-01 at the Wayback Machine
  19. "Twinning". City of Heidelberg. Archived from the original on 2011-06-10. Retrieved 2009-11-12.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  20. City of San Antonio International Relations Office. Retrieved 12 October 2011