|Born||7 December 1940|
|Occupation||Film director, film academic, visual artist|
|Known for||Maya Darpan , Tarang|
Kumar Shahani (born 7 December 1940) is a noted Indian film director and screenwriter, best known for his parallel cinema films, Maya Darpan (1972) and Khayal Gatha (1989) and Kasba (1990).Due to his dedication to formalism, and with the reputation of his first feature, Maya Darpan being considered among Indian cinema's first formalist film, he is frequently grouped by critics and film enthusiasts alongside similar stylistic filmmakers such as Pier Paolo Pasolini, Andrei Tarkovsky, and Jacques Rivette.
Parallel cinema was a film movement in Indian cinema that originated in the state of West Bengal in the 1950s as an alternative to the mainstream commercial Indian cinema, represented especially by popular Hindi cinema, known today as Bollywood.
Maya Darpan is a 1972 Indian Hindi film directed by Kumar Shahani. It is a significant work of the Indian Parallel Cinema movement which started during the 1950s with filmmakers Satyajit Ray and Ritwik Ghatak. The film was forgotten soon after its release, but was rediscovered and is today considered a landmark work of Indian cinema. The film stars Aditi and Anil Pandya.
Khayal Gatha is a 1989 Indian experimental film written and directed by Kumar Shahani. The film is about the history of the Khayal genre of Indian classical singing. The film also traces the relationship of Khayal genre with Indian classical dance.
Shahani was born in Larkana, Sindh (now in Pakistan), after the partition of India in 1947, Shahani's family shifted to the city of Bombay (now Mumbai). He received a B. A. (hons) from the University of Bombay in Political Science and History and studied screenplay writing and Advanced Direction at the Film and Television Institute of India, where he was a student of Ritwik Ghatak. He also studied under the renowned historian D. D. Kosambi. He was awarded a French Government Scholarship for further studies in France,where he studied at the Institut des hautes études cinématographiques (IDHEC) and assisted Robert Bresson on Une Femme Douce .
Larkana is a city in the north-west of the Sindh province of Pakistan, where the historic Indus River flows in south of the city. It is called the city of Holy Alams due to the greatest number of Holy Alams as compared to other cities or regions of the world. It is home to the Indus Valley Civilization site Mohenjo-daro, which is larger in size than Babylonia and Assyria. It is the 15th Largest city of Pakistan.
Sindh is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country, and the historical home of the Sindhi people. Sindh is the third largest province of Pakistan by area, and second largest province by population after Punjab. Sindh is bordered by Balochistan province to the west, and Punjab province to the north. Sindh also borders the Indian states of Gujarat and Rajasthan to the east, and Arabian Sea to the south. Sindh's landscape consists mostly of alluvial plains flanking the Indus River, the Thar desert in the eastern portion of the province closest to the border with India, and the Kirthar Mountains in the western part of Sindh.
Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country, spanning 881,913 square kilometres. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre (650-mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China in the far northeast. It is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, and also shares a maritime border with Oman.
He returned to India to make his first feature film Maya Darpan in 1972 and had to wait twelve years before he received funding to make his next full-length feature film, Tarang .
Tarang English title Wages and Profits, is a 1984 Indian Hindi-language drama film written and directed by Kumar Shahani. The film is Shahani's second feature film after his most famous work, Maya Darpan, and took him more than 12 years to raise funding for. The movie is considered, along with Shahani's other features, to be a seminal work of India's Parallel Cinema movement. The movie stars several big actors who were prominent in the Indian art cinema scene of the early 80's, including Amol Palekar, Smita Patil, Girish Karnad, Om Puri, and Shreeram Lagoo.
From 1976 to 1978 he held a Homi Bhabha Fellowship to study the epic tradition of the Mahābhārata, Buddhist iconography, Indian classical music and the Bhakti movement.
Indian classical music is the classical music of the Indian subcontinent. It has two major traditions: the North Indian classical music tradition is called Hindustani, while the South Indian expression is called Carnatic. These traditions were not distinct till about the 16th century. There on, during the turmoils of Islamic rule period of the Indian subcontinent, the traditions separated and evolved into distinct forms. Hindustani music emphasizes improvisation and exploring all aspects of a raga, while Carnatic performances tend to be short and composition-based. However, the two systems continue to have more common features than differences.
The Bhakti movement refers to the theistic devotional trend that emerged in medieval Hinduism and later revolutionised in Sikhism. It originated in eighth-century south India, and spread northwards. It swept over east and north India from the 15th century onwards, reaching its zenith between the 15th and 17th century CE.
Shahani had considered Roberto Rossellini and Robert Bresson as major influences on his work and those who he learned the most from. When comparing the two he stated, "There is austerity in Bresson. But there is a possibility in cinema to have both: austerity and ornamentation. In Bresson, there is mainly austerity even though he aspires to have spectacle. When I work along those lines, I want the ornamentation to stand out. The magic of that reality must appear and we ought to allow that to happen. The notion of ornamentation that we have in India, the alankar, of how we play with it, that is something I like to retain in my work. And this is not there either in Rossellini’s work or Bresson’s in the works of Catholic filmmakers. When they move towards austerity, they really move towards it: Bresson in the tradition of St Augustine and Rossellini more in the manner of notational narratives."
Roberto Gastone Zeffiro Rossellini was an Italian film director, screenwriter, and producer. Rossellini was one of the directors of the Italian neorealist cinema, contributing to the movement with films such as Rome, Open City (1945), Paisan (1946), Germany, Year Zero (1948), and General Della Rovere (1959).
Robert Bresson was a French film director. Known for his ascetic approach, Bresson contributed notably to the art of cinema; his non-professional actors, ellipses, and sparse use of scoring have led his works to be regarded as preeminent examples of minimalist film.
For his film Tarang which dealt with labour issues, Shahani mentioned he consciously tried to avoid 'repeating' or 'imitating' one of his favourite films Sergei Eisenstein's Battleship Potemkin. Shahani stated, "for Tarang for instance, I was shooting a strike sequence. It was an obvious point where one could have quoted Eisenstein. Most filmmakers in such a situation would do so, inadvertently and unconsciously. Even the most "bourgeois" filmmakers as it were, the most commercial ones, or their exact opposites, would all do that. That is why one should remember him, to remember what he did and not to repeat it. So I remembered him while I was shooting that sequence, constantly like a prayer. We can't help saying that Eisenstein did it such a way and let only him do like that. That is why I feel very happy with that particular sequence in Tarang. It doesn't have, in any sense, an imitation of Eisenstein."
Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein was a Soviet film director and film theorist, a pioneer in the theory and practice of montage. He is noted in particular for his silent films Strike (1925), Battleship Potemkin (1925) and October (1928), as well as the historical epics Alexander Nevsky (1938) and Ivan the Terrible. In its decennial poll, the magazine Sight & Sound named his Battleship Potemkin the 11th greatest movie of all time.
Battleship Potemkin, sometimes rendered as Battleship Potyomkin, is a 1925 Soviet silent film directed by Sergei Eisenstein and produced by Mosfilm. It presents a dramatized version of the mutiny that occurred in 1905 when the crew of the Russian battleship Potemkin rebelled against its officers.
|1965||The Glass Pane||Graduate Diploma film|
|1967||Manmad Passenger||short film|
|1969||A Certain Childhood||short film|
|1970||Rails for the World||short film|
|1972||Maya Darpan||Winner Filmfare Award – Best Film (Critics) |
National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Hindi
|1973||Fire in the Belly||short film|
|1976||Our Universe||short film|
|1984||Tarang||National Film Award – Special Jury Award (Certificate)|
|1987||Vaar Vaar Vaari||short film|
|1989||Khayal Gatha||Winner Filmfare Award – Best Film (Critics) |
Winner FIPRESCI Prize – Rotterdam International Film Festival
|1989||A Ship Aground||short film|
|1990||Kasba||Winner Filmfare Award – Best Film (Critics)|
|1991||Bhavantarana||Oriya documentary film about Guru Kelucharan Mahapatra |
National Film Award for Best Biographical Film
|1997||Char Adhyay||Hindi film based on Tagore novel|
|2000||The Bamboo Flute|
|2004||As the Crow Flies|
Ketan Mehta is an Indian film director, who has also directed documentaries and television serials since 1975.
Homi K. Bhabha is an Indian English scholar and critical theorist. He is the Anne F. Rothenberg Professor of English and American Literature and Language, and the Director of the Mahindra Humanities Center at Harvard University. He is one of the most important figures in contemporary post-colonial studies, and has developed a number of the field's neologisms and key concepts, such as hybridity, mimicry, difference, and ambivalence. Such terms describe ways in which colonised people have resisted the power of the coloniser, according to Bhabha's theory. In 2012, he received the Padma Bhushan award in the field of literature and education from the Indian government. He is married to attorney and Harvard lecturer Jacqueline Bhabha, and they have three children.
Shyam Benegal is an Indian director and screenwriter. With his first four feature films Ankur (1973), Nishant (1975), Manthan (1976) and Bhumika (1977) he was part of a new genre, which has now come to be called the "middle cinema" in India. He has expressed dislike of the term, preferring his work to be called New or Alternate cinema. Benegal was awarded the Padma Shri in 1976 and the Padma Bhushan in 1991. On 8 August 2007, Benegal was awarded the highest award in Indian cinema for lifetime achievement, the Dadasaheb Phalke Award for the year 2005. He has won the National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Hindi seven times. He was awarded the V. Shantaram Lifetime Achievement Award at the 2018 Mumbai International Film Festival.
Filmfare Critics Award for Best Film is award during annual Filmfare Awards, given by the Filmfare magazine. The awards are the oldest and most prominent film awards given for Hindi films in India. The yearly awards started in 1954. Movie awards were first given by popular vote. Many complained that films of artistic merit rather than commercial appeal were being overlooked, hence a new award category was added, the Critics Award for Best Film.
Homi Jehangir Bhabha was an Indian nuclear physicist, founding director, and professor of physics at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR). Colloquially known as "father of the Indian nuclear programme", Bhabha was also the founding director of the Atomic Energy Establishment, Trombay (AEET) which is now named the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in his honour. TIFR and AEET were the cornerstone of Indian development of nuclear weapons which Bhabha also supervised as director.
Ritwik Ghatak was a noted Bengali filmmaker and script writer. Along with prominent contemporary Bengali filmmakers Satyajit Ray and Mrinal Sen, his cinema is primarily remembered for its meticulous depiction of social reality. Although their roles were often adversarial, they were ardent admirers of each other's work and, in doing so, the three directors charted the independent trajectory of parallel cinema, as a counterpoint to the mainstream fare of Hindi cinema in India. Ghatak received many awards in his career, including National Film Award's Rajat Kamal Award for Best Story in 1974 for his Jukti Takko Aar Gappo and Best Director's Award from Bangladesh Cine Journalist's Association for Titash Ekti Nadir Naam. The Government of India honoured him with the Padma Shri for Arts in 1970.
Sydenham College of Commerce and Economics is a prestigious college located in Mumbai which is also the oldest college of commerce in Asia. Affiliated to the Dr. Homi Bhabha State University, the college offers undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in commerce and management. It was awarded a re-accreditation 'A' grade and 3.42 GPA in the first cycle assessment conducted by the National Assessment and Accreditation Council. In the year 2019, Sydenham college was de-affiliated from Mumbai University and affiliated to Maharashtra State's first cluster University and India's second University named Dr. Homi Bhabha State University
Pandit Satyasheel Deshpande is a Hindustani classical musician who specialises in singing Khayal. He is a disciple of Pandit Kumar Gandharva and the son of musicologist Vamanrao Deshpande.
Harano Sur is a 1957 Indian Bengali-language romantic drama film by Ajoy Kar, starring Suchitra Sen and Uttam Kumar, with music by Hemanta Mukherjee, and sung by Geeta Dutt. The film is regarded as one of the finest examples of Bengali cinema of this early golden period. The film has broad similarities in plot with the 1942 Hollywood flick Random Harvest and has been remade twice more in India; in Tamil as Amara Deepam and in Hindi as Amar Deep.
Biraj Bahu is a 1954 Hindi film produced by Hiten Choudhury and directed by Bimal Roy, and based on a Bengali novel by Saratchandra Chattopadhyay. The film stars Kamini Kaushal, Abhi Bhattacharya and Pran and has music by Salil Choudhury. The film won the All India Certificate of Merit for Best Feature Film.
Agraharathil Kazhutai is a 1977 Tamil language satirical film. Directed by avant-garde film-maker John Abraham, the film had its screenplay by film critic Venkat Swaminathan. This was John's second film. Made as satire on the Brahminical bigotry and superstition, a donkey becomes the central character in the film. At the 25th National Film Awards, the film won the Award for Best Feature Film in Tamil. In 2013, IBN Live included the film in its list of 100 greatest Indian films of all time. It was inspired by Robert Bresson's French film Au Hasard Balthazar.
K. K. Mahajan was an Indian cinematographer who was known for his work in Parallel Cinema. In a career that spanned over four decades, he won four National Film Awards. He was best known for his work with filmmakers such as Kumar Shahani, Mani Kaul, Basu Chatterjee and Mrinal Sen.
Celluloid Man is a 2012 documentary film directed by Shivendra Singh Dungarpur that explores the life and work of legendary Indian archivist P. K. Nair, founder of the National Film Archive of India and guardian of Indian cinema.
Uski Roti is a 1969 Hindi film directed by Mani Kaul. It was Kaul's first feature film, based on a short story of the same name by Mohan Rakesh, who also wrote the dialogue for the film. The film won the 1970 Filmfare Critics Award for Best Movie, and is considered a seminal work of the Indian New Wave.
Kasba is a 1991 Indian drama film written and directed by Kumar Shahani. It is based on the short story "In the Ravine" by the Russian playwright Anton Chekhov. The movie is an important work in the Indian Parallel Cinema movement which started in the early 1970s. It is one of the last films to be part of the movement as it died out by the early 1990s.
Arvind Kumar is an Indian physicist and educationist. He was Centre Director, Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education, Mumbai, during the period 1994-2008. For his contributions in the field of science education, he was awarded the Padma Shri, India's fourth highest civilian honour, in 2010. He is a Fellow of the National Academy of Sciences, India, and is the recipient of several other honours and awards, including the TWAS regional award for Science Education.