Kure, Hiroshima

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Kure

呉市
Port of Kure seen from Yasumi-yama.jpg
Port of Kure seen from Mount Yasumi
Flag of Kure, Hiroshima.svg
Flag
Emblem of Kure, Hiroshima.svg
Seal
Kure, Hiroshima
Location of Kure in Hiroshima Prefecture
Kure in Hiroshima Prefecture Ja.svg
Japan location map with side map of the Ryukyu Islands.svg
Red pog.svg
Kure
Location in Japan
Coordinates: 34°15′N132°34′E / 34.250°N 132.567°E / 34.250; 132.567 Coordinates: 34°15′N132°34′E / 34.250°N 132.567°E / 34.250; 132.567
CountryJapan
Region Chūgoku (Sanyō)
Prefecture Hiroshima Prefecture
Government
  MayorYoshiake Shinhara (from November, 2017)
Area
  Total352.80 km2 (136.22 sq mi)
Population
 (May 1, 2015)
  Total228,030
  Density646/km2 (1,670/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+09:00 (JST)
City hall address4-1-6 Chūō, Kure-shi, Hiroshima-ken
737-8501
Website www.city.kure.lg.jp
Symbols
Flower Camellia
Tree Oak

Kure (呉市, Kure-shi) is a port and major shipbuilding city situated on the Seto Inland Sea in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. With a strong industrial and naval heritage, Kure hosts the second-oldest naval dockyard in Japan and remains an important base for the Japan Maritime Self-Defence Force (JMSDF). As of 1 May 2015, the city has an estimated population of 228,030 and a population density of 646 persons per km2. The total area is 352.80 km2.[ citation needed ]

Contents

History

JMU Kure shipyard in July 2015 JMU Kure shipyard.jpg
JMU Kure shipyard in July 2015
JMSDF submarine flotilla in Kure Kure Naval Base JMSDF.jpg
JMSDF submarine flotilla in Kure
Exterior view of the Yamato Museum and adjacent JMSDF Kure Museum Yamato Museum Exterior.jpg
Exterior view of the Yamato Museum and adjacent JMSDF Kure Museum

The Kure Naval District was first established in 1889, leading to the construction of the Kure Naval Arsenal and the rapid growth of steel production and shipbuilding in the city. Kure was formally incorporated on October 1, 1902. From 1889 until the end of World War II, the city served as the headquarters of the Kure Naval District.

Kure dockyards recorded a number of significant engineering firsts including the launching of the first major domestically built capital ship, the battlecruiser Tsukuba (1905) [1] and the launching of the largest battleship ever built, the Yamato (1940). [2]

During the Pacific War, Kure acted as the Imperial Japanese Navy's single-largest naval base and arsenal. Most of the city's industry and workforce were employed in the service of the naval installations, munitions factories and associated support functions. In the later stages of the conflict Kure came under sustained aerial bombardment culminating in the Bombing of Kure in June and July 1945.

From February 1946 until the end of Japan's postwar occupation in 1952, military establishments in Kure served at the operational headquarters for the British Commonwealth Occupation Force.

Since 2005, Kure has attracted attention as a tourism center with the Yamato Museum hosting a 1:10 scale model of the Yamato alongside a waterfront JMSDF museum of Japanese naval history.

The city continues as a major maritime center hosting both the dockyards of Japan Marine United and numerous shore-based facilities of the JMSDF including training centers and a major hospital. The city serves as the home port of an Escort Flotilla (Destroyers), a Submarine Flotilla and the Training Squadron of the JMSDF Regional Kure District.

Historic timeline

List of mayors of Kure (from 1903 to present)

Geography

Kure is located 20 kilometres (10 mi) south-east of Hiroshima city and faces the Seto Inland Sea. Surrounded by steep hillsides to the north, the two major commercial and industrial centers of the city are bisected by Mount Yasumi 497 m (1,631 ft). The city is next to the Setonaikai National Park. As well as densely populated urban and industrial centers, the city also incorporates sparsely inhabited outlying islands such as Kurahashi, Shimo-kamagari and Kami-kamagari.

Climate

Kure has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) with hot summers and cool winters. Precipitation is significant throughout the year and is heaviest in summer.

Climate data for Kure, Hiroshima
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)8.8
(47.8)
9.2
(48.6)
12.5
(54.5)
18.2
(64.8)
22.4
(72.3)
25.5
(77.9)
29.7
(85.5)
31.2
(88.2)
27.3
(81.1)
22.1
(71.8)
16.8
(62.2)
11.7
(53.1)
19.6
(67.3)
Daily mean °C (°F)5.3
(41.5)
5.5
(41.9)
8.4
(47.1)
13.8
(56.8)
18.1
(64.6)
21.8
(71.2)
26.1
(79.0)
27.4
(81.3)
23.7
(74.7)
18.1
(64.6)
12.7
(54.9)
7.8
(46.0)
15.7
(60.3)
Average low °C (°F)1.8
(35.2)
1.9
(35.4)
4.3
(39.7)
9.8
(49.6)
14.2
(57.6)
18.6
(65.5)
23.2
(73.8)
24.3
(75.7)
20.5
(68.9)
14.3
(57.7)
8.8
(47.8)
3.9
(39.0)
12.1
(53.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches)45.1
(1.78)
59.8
(2.35)
98.5
(3.88)
149.6
(5.89)
138.9
(5.47)
258.4
(10.17)
206.1
(8.11)
113.5
(4.47)
182.0
(7.17)
100.1
(3.94)
68.9
(2.71)
35.3
(1.39)
1,456.2
(57.33)
Average snowfall cm (inches)1
(0.4)
1
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
2
(0.8)
Average relative humidity (%)63646467707677747267676569
Mean monthly sunshine hours 140.9135.2173.7178.3199.5155.9183.7213.2157.7172.6148.8138.81,998.3
Source: NOAA (1961-1990) [3]

Transportation

Kure station Kure train station.JPG
Kure station
Ondono-Seto Bridge, Kure, Hiroshima Ondono-seto Bridge and Watashibune Hiroshima.JPG
Ondono-Seto Bridge, Kure, Hiroshima

Kure is served by the Kure Line, operated by West Japan Railway Company (JR West). It leads to Hiroshima, which is a terminal station.

There has been a municipal bus since December 1, 1942. The Kure City Transportation Bureau (Kure City Bus) started using natural gas in 2002. There is a bus route run by Hiroshima Electric Railway, too. In addition, there is Bōyo Kisen, which operates the San'yō Bus and Setouchi Sankō which runs two bus enterprises.

National Route 31 spreads out from Kure to Kaita, but the distance of the road is short. National Route 185 is connected from Kure to Mihara. This road has a view of the Inland Sea. National Route 375 is a 165-kilometre-long (103 mi) road to be connected from Kure to Ōda, Shimane. U.S. forces can use this way for their ammunition transportation. National Route 487 spreads out from Kure to the city of Hiroshima. This road crosses the Ondo Bridge, and goes around Etajima.

Though they are independent roads, separate from National Routes, there are a series of access roads toward the archipelago of the city. The Akinada Islands series of bridges conclude at Shimokamagari island, Kamikamagari island, Toyoshima, Osakishimojima, Herashima, Nakanoshima at seven bridges. Toyoshima Bridge, concluding at Toyoshima regards traffic of a ship as Kamikamagari island, and is 50 m high from the surface of the sea.

Economy

Education

Tourism

Museums

Shrines

Historical places

Parks and gardens

Mountains

Beaches

Festivals

Sister cities

As of September 2017, Kure has sister city agreements with the following cities. [7]

Sister cities

Friendship cities

Friendship ports

Notable people

Musicians

Authors

Sports

See also

Related Research Articles

Hiroshima Prefecture Prefecture of Japan

Hiroshima Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan located in the Chūgoku region of Honshu. Hiroshima Prefecture has a population of 2,811,410 and has a geographic area of 8,479 km². Hiroshima Prefecture borders Okayama Prefecture to the east, Tottori Prefecture to the northeast, Shimane Prefecture to the north, and Yamaguchi Prefecture to the southwest.

Mihara, Hiroshima City in Chūgoku, Japan

Mihara is a city located in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. The city was founded on November 15, 1936. As of July 31, 2016, the city has an estimated population of 97,324 and a population density of 206.62 persons per km2. The total area is 471.03 km2.

Seto Inland Sea Japanese Inland Sea

The Seto Inland Sea, sometimes shortened to the Inland Sea, is the body of water separating Honshū, Shikoku, and Kyūshū, three of the four main islands of Japan. It serves as a waterway connecting the Pacific Ocean to the Sea of Japan. It connects to Osaka Bay and provides a sea transport link to industrial centers in the Kansai region, including Osaka and Kobe. Before the construction of the San'yō Main Line, it was the main transportation link between Kansai and Kyūshū.

Etajima, Hiroshima City in Chūgoku, Japan

Etajima is a city located on the island of Etajima in Hiroshima Bay in southwestern Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.

Ondo was a town located in Aki District, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.

Kurahashi was a town located in Aki District, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. It was located on the Kurahashi-jima island and surrounding islets.

Kamagari was a town located in Aki District, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.

Aki District, Hiroshima

Aki is a district located in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.

Yasuura was a town located in Toyota District, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.

Toyohama was a town located in Toyota District, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.

Yutaka was a town located in Toyota District, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.

Ondo-no-seto

Ondo-no-seto (音戸の瀬戸) is a strait in Seto Inland Sea in Kure, Hiroshima between the main island of Japan and Kurahashi Island.

Yamato Museum maritime museum in Kure, Hiroshima, Japan

The Yamato Museum is the nickname of the Kure Maritime Museum in Kure, Hiroshima, Japan.

Kure Station Railway station in Kure, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan

Kure Station is a JR West railway station on the Kure Line, located in Kure, Hiroshima, Japan.

Naval Academy Etajima

Etajima base in Etajima city, Hiroshima prefecture is in the Etajima-cho government building and is the base of the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force. Beside housing the 1st Technical School and the Officer Candidates School, it is home to the local Kure Naval District, LCAC training facilities, and Self-Defense Force oil storage. In addition, the Special Forces of the Maritime Self Defense Force is here.

Kurahashi-jima

Kurahashi-jima (倉橋島), also called Nagato-jima (長門島) in ancient texts, is an island in Hiroshima Bay located in southwestern Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.

Shimokamagari was a town located in Aki District, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.

Geiyo Islands

The Geiyo Islands are a group of islands in the Seto Inland Sea, under the administration of Hiroshima Prefecture and Ehime Prefecture. Some of the largest islands in archipelago are connected by the Nishiseto Expressway bridge system connecting Honshu and Shikoku.

Higashihiroshima-Kure Expressway

The Higashihiroshima-Kure Expressway is an national expressway in the southern part of Hiroshima Prefecture. The route connects the city of Higashihiroshima and the San'yō Expressway to the city of Kure on the coast of the Seto Inland Sea. It is owned and operated primarily by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). The route is signed E75 under MLIT's "2016 Proposal for Realization of Expressway Numbering."

References

  1. Evans, David (1997). Kaigun:Strategy, Tactics and Technology in the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1887-1941. Annapolis, MD: First Naval Institute Press. p. 159. ISBN   978-0-87021-192-8.
  2. Johnson, William (2006). The Pacific Campaign in World War II: From Pearl Harbor to Guadalcanal. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. p. 17. ISBN   978-0-415-70175-4.
  3. "Kure Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved January 6, 2013.
  4. "Locations." Japan Marine United . Retrieved on September 23, 2017.
  5. "Location list – Japan." Disco Corporation . Retrieved on September 23, 2017.
  6. "Domestic Network Base list – Manufacturing." Mitutoyo . Retrieved on September 23, 2017.
  7. 呉市の姉妹友好都市・友好港 [Kure Sister Cities and Friendship Ports] (in Japanese). Japan: Kure City. 2017. Retrieved 28 September 2017.